3 Transmitting large amounts of electric energy over long distances is accomplished most efficiently by using high-voltages.
4 Without transformers the widespread distribution of electric power would be impractical. The main purpose of a transformer is to convert AC power at one voltage level to AC power of the same frequency at another voltage level. Photo courtesy ABB,
5 High voltages are used in transmission lines to reduce the required amount of current flow. Power = Voltage x Current = 100 V x 100 A = 10,000 Watts
6 10,000 volts Current reduced from 100 A to 1 A If the voltage is raised, the current can be reduced to a small value, while still transmitting the same amount of power
7 Because of the reduction of current flow at high voltage, the size and cost of wiring are greatly reduced. Reducing the current also minimizes voltage drop (IR) and amount of power lost (I 2 R) in the lines. For a given amount of power delivered, doubling the transmission voltage cuts the electrical loses by 75 percent.
8 The higher the voltage, the more difficult and expensive it becomes to safely insulate between line wires, as well as from line wires to ground. For this reason, the voltages in a typical highvoltage grid system are reduced in stages as they approach the area of final use.
9 Transformers make possible conversion between high and low voltages and accordingly between low and high currents. Compare to the high voltage side, the low voltage side of a transformer draws more current.
10 UNIT SUBSTATIONS
11 The place where the conversion from transmission to distribution occurs is in a power substation. It has transformers that step transmission voltage levels down to distribution voltage levels.
12 The power needs of some users are so great that they are fed through individual substations dedicated to them. These secondary unit substations form the heart of an industrial or commercial building's electrical system. The material and associated copyrights are proprietary to, and used with the permission of Schneider Electric.
13 Unit substations receive the electric power from the utility and step it down to the utilization voltage level of 600 V or less for distribution throughout the building.
14 Incorporates the terminations for the primary feeder cables and primary switchgear. Steps down the primary voltage to the lowvoltage utilization level. Provides the protection and control for the low-voltage feeder circuits. Photo courtesy Siemens,
15 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
16 Distribution systems are used to distribute power throughout residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. Distribution systems that are used to distribute power throughout large commercial and industrial facilities can be complex.
17 Typically the distribution system is divided into the: Service Entrance Section Feeder Section Branch Circuits Section Courtesy Siemens,
18 Distribution System - Line Diagram
19 The service entrance section includes conductors for delivering energy from the electricity supply system to the premises being served. A feeder is a set of conductors that originate at a main distribution center and supply one or more secondary or branch circuit distribution centers.
20 The feeder section includes conductors for delivering the energy from the service equipment location to the final branch circuit overcurrent device.
21 The branch circuit section includes conductors for delivering the energy from the point of the final overcurrent device to the utilization equipment.
22 Correct selection of conductors for feeders and branch circuits must take into account ampacity, short circuit, and voltage drop requirements. The ampacity rating of conductors in a raceway depends on: the conductor material, gauge size, and temperature rating number of current-carrying conductors in the raceway the ambient temperature CURRENT FLOW ALWAYS GENERATES HEAT!!!
23 The NEC (National Electrical Code) contains tables that list the ampacity for approved types of conductor size, insulation, and operating conditions.
24 All conductors installed in a building must be properly protected, usually by installing them in raceways.
25 POWER LOSSES
26 The energy generated by the power plant does not match with that distributed to the consumers. Some percentage of the power is lost in the power grid. This difference is known as Transmission and Distribution loss.
27 Technical losses are losses incurred by physical properties of components in the power grid. Power that is lost in the form of heat caused by current passing through the resistance of transmission lines and cables. Losses 2 I x R Power that is lost in transformers. Power that is lost due to poor power factor.
28 Non-technical losses consist of administrative losses, losses due to incorrect metering, non paying customers, and theft/fraud. Losses due to metering inaccuracies or the difference between the amount of energy actually delivered through the meters and the amount registered by the meters. Theft of power is energy delivered to customers that is not measured by the energy meter for the customer.
29 SWITCHBOARDS AND PANELBOARDS
30 The NEC Electrical Code defines a switchboard as a single panel or group of assembled panels with buses, overcurrent devices, and instruments. Typical combination service entrance and switchboard. The service entrance section has space and mounting provisions required by the local utility for metering purposes. The switchboard section controls the power and protects the distribution system through the use of switches, fuses, circuit breakers, and protective relays.
31 A panelboard contains a group of circuit breaker or fuse protective devices for lighting, convenience receptacles, or power distribution branch circuits They make up the part of the distribution system that provides the last centrally located protection for the final power run to the load and its control circuitry. This material and associated copyrights are proprietary to, and used with the permission of Schneider Electric.
32 Panelboards are placed in a cabinet or cutout box, which is accessible only from the front and have dead-fronts. Dead front is defined in the Code as having no exposed live parts on the operating side of the equipment.
33 The panelboard is usually supplied from the switchboard and further divides the power distribution system into smaller parts. This material and associated copyrights are proprietary to, and used with the permission of Schneider Electric.
34 277/480-volt three-phase 4-wire panelboard From neutral (N) to any hot line, 277 volts singlephase for fluorescent lighting can be obtained. Across the three hot lines (A-B-C) 480 volts threephase is present for supplying motors. Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
35 The proper grounding and bonding of electrical distribution systems in general and panelboards in particular is very important. Grounding is the connection to earth, while bonding is the connection of metal parts to provide a low impedance path for fault current to aid in clearing the overcurrent protection device and to remove dangerous current from metal that is likely to become energized.
36 The main bonding jumper gives you system grounding. If a transformer is immediately upstream of the panelboard, you must bond the neutral bus or neutral conductor to the panel enclosure and to a (bare) groundingelectrode conductor.
37 The NEC Electrical Code requires the panelboard cabinets to be connected to an equipment grounding conductor. A separate equipment grounding terminal bar must be installed and bonded to the panelboard for the termination of feeder and branch circuit equipment grounding conductors The equipment grounding bus is non-insulated and mounted inside the panelboard and connects This material and associated copyrights are proprietary to, and used with the permission of Schneider Electric. directly to the metal enclosure.
38 A busbar is a common connection for two or more circuits. Three-phase busbars are required to have phases in sequence so that an installer can have the same fixed phase arrangement. Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
39 Panelboards are classified as main breaker or main lug types. Main breaker type panelboards have the incoming supply cables connected to the line side of a circuit breaker, which in turn feeds power to the panelboard Photos courtesy Siemens,
40 A main lug panelboard does not have a main circuit breaker. The incoming supply cables are connected directly to the busbars. Primary overload must be externally provided. Main Lug Type Photo courtesy Siemens, Normally panelboard circuit terminals are required to be labeled or to have a wiring diagram.
41 MOTOR CONTROL CENTERS (MCCs)
42 At times a commercial or industrial installation will require that many motors be controlled from a central location called a motor control center. A motor control center is a modular structure designed specifically for plug-in type motor control units. Photo courtesy Rockwell Automation,
43 The motor control center is an assembly of primarily motor controllers having a common bus. They support and house control units, a common bus for distributing power to the control units, and a network of wire trough for accommodating incoming and outgoing load and control wires. Each unit is mounted in an individual, isolated compartment having its own door.
44 MCCs are not limited to housing just motor starters but can typically accommodate many unit types. Photos courtesy Rockwell Automation,
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