Li-ion Batteries and Electric Vehicles

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1 Li-ion Batteries and Electric Vehicles October 27, 2010 Joel Sandahl ZX Technologies, Inc. 760 Spanish Oak Trail Dripping Springs, TX USA Phone:

2 Introduction Why Electric Vehicles (EVs)? EV Types and Applications EV Considerations EV Design Architectures EV Battery Cell Packages EV Battery Cell Chemistries EV Economics Conclusions 2

3 Why Electric Vehicles (EVs)? Reduce consumption of crude oil (finite resource) Reduce dependence on crude oil (national security) Reduce environmental impact (green) Reduce transportation costs First cost Operating cost Maintenance cost 3

4 EV Types and Applications Passenger Cars Limited-Route/Return-To-Base Unlimited-Route Delivery Trucks Limited-Route/Return-To-Base Unlimited-Route Buses Limited-Route/Return-To-Base Unlimited-Route 4

5 EV Considerations Driving Range Charging Stations Recharging Time Economics Safety 5

6 EV Design Architectures Motor-Generator Battery Battery Electric Vehicle Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Generator Motor-Generator Battery Motor-Generator Battery Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle 6

7 Why Hybrid? Extend Driving Range Reduce Weight, Size and Cost of Battery For example, car with 400 mile range: 33 mpg = 12 gal [equivalent: 432 kwh (gross), 200 kwh (net)] 72.9 lbs, 1.62 cu ft 0.5 kwh/mile = 200 kwh: 5,000 lbs, 80 cu ft, $150,000 Much more than weight/cost of car! 40 mpg = 10 gal kwh [increase fuel efficiency by 20-50%] 60.8 lbs, 1.35 cu ft 75 lbs, 1.2 cu ft, $2,250 Total: 136 lbs, 2.55 cu ft, $2,250 Gas the ultimate in energy density!!! NOTE: Calculations based on LFP batteries. 7

8 Essence of Hybrid Operation Use motor to augment power outside of optimal operating region. Use generator and regenerative braking to recover energy. 8

9 EV Battery Cell Packages Cylindrical Pouch Prismatic Can Prismatic InvenTek Rolled-Ribbon Yintong Energy Annular 9

10 EV Battery Cell Construction 10

11 EV Battery Cell Chemistries Gravimetric (200 Wh/kg) Cost ($1.00/Wh) Volumetric (600 Wh/l) Service Life (10 years) -20ºC (%C) Cycle Life (2000 cycles) +50ºC (%C) Other Li-ion Chemistries: LMO NMC NCA LTO Fast Charge (4 hours) Std Charge (20 hours) LA NiMH LFP LCO Self-Discharge (%C/month) LCO is unstable and subject to thermal runaway. Unsafe. 11

12 CYCLE LIFE Battery Cycle Life 5X-10X Nominal = 1X 0% DEPTH OF DISCHARGE 100% 12

13 COST OF BATTERY EV Economics Battery Electric (operating cost only) Battery Cost Breakeven at Operating Cost Slope = Differential Between Fuel/Electric Cost Per Mile 0 MILES DRIVEN N 13

14 EV Economics Battery Electric (operating cost only) 40 Mile Limited Range Car, 0.5 kwh/mile, 33 mpg Battery = 20 kwh = $0.12/kWh and $2.65/gal, Breakeven = 740,740 $0.12/kWh and $3.50/gal, Breakeven = 325,657 miles 40 Mile Limited Range City Bus, 3.0 kwh/mile, 5.0 mpg Battery = 120 kwh = $0.12/kWh and $3.00/gal, Breakeven = 375,000 $0.12/kWh and $4.00/gal, Breakeven = 204,545 miles But battery cycle life is limited to 100,000 miles!!! 14

15 COST OF BATTERY EV Economics Hybrid Electric (operating cost only) Battery Cost Breakeven at Operating Cost Slope = Differential Between Fuel Cost Saving Per Mile 0 MILES DRIVEN N 15

16 EV Economics Hybrid Electric (operating cost only) Hybrid Car, 33 mpg 42 mpg (+30%) Battery = 3 kwh = $0.12/kWh and $2.65/gal, Breakeven = 130,755 $0.12/kWh and $3.50/gal, Breakeven = 99,000 miles Hybrid City Bus, 5.0 mpg 6.5 mpg (+30%) Battery = 20 kwh = $0.12/kWh and $3.00/gal, Breakeven = 108,333 $0.12/kWh and $4.00/gal, Breakeven = 81,250 miles In hybrid mode, battery cycle life is >> 200,000 miles!!! 16

17 EV Battery Cost Breakdown LFP Battery Cost ($750/kWh) Cell Labor 13% Batt Pkg 10% Cell Misc 12% Batt Elect 16% Electrolyte 4% Seperator 7% Batt Labor 6% Electrodes 2% Other Chem 7% LFP 23% Estimate another 20-30% cost reduction available as volumes increase. 17

18 Conclusions Li-ion is the right choice for EVs today -- in particular LFP BEVs: On operating cost basis alone, economics challenged It is believed that there will be substantial maintenance cost savings, particularly for fleet vehicles. Just too early to prove at this time. Can be many other significant benefits that go beyond direct economics, such as environment issues and their associated indirect costs HEVs: Economics are marginally supportable now Likely to become solid with cost reductions and improved hybrid efficiencies that can be reasonably and realistically expected Key to broad adoption of EVs in the future will be safe higher energy density cells Given the state of electrochemical technology and the speed of introduction for new electrochemical technologies, don t expect new game-changing technologies to be in the market for 5-10 years 18

19 Thank You! 19

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