Global Scootersharing Market Report. November 2017 Authors: Enrico Howe & Benno Bock

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1 Global Scootersharing Market Report November 2017 Authors: Enrico Howe & Benno Bock

2 2 Foreword The scootersharing market is currently undergoing rapid development and finds itself in a state of transition. This report aims to put together publicly available facts, figures and statistics as well as apply new methods to describe the status quo of the scootersharing market in the year This analysis was conducted by the Berlin-based Innovation Centre for Mobility and Societal Change (InnoZ). InnoZ is closely evaluating old and new mobility markets in the face of a recent change process affecting the mobility sector. The report reaches out to shared mobility operators, scientists, mobility planners and consultants, municipalities, press and interested individuals. The authors focused on scootersharing for several years now and seek to facilitate rapid access to the market with this report. InnoZ office in Berlin - a living lab

3 3 Table of content Market 4-10 Scooters Users & Usage Summary Digital Map & Contact 26 InnoZ office in Berlin - a living lab

4 4 29 cities world-wide host scootersharing activity Scootersharing started in San Francisco in Following a slow international diffusion to just eight cities to 2015, scootersharing has boomed in 2016 and Today, some thirty cities have a scootersharing scheme. 79 % of these are in Europe. Of these, seven cities host more than one operator, with Barcelona and Vienna even boasting competition between four and three operators respectively. However, in terms of fleet sizes, Berlin and Paris are by far the major international hubs (see next page). WeMo Scooter (Taiwan): 200 scooters

5 5 Berlin & Paris: Epicenter of scootersharing activity 41 % of the global scootersharing fleet is based in these two European capitals. Berlin provides 1,700 and Paris 1,600 scooters. Each city is home to two operators (COUP, emmy & Cityscoot) supplying a large coverage area of between 90 km² (Paris) and 99 km² (Berlin). emmy-sharing (Germany): 1,070 scooters

6 6 17 city schemes in the pipeline New systems have already been announced in many global cities. Among them are very interesting emerging schemes, including in the Tokyo suburb of Saitama City with the stakeholder Yamaha and on the Japanese Island of Ishigaki, soon to be developed by the scooter manufacturer Gogoro. However, the majority of announced expansion plans remain Europe-based. The strong dominance of the European market seems unlikely to change in the near future. felyx (Netherlands): pre-launch

7 7 Market development: Number of accumulated scootersharing schemes* 38 Local launches of scootersharing schemes Accumulated no. of city scheme launches City scheme closures x? announced local scheme launches * 38 scootersharing schemes are active in 29 cities globally. As described on page 4, a single city can have more than one scheme.

8 8 6 system closures in has also been the first year, in the brief 5-year scootersharing history, where schemes folded. The main reasons for these closures were (amongst other issues) a lack of municipal support, a lack of scaling capital or scooters which were too complex or heavy. City schemes closed in Frankfurt, Hamburg, Paris, Rome, Milan and Catania. In particular, the Italian case of Enjoy (Rome, Milan and Catania) demonstrates that while three-wheeled scooters might be safe, two-wheeled light-weight scooter is the customer s favorite choice. However, this does not mean that city-centric scootersharing is without future, as Hamburg, Milan and Paris readily prove. In these cities, either another provider started after the closure of an old system or other providers were present before and remain active. Frankfurt (Germany) currently without scootersharing scheme

9 9 95 % are free floating systems Only two (!) out of 38 active city schemes are so called stationbased systems. A station-based system can be defined by the fact that there is a specified number of rental locations. Both station-based systems are outside Europe. And one of them is even a hybrid system (Mexico-City). All of the other 36 schemes are so called free floating systems. Users can freely choose scooter drop-off sites within a defined service area. Both systems, station-based and free floating, can offer round-trips and one-way trips. Amongst current globally proposed systems, free floating schemes dominate by far, a clear similarity with existing schemes. JedenSlad (Poland): 100 scooters

10 10 65 % of the fleet owned by just four companies COUP, Cityscoot, emmy and ecooltra own 2/3rds of the global scootersharing fleet. The other third is operated by the remaining 17 companies active in the market. The first years of scootersharing saw more diversity in terms of fleet ownership. It will be interesting to see if the sector will follow the example of the car- and bikesharing sectors, where larger global stakeholders emerge over time (e.g. Car2Go, DriveNow and Nextbike from Germany, Zipcar from the US or Ofo and Mobike from China). COUP (Germany/France): 1,600 scooters

11 11 8,000 scooters provided The market exploded last year, with number of scooters almost quadrupling from 2016 to The following pages show where scooters are distributed, which machine type is used and the companies providing them. Service provider announcements and present market satisfaction leads to an assumption that 2018 will be the first year to see more than 10,000 shared scooters in use globally. We speculate that, in terms of deployed scooters, the free floating carsharing market might be overtaken by the scootersharing market in future (large potential being mainly due to lower capital investment needs and the benefits of needing less time to find a suitable parking space). scoo.me (Germany): 250 scooters

12 12 Market development: Scooters per country Germany 2,495 France 2,100 Spain 1,491 USA > 500 Italy Mexico Austria 215 Taiwan 200 Portugal Poland Belgium % of scooters in Germany, France and Spain Lebanon 15 Scootersharing has arrived in 12 countries. However, three out of four scooters remain distributed within these three main western European markets.

13 13 92 % of scooters are electric 14 scooter manufacturers currently provide vehicles for the sharing business. Albeit a fact that combustion engines are still cheaper to produce than electric systems, it is worth mentioning that electric scooters are dominating the market, having done so since the earliest days of scootersharing in The dominant manufacturers in terms of deployed scooters are currently Govecs (40 %), Gogoro (20 %) and Torrot (11 %). Two out of five scooters are currently provided by Govecs; every 5th scooter by Gogoro. The other 12 manufacturers provide just 40 % of all scooters. Besides Govecs, Gogoro and Torrot, other electric scooter suppliers are emco, Genze, Kymco, NIU and the suppliers of sharing businesses ioscoot, Econduce, JedenSlad and LOOP (21 %). A potential future candidate is German supplier unu. The niche of combustion scooters in the sharing economy is filled by Piaggio, Yamaha and SYM. 21% 11% Suppliers of scootersharing businesses 8% 20% 40% Govecs Gogoro Torrot 8 further electric suppliers combustion scooter suppliers

14 14 More than 350,000 estimated registered users User numbers (either registered or active) are hard to obtain. Some operators publish numbers, others don t. Our estimate is presently at some 350,000 users. This estimate is based on the available numbers from providers and a conservative exploration of others. Regardless of whether the number is 350k, 400k or even 500k the trend is clearly visible: Scootersharing is experiencing a rapid growth in global urban centers. Cityscoot (France): 1,000 scooters

15 15 121,000 Facebook likes An easier method of tracking the current diffusion process is measuring social media activity. As of October 2017, more than 121,000 people liked the official pages of the scootersharing operators on Facebook with a rising tendency. Most popular are the Mexican Econduce, the French Cityscoot and the Spanish/Italian ecooltra. Obviously, Facebook likes are not an equivalent for user numbers. However, they can be a good indicator for preference development over time. stella-sharing (Germany): 75 scooters

16 16 Young users dominate Scoot (USA): > 500 scooters The scootersharing sector lacks a scientific description of user characteristics. Hence, lets look at the user side from an subjective perspective: A friendly user from the two-operator city Berlin gave us his scootersharing mobility data. He is in his early thirties, is a young urban professional, commutes in an multi- and intermodal way, does not own a private motorized vehicle and is bicycle-affine. Since 2015, he has used scootersharing 82 times, being up to 35 times a year. At times also during colder or rainier seasons of the year. Long-term smartphone tracking has shown that scootersharing accounted for less than 2 % of his private motorized vehicle (car and scooter) usage and less than 0.1 % of his overall travelled kms during that period (see page 26, tool: modalyzer). This user is a very good example for the early market: Qualitative impressions show that the majority of users today are young. Many users can be described as young urban professionals. Operators stated that a slight majority of users are male. Scooters are often used for commuting or leisure time activities. Many of them are also members of car- and bikesharing schemes or own a public transport pass.

17 km per ride as a global average Scooter rides for shared services tend to be of short to medium distances. 30 % of all bookings end within half a kilometer from the trip origin and are thus candidates for a round-trip usage context. For all other trips, the average length (as the crow flies) is at a good walking distance of just under three kilometers. This said, the top percentile is excluded from the calculation, as it most likely represents intercity vehicle redistributions. eddy Sharing (Germany): 100 scooters

18 18 34 mins per ride as a global average Similarly to the calculation on the previous page, the average time per booking is calculated in exclusion of the top and bottom 5 % to obtain a more robust average as top durations can last several days. The result is an average rental time of approximately 34 minutes. By the way, the median lies significantly lower at just under 21 minutes. Summing up these facts, scootersharing appears to be predominantly used for quick trips over short urban distances. YUGO (Spain): 121 scooters

19 rentals per scooter daily during operational season Based on our scooter movement recordings, our calculation for average rentals per scooter and day is between three and four rentals. And this is the more conservative estimate as it considers vehicle fleets as fully available throughout the analyzed month - usually not the case given maintenance and vehicle turnover. Taking into account the off-season from December to February, the average daily rental rate lies at 3.27 rentals per scooter. Peak month is July with just under four rentals per scooter (all scootersharing schemes are currently in the northern hemisphere). Winter conditions lower the rate to just one movement per day in January (see next page). Note: Due to the fact that the analyzed sample consists mainly of fresh market starts and few methodological biases, the numbers might be underestimated. Additionally, we assume that up to 10 % of all rides were not detected. mo2drive (Austria): 100 scooters

20 20 Market development: Rentals per vehicle and day for the past 13 months* Monthly averages for rentals per vehicles and day Rentals per vehicles and day Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct * Note: Please see page 19 for potential constraints regarding systemically underestimation of rental statistics.

21 21 Peak usage Early weekday evenings the busiest Weekly usage shows a typical distribution. During weekdays, distinctive peaks for mornings and evenings are obvious, with commuting most likely to be the underlying reason. The Thursday evening peak at 6 PM is the most prominent showing the most intense usage. Weekends tend to show a broader distribution typical for leisure activities. Usage hits rock bottom on an average early Monday morning at 3AM. Monday, Saturday and Sunday have the lowest share of rentals, with the last accumulation showing a share of only 11 %. Econduce (Mexico): 300 scooters

22 22 Usage pattern: Distribution of rentals during an average week Distribution of movements (per hour) Mon 13 % Tue 15 % Wed 15 % Thu 16 % Fri 16 % Sat 13 % Sun 11 % 100 % Weekdays Weekend

23 23 328k records - our report is partly based on a webmining survey We have been closely following the shared mobility market using webmining techniques since Our first scootersharing records date back to This passively gained webmining data is combined and cross-examined with booking data donated by friendly users. For this study we used a sample from ten selected service areas (city schemes) over a one year period between October 2016 and October The sample covers more than a quarter of global city schemes and more than 15 % of the global scootersharing fleet (as of October 2017). Pages are based on the described webmining approach. LOOP (Lebanon): 15 scooters

24 24 Summary (1/2) Market development since 2015 has been very dynamic. A further increase in activities is predicted. Scaling by present providers is planned and future emergence of further actors predicted. Despite some system closures in 2017, the overall growth record is predicted to continue. Main reasons for closures were a lack of scaling capital or overly complex scooter properties (e.g. three-wheeled and heavy). Strong focus on Europe. Global distribution is predicted to stay this way at least for 2018 and There is a dominance of electric scooters, having a share of 95 % of the global fleet. Free-floating is the preferred operational system with only two providers choosing other systems.

25 25 Summary (2/2) Only a few companies own the majority of the fleet. We have a conservative estimate of at least 350k current customers worldwide. With a typical 2.8 km and 34 min duration, services are generally used for quick inner-urban trips. In our lower estimate, scooter rental rates are between 3 and 4 rentals per vehicle and day. Sharing scooters is a seasonal business as an example: in European cities the rental rate goes down to just one rental per day in January. Weekly distribution shows how scootersharing is well adopted for commuter trips. Finally, the market is gaining more and more attention but remains a sparsely researched field. More research is needed.

26 26 You want to keep track of the emerging scootersharing market? Check out the up-to-date global scootersharing map at Sign up for our scootersharing newsletter: Write a short mail with the subject "scootersharing newsletter to Check out or mobility tracking tool for smartphones at You want to work with us? We offer data driven mobility consulting with state-of-the-art methods. Check out: or contact Our scootersharing map at your disposal:

27 Innovation Centre for Mobility and Societal Change (InnoZ) GmbH EUREF-Campus Berlin, Germany +49(0) Managing directors: Dr. Jürgen Peters, Prof. Dr. Andreas Knie Gerichtsstand: AG Berlin Charlottenburg Many thanks to all depicted scootersharing operators for allowing the usage of their photo material as well as to Ellen Bock for language support. Picture credits: All picture copyrights are hold by InnoZ GmbH, if not stated otherwise in the following list: Title page: 2017 COUP Mobility GmbH, Page 4: WeMo, Page 5: emmy-sharing, Page 6: felyx, Page 8: CC BY-SA 3.0 de, Christian Wolf, Page 9: JedenŚlad, Page 10: 2017 COUP Mobility GmbH, Page 11: scoo mobility, Page 14: Cityscoot, Page 15: Stadtwerke Stuttgart GmbH, Page 16: Scoot Networks, Page 17: eddy Sharing, Page 18: YUGO, Page 19: mo2drive, Page 21: Econduce, Page 23: LOOP, Layout: InnoZ GmbH (Lorenz Crössmann, Mahoma Niemeyer), 2015

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