Carplus annual survey of car clubs

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1 Carplus annual survey of car clubs 2016/17 Scotland Prepared for Carplus by Steer Davies Gleave

2 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Carplus Report March 2017 Our ref: Prepared by: Prepared for: Steer Davies Gleave 67 Albion Street Leeds LS1 5AA Carplus Kings House King Street Leeds LS1 2HH Steer Davies Gleave has prepared this work for Carplus. This work may only be used within the context and scope of work for which Steer Davies Gleave was commissioned and may not be relied upon in part or whole by any third party or be used for any other purpose. Any person choosing to use any part of this work without the express and written permission of Steer Davies Gleave shall be deemed to confirm their agreement to indemnify Steer Davies Gleave for all loss or damage resulting therefrom. Steer Davies Gleave has prepared this work using professional practices and procedures using information available to it at the time and as such any new information could alter the validity of the results and conclusions made.

3 Contents Foreword... i Executive Summary... iii 1 Introduction Profile of the car club fleet... 5 Introduction... 5 Scottish Car Club Vehicle Fleet Profile... 6 Carbon savings... 7 Safety Round-trip Member Survey... 9 Impact of car clubs on car ownership Impact of car clubs on car purchasing Impact of car clubs on miles travelled Travel behaviour of longer-term members Use of other shared mobility Profile of car club users How car club vehicles are used How car club vehicles are used commuting Frequency of car club use Circumstances when joining a car club How members found out about car clubs and levels of satisfaction Experiences of using electric vehicles Attitudes towards electric vehicles Operator Survey Characteristics of car club members How car clubs are used Utilisation of car clubs March 2017

4 Appendices A B C Detailed Tables and Figures Survey Questionnaires Emissions Analysis and Profiling March 2017

5 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Foreword The Carplus Annual Survey is the most comprehensive dataset collected across the car club sector in the UK, and now tracks 10 years of progress. In 2007 there were 32,000 car club members across the UK (mostly in London); now there are nearly 250,000, with over 11,000 members in Scotland alone. Eleven thousand people sharing 332 vehicles means far fewer cars on Scottish roads, contributing to public spaces less dominated by motor traffic. In addition, the tailpipe emissions from those car club vehicles are 50% lower than average, they meet higher safety standards, and members drive less distance annually than the average car owner. Only 6% of the car club fleet is now diesel - compared to 38% of privately owned vehicles in Scotland - and this will continue to contribute to improved air quality as the four national car club operators in Scotland gradually upgrade their fleet with pure battery electric vehicles and hybrids. Taking advantage of Aberdeen s new second hydrogen refuelling station, and supported by funding from Scottish Ministers, zero emission electric vehicles powered by fuel cells are being introduced in the car club fleet in the Granite City. These can be fully fuelled in around 3 minutes and the opportunity for car club members to drive such vehicles is a UK first. The welcome news that Scotland exceeded its carbon reduction targets in 2014 does not mean that we can be complacent on transport emissions. While emerging technologies such as electric vehicles will have a part to play, behaviour change and managing demand for travel in the longer term is crucial to curbing emissions and ensuring our towns and cities remain attractive places in which to live and work. Car clubs make it easier for individuals to change their behaviour and reduce the amount that they drive by putting personal transport at arms length. Additional research undertaken by Carplus this year with long-established car clubs indicated that the behaviour change seen in car club members can be maintained in the long term, and that the benefits identified by the annual surveys are sustainable. Carplus continues to work across Scotland to help establish car clubs in new areas, but having access to a shared transport option is only the first step, and the challenge is now to open up new demographics of members. Key to this is reaching the people who are receptive to changes in lifestyle, e.g. when they move house, or change job. Accordingly, Carplus is working with a wide range of stakeholders to reach even more potential car club members. For example next year, funding from Transport Scotland for the Developing Car Clubs in Scotland (DCCS) programme will help the planning sector to encourage new developments to be walking and cycling friendly, with car club vehicles easily available for occasional journeys. This builds on Carplus research on section 75 planning agreements documenting how developers around the UK have worked with local authorities around the UK to support car clubs 1. In an urban area car club membership is convenient and makes financial sense, but the motivation for joining a car club is different in rural locations, where alternative transport options are more limited. In these cases, the benefit of improved accessibility is pivotal, but the business case is more marginal, and it has fallen to local communities to pioneer their own models. By working with these communities to develop their business plans and marketing strategies, Carplus now has a wealth of case studies and evidence showing to what extent support is needed, and where local car clubs can work. The support of Transport Scotland through the DCCS programme has enabled the tripling of car club membership across Scotland since 2010, and the rate of growth continues to increase. Cars are now available in 31 locations across the country, from small ports such as Mallaig to cities 1 March 2017 i

6 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report including Edinburgh and Glasgow. In 2016/17 new car clubs launched in Inverness and Stirling, meaning that over 1.5 million people now have a car club in their home town. Humza Yousaf, Scottish Government Minister for Transport and the Islands March 2017 ii

7 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Executive Summary The Carplus Annual Survey 2016/17 was completed by almost 600 car club members in Scotland, from a membership of around 11,500. This survey extends the evidence base detailing how car clubs help to: Improve air quality across Scotland Help normalise electric vehicles Enable members to drive less Support sustainable travel choices Reduce private car ownership and use Improve air quality across Scotland To help address the air quality challenge across Scotland car club cars are significantly cleaner than a typical private car: 97% of car club cars are in the lowest three emission bands 95% of car club cars already meet the anticipated Clean Air Zone standards Hydrogen vehicles have been introduced into the car club fleet (a world first) Help normalise electric vehicles To help mainstream electric cars more quickly and effectively car clubs provide easy access to electric vehicles: Pure EVs make up 22% of the car club fleet 42% of Scottish car club members have used an EV car club vehicle 80% of EV car club users reported a positive user experience Enable members to drive less Car club member travel patterns reduce their average driven mileage: Car club members reported an average reduction in miles driven of 513 miles a year Support sustainable travel choices Car club members are more likely to use a wide range of public transport, walk and cycle: 30% of car club members cycle at least once a week - twice the Scottish average Car club members also use a range of other shared transport services, including informal car sharing and cycle hire Car clubs reduce the need for car parking, creating space for urban realm improvements Reduce private car ownership and use Car clubs encourage behaviour change and reduce levels of private car ownership: Each car club car in Scotland results in members selling or disposing around 4 private cars In the last five years in Scotland car club members have sold or disposed of around 5,000 cars Continued growth in the number of car club members and car club cars in cities, towns and rural communities across Scotland can help to maximise these benefits across the country. March 2017 iii

8 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report 1 Introduction 1.1 This is the tenth edition of the Carplus Annual Survey and covers the period December 2015 November It has been administered by consultants Steer Davies Gleave on behalf of Carplus. 1.2 The data collected from the Carplus Annual Survey is compiled into three reports covering: Scotland; London; and England and Wales (excluding London). 1.3 This report provides the results of the 2016/17 Carplus Annual Survey for Scotland. All three versions of the Annual Survey are available from Carplus. For more information, visit the Carplus website: About Carplus 1.4 Carplus Bikeplus is an independent environmental transport charity working to maximise the social and environmental benefits of shared mobility, including car clubs, bike sharing and 2+ car sharing. 1.5 Carplus Bikeplus work to change the way people travel to reduce the environmental impact of transport and improve access to transport for all. We support and encourage measures that promote shared mobility schemes which complement and extend public transport, cycling and walking to provide attractive packages of affordable and flexible travel that fit into modern lifestyles. 1.6 Carplus Bikeplus provide technical support, best practice guidance and practical advice to community groups, local authorities and transport authorities to assist in setting up and developing car clubs. Where possible, we deliver grant programmes to demonstrate and pilot shared transport. 1.7 Bikeplus is a new representative body for bike sharing which aims to optimise the benefits of cycling by supporting the emergence of an effective widespread network of shared bikes. 1.8 Carplus Bikeplus are also a resource centre for 2+ car sharing and the integration of shared mobility schemes. The Carplus Annual Survey 1.9 Carplus is committed to a standardised data collection system to assess the impacts of car clubs and inform development of car clubs in the UK. Since 2007, Carplus has worked with car club operators to collect a range of data from car club members about their travel habits and use of car clubs, through an online survey sent to the majority of members of car clubs. March

9 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report 1.10 The surveys for round-trip and flexible car club members contained the broadly same questions. Table 1.1 summarises the surveys that were undertaken in 2016/17, topics covered and number of respondents. Table 1.1: Carplus Annual Member Surveys 2016/17 Survey name Round-trip members survey Flexible members survey Topics Most recent car club journey: purpose, number of passengers, carriage of large items, reasons for choosing to use car club, journey time variance from other modes Household circumstances when joining Car ownership before and after joining, influence of car club on decisions to buy or sell private cars Private car mileage and changes since joining Frequency of using travel modes. New members (member for less than six months) were also asked about frequency of use before joining Electric Vehicles: Experiences of using vehicles and charging infrastructure, reasons for using EVs, attitudes and concerns Use of other shared mobility services Satisfaction with proximity, quality and availability of vehicles Same topics as round-trip Additional question on reasons for joining Number of respondents 2016/17 London: 2,901 England & Wales (excluding London): 1,962 Scotland: 586 London: 1, In addition to surveys of members, car club operators were requested to provide information about their operations through an operators survey. The information collected from operators is summarised in Table 1.2 and presented in Chapter To improve reporting of operator survey results, car club operators were asked to provide separate data for their London, Scotland and England and Wales operations, rather than reporting on a UK-wide basis, as has been done in previous years. The results of the operator surveys in this report therefore provide results for Scotland alone. Table 1.2: Carplus Annual Operator Surveys 2016/17 Survey name Topics Respondents 2016/17 Operators Survey Number of members Locations of members Gender profile of members Age profile of members Average distance travelled per hire Average length of hire period Average hires per active member 2 Number of hires per member per year Miles travelled per hire Vehicle utilisation (% of time booked out) Split of trips between peak, off-peak and weekend Round-trip: E-Car, Co-Cars, Co-Wheels, Enterprise, Hertz and Zipcar In addition, 7 smaller community car clubs provided data. Flexible: DriveNow 2 The definition of an active member varies by operator. March

10 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Home locations of survey respondents 1.13 Figure 1.1 overleaf shows the home postcodes of survey respondents. The majority of respondents were from Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Fife and Dundee. Respondents are more spread across Scotland compared to previous surveys. This year, 30% of respondents live in Edinburgh compared to 53% in 2015/16 and 72% in 2012/13, the first year respondents locations were mapped. This reflects the increasing spread of members throughout the country While this distribution is not entirely representative of where car club members live, it provides a good illustration. Structure of this report 1.15 Following this introduction, the report is structured as follows: Section 2 contains the emissions analysis and profiling of the car club fleet; Section 3 contains the results of the round-trip members survey; Section 4 contains the results of the flexible members survey for; and Section 5 contains the results of the operators survey; and 1.16 All results presented are based on Scotland-only data. March

11 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Figure 1.1: Scotland respondents home locations March

12 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report 2 Profile of the car club fleet Introduction 2.1 The following section reports on the fleet profiles of car club operators in Scotland. It is based on a comprehensive set of data that has been collected about UK car clubs. The data has been independently verified by Gfleet Services Ltd using the vehicle registration marks (VRM) and published datasets from the DVLA (Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency), VCA (Vehicle Certification Agency) and vehicle manufacturers which enables the production of more comprehensive and accurate profiling (including nitrogen oxides and particulate emissions). 2.2 All UK car club operators, national and community, were asked to provide the vehicle registration marks (VRM) of all their vehicles operational during the 12 months between the 1st November 2015 and the 31st October 2016 together with the total mileage driven during that period and the dates when vehicles joined or left the fleet. 2.3 Eight nationwide UK car club operators supplied fleet data but one did not provide any mileage data. Across the UK, 14 community clubs submitted data and information about a further six community clubs was submitted by their franchise operator. 2.4 The VRM data from all the clubs was submitted to CarweB and a full environmental data set was obtained for each vehicle based on the data held by the DVLA and the manufacturers. For most vehicles, the air quality emission data (nitrogen oxides NO X, particulates PM 10, hydrocarbons HC, and carbon monoxide CO) was not available from the DVLA data set and these were obtained by matching, as closely as possible, the vehicle details from the DVLA with its published emission figures downloaded from the VCA. The vehicle s safety performance in the European New Car Assessment Programme (NCAP) was established using DVLA make, model and year of registration. March

13 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Scottish Car Club Vehicle Fleet Profile Headlines 10% increase in the number of Ultra Low Emission car club cars since 2014/15 Petrol hybrids, plug-in hybrids, battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles comprise 44% of the Scottish car club fleet but less than 0.5% of all UK cars. There were 101 (35%) Ultra Low Emission Vehicles (ULEV: carbon dioxide emissions of 75 g/km or less) on the Scottish car club fleet and 70 of those were zero-tailpipe-emission battery electric or hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Scotland has the only hydrogen fuel cell vehicles operating in a UK car club fleet. The Scottish car club is cleaner than the UK private fleet Only 6% of the car club fleet was diesel powered, compared to 38% of the UK car fleet. 95% of the fleet already complies with anticipated Clean Air Zone standards. Reducing Pollution The small number of diesel vehicles means that this fleet has very low emissions of the toxic pollutants nitrogen oxides and particulates. Nearly one quarter of the fleet is zero emission at the point of use. Comparison of Scottish national car clubs fuel profile with the UK car fleet Trends Increasing number of the Ultra Low Emission Vehicles (ULEVs): The number of ULEVs on the fleet has increased by 10% from 92 in 2014/15 to 101 in 2015/16. The move to zero emission battery electric and hydrogen fuelled cars continues: The number of battery electric vehicles has increased from 64 to 68 and two hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have been added to the fleet. March

14 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Carbon savings Headlines The low carbon cars on the Scottish car club fleet have saved 236 tonnes of carbon dioxide The average carbon emission of the Scottish car club fleet was 50% lower than the 2015/16 UK average car and 5% lower than the Scottish car club average for 2014/15. In 2015/16 the fleet drove over 2.03 million miles and produced 375 tonnes of carbon dioxide. This has been calculated from the published g/km emissions using an age-related uplift in line with the Defra Greenhouse Gas (GHG) reporting methodology. If the same mileage had been driven in the average UK car it would have produced 611 tonnes of carbon dioxide. The saving in 2015/16 is 236 tonnes which is a 39% reduction and is an improvement over the 32% reduction achieved in 2014/15. Carbon profile of the Scottish car club fleet based on VED banding scheme 82% of the car club fleet is in Band A (0-100 g/km) compared to only 5% of the UK car fleet. Average emissions of Scottish car clubs 2011 to 2016 (g/km) Fleet Scottish Car Clubs UK Car Fleet No Data Car club carbon savings when compared with the UK car fleet Car club CO 2 emissions CO 2 from the same mileage in an average UK car Potential CO 2 saving Percentage reduction Trends 375 tonnes per annum 611 tonnes per annum 236 tonnes per annum Published manufacturer carbon intensity measured in g/km continues to fall The average carbon intensity of a car club car has fallen from 79 g/km in 2014/15 to 74.8 g/km this year. Electric vehicles make a big contribution to tailpipe carbon reductions The electric vehicle fleet has achieved a reduction in tailpipe carbon emissions of 93.8 tonnes per annum. 39% 3 Includes zero emission vehicles as 0 g/km March

15 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Safety Headlines Car club cars are much safer We do not have UK fleet data for NCAP compliance but analysis of company grey fleets (privately owned cars used for business) suggests only 10% of cars meet the NCAP 5+ or 4+ Star safety standards and this is a good proxy for the UK national fleet. 96% of the Scottish car club fleet has achieved the NCAP 5+ or 4+ Star safety standard. This reflects the age of the fleet. Safety of the Scottish car club fleet based on Euro NCAP score NCAP profile of the Scottish car club fleet Trends The fleet s safety has again improved and room for further improvement is now limited With 96% of the fleet meeting the NCAP 5+ or 4+ Star standard the room for improvement is limited to the residual 4% of mostly older vehicles and the replacement of 4+ star vehicles with 5+ Star when the opportunity arises. March

16 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report 3 Round-trip Member Survey Introduction 3.1 This section provides the results of the surveys completed by 586 individual round-trip car club members in Scotland. Separate reports are available containing the results of the surveys completed by members in England & Wales and London. Please visit the Carplus website at for more information. 3.2 The survey was completed by 471 members and 115 new members of car clubs who joined from April New members who joined after April 2016 were asked one additional question relating to their travel behaviour prior to joining a car club. A full set of survey questions is contained in Appendix B. 3.3 Appendix A contains all of the data collected as part of the survey. This section contains the key findings, including headline results and key trends (showing comparisons with previous annual surveys) for the following topics: Impact of car clubs on car ownership Impact of car clubs on car purchasing Impact of car clubs on miles travelled Mileage prior to joining a car club Travel behaviour of longer-term members Use of other shared mobility Profile of car club users How car club vehicles are used Why car club vehicles are used Circumstances when joining a car club The experience of joining a car club and satisfaction with car clubs Experiences of using electric vehicles Attitudes towards electric vehicles 3.4 Unless otherwise stated, all data presented are for 2016/17, although the Scottish Household Survey data are taken from 2014/15 as these are the most recent data available. March

17 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Impact of car clubs on car ownership Key findings Car ownership amongst new members falls after joining 55% of new members owned at least one car before joining, falling to 40% afterwards, as shown in the graph below. Car ownership increased among just 4% of new members after joining the car club. Car ownership remains low amongst longer term members Longer-term members have similar changes in levels of car ownership. 54% of longerterm members owned at least one car before joining, falling to just 33% afterwards. Longer-term members are those who have been members for at least six months many have been members for a number of years. 12% of all members stated that they had sold or disposed of a car in the 12 months prior to completing the survey (19% new members and 10% longer-term members). Of these, 23% stated that their car club membership was either the main reason or a major factor in their decision to sell or dispose of their car. For each car club car, approximately 4 private cars are sold or disposed of, and not replaced by members. Chart: Car ownership before and after joining a car club Trends Car clubs continue to reduce car ownership Cumulative number of cars sold or disposed of by car club members in the last 5 years March

18 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Impact of car clubs on car purchasing Key findings Car clubs reduce the need to purchase a private car 30% of all members would have bought a private car if they had not joined a car club. This is equates to around 3,673 deferred car purchases. As shown in the chart below, joining a car club has made it less likely that half of members will buy a private car. Chart: Effect of car club on decision to buy a private car Trends Car clubs help to defer future car purchase by members As shown in the table below, results from the 2016/17 survey indicate that car clubs continue to have an impact on the likelihood of purchasing a car. This may reflect the general move away from car ownership in cities (particularly amongst the under 30s) increasingly people do not see car ownership as necessary or desirable. Year Members (overall) for whom joining a car club has made it less likely that they will buy a car in the next few years 2012/13 65% 2013/14 66% 2014/15 68% 2015/16 56% 2016/17 51% March

19 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Impact of car clubs on miles travelled Key findings Joining a car club is associated with a reduction in annual car mileage The average change in annual household car mileage (for all cars in the household) reported by long term members after joining was a decrease of 513 miles. This average change is derived from estimated changes in mileage provided by the 24% of long-term members who reported a decrease in their mileage after joining a car club, the 24% who reported an increase and those members who reported no change. Members who increase mileage may have joined in order to make trips by car that they could not otherwise be able to make, hence an increase in mileage. Many respondents will not have accurate records of their mileage so the figures are estimates. The distribution of change is shown below; the average increase in annual mileage was 924 miles whilst the average decrease was 2,935 miles. 65% of longer-term member households travelled 500 miles or fewer in car club vehicles in the 12 months prior to completing the survey. Based on data provided by operators, the average round trip annual mileage in car club cars per member in the UK was 403 miles. This is slightly lower than the survey member average estimate of 508 miles. The estimated average annual mileage travelled by members (in their primary household car) is 3,573 miles. When added to the estimated miles travelled in car club cars, the annual average is 4,081 miles. The Scotland average is 2,530 miles per person (National Travel Survey 2012) and the average household size in Scotland is 2.2 (including children). Note that comparisons are difficult as members are not necessarily representative of the national population. Members who had sold or disposed of a car drove an average of 7,729 miles in the 12 months before selling it. Chart: Average change in long-term member annual mileage following joining a car club Trends Average annual mileage in car club vehicles per members Year 2013/ / / /17 Annual mileage March

20 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Travel behaviour of longer-term members Key findings Car club members make frequent use of sustainable travel modes Longer-term car club members use sustainable modes of transport more and cars less than the average Scottish resident, based on the Scottish Household Survey (2014): 34% drive either a private or car club car at least once a week compared to the Scottish average of 85%; 51% never travel by private car as driver; 25% travel by bicycle at least once a week; two thirds higher than the Scottish average of 15%; 38% travel by bus at least once a week compared with the Scottish average of 28%. 75% of long-term members walk for over 20 minutes at least once a week compared to 64% of people in Scotland that walk for a quarter of a mile at least once a week (roughly 5 minutes). 4 Chart: % of members using modes at least once a week compared with the average Scottish resident (percentage point difference) Trends Members that use a private car at least once a week compared to the Scottish average 4 The annual survey as about walks of over 20 minutes, the SHS asks about walks of over a quarter of a mile) which makes these figures hard to compare. March

21 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Use of other shared mobility Key findings Car club members also use other shared mobility services 55% of members use another shared mobility service alongside their car club. Aside from car clubs, 46% of members have used traditional car rental in the last year, 12% have informally car shared and 10% have used cycle hire. Less than 5% have used peer-to-peer car clubs and ride sharing services in the last year. Chart: Joining other shared mobility services before or after joining car club (all members) Trends Use of shared mobility use remains consistent The proportion of members using shared mobility is similar to previous years with 56% using other forms of shared mobility in 2015/16 and 55% this year. Members using traditional car rental has stayed fairly consistent, with 49% of members using traditional car rental in 2015/16. March

22 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Profile of car club users Key findings Car club members include a diverse range of people Based on analysis of member postcodes using Mosaic 5, the characteristics of Scotland car club members are shown in the table below and include: Young renters living in the city centre (Central Pulse - 23%). Older residents living in the inner suburbs (Ageing Access 8%). High status households living in the inner suburbs (Uptown Elite - 8%). Other Mosaic types include young professionals in their 20s and 30s (Metro High-Flyers - 8%), singletons renting away from central amenities (Bus Route Renters - 5%) and students living in student accommodation (Student Scene - 3%). Table: Mosaic profile of Scotland car club members: key types Type % of Scottish members % of Scottish population Description Central Pulse 23% 3% Ageing Access 8% 1% Uptown Elite 8% 1% Bus Route Renters 5% 4% Metro High-Flyers 4% 0.3% Student Scene 3% 0.5% Cafes & Catchments 3% 6.4% Streetwise Singles 2% 1% Crowded Kaleidoscope 2% 0.1% Entertainment-seeking youngsters renting city centre flats in vibrant locations close to jobs and night life. Older residents owning small inner suburban properties with good access to amenities. High status households owning elegant homes in accessible inner suburbs where they enjoy city life in comfort. Singles renting affordable private flats away from central amenities and often on main roads. Ambitious 20 and 30-somethings renting expensive apartments in highly commutable areas of major cities. Students living in high density accommodation close to universities and educational centres. Affluent families with growing children living in upmarket housing in city environments. Well-qualified older singles with incomes from successful professional careers in good quality housing. Influential families with substantial income established in distinctive, expansive homes in wealthy enclaves. Trends Profile of car club members remains diverse Compared to the Mosaic profile of members in 2015/16, the top six groups remain the same; however, the wealthier demographic groups have declined in importance slightly (Central Pulse, Uptown Elite and Metro High Fliers are all less prevalent this year compared to 2015/16). 5 Mosaic is a geodemographic profiling tool which classified residential postcodes into one of 66 Types, based on demographics, attitudes and a wide range of other data from commercial and public statistics. March

23 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report How car club vehicles are used Key findings Car club cars in Scotland have a higher occupancy than private cars Car club cars have an average occupancy of 2.2 people (based on the last car club journey made) compared to 1.5 for private cars (SHS, 2014/15). This may be a reflection of the different journey types as detailed below. Car clubs enable members to get around with large items 39% reported transporting bulky objects on their most recent trip. Car clubs are mostly used for personal and leisure purposes As shown in the chart below, personal business (30%) leisure (28%) and shopping (24%) are the most popular car club journey purposes. Respondents could choose more than one journey purpose for this question. Chart: Comparison of journey purposes Trends Average occupancy of car club vehicles compared to Scotland average for private cars March

24 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report How car club vehicles are used commuting Key findings Car clubs are not generally used for commuting When asked which mode of transport they use to commute to work or educational establishments, most members responded that they used sustainable modes. The top answers were walking (32%), bus (15%) and cycling (14%). Only 15% commuted by car, 13% of whom used a private car, 1% travelled as a passenger in a private car and 1% used a car club car. Compared to journey purposes reported in the Scottish Household Survey, fewer car club journeys are made for commuting and education purposes (3% of car club journeys compares to 31% of journeys in the SHS). It is generally not cost-effective for members to use round-trip car clubs for commuting - members pay by the hour and would therefore be paying for the whole period of hire including the time spent at work/education when the car is not in use. Chart: Members journeys to work or education Trends This question was asked for the first time in 2016/17. March

25 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Frequency of car club use Key findings 3 out of 5 members have made a car club journey in the last month The table below shows that 61% of car club members have made a car club journey within the last month and a further 21% in the last three months. Infrequent users join car clubs as a back-up 8% of members had not made a car club journey for over six months (excluding members yet to make their first journey). When asked for their reasons for not using the car club the most common reason given, by 47% of those infrequent users, was because they have not made a journey that required a car club car. Other frequently cited reasons include only being a car club member as back-up in case a car club car is needed (23% of infrequent users stated this) and the cost of making car club journeys (given as a reason by 21%). Respondents could choose more than one reason for infrequent use. Chart: Most recent car club journey Last journey % of members In the last month 61% In the last three months 19% Between three and six months ago 7% More than six months ago 8% Have not yet made a journey 6% Chart: Reasons for not using a car club / using infrequently Trends Frequency of use remains constant This question was asked for the first time in 2015/16, when 7% of members had not used a car club vehicle in the last month. Not doing any journeys requiring a car club vehicle was also the most popular reason given for infrequent use in 2015/16 (51%). March

26 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Circumstances when joining a car club Key findings Members join car clubs to gain additional personal freedom and occasional access to cars The chart below shows that the most popular reason for joining was to gain additional personal freedom (30%). 27% of members joined instead of purchasing or replacing a car and 11% disposed of a car on joining. These members require access to cars occasionally but find it preferable to have access to a car club vehicle rather than keep their own. Other reasons provided in free-text responses included to have access to a car with wheelchair access, members that used the cars for business use and those that do not need a car often but like having the option. Chart: Household circumstances at the time of joining Trends Increased personal freedom remains important Gaining personal freedom (36%) was also the most frequently cited reasons for joining a car club in 2015/16. The proportion of members joining through employers has grown from 5% in 2015/16 to 13% this year. March

27 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report How members found out about car clubs and levels of satisfaction Key findings First-hand experience, word of mouth and the Internet encourage new members to join As shown in the graph below, 46% of new members found out about their car club by seeing a vehicle in the street and 17% heard about their car club via word of mouth, highlighting the importance of both an operator s visibility and reputation in its ability to attract new members. Members are satisfied with the service offered by car clubs 89% of all members are very or quite satisfied with the availability of car club vehicles, 87% with the quality and condition of the vehicles and 79% with the proximity of the vehicles. Chart: How new members found out about their car club Trends Seeing cars in the street becomes more important The number joining after seeing a car in the street has increased substantially from 26% last year, possibly due to enhanced vehicle branding and an increase in the overall number of cars in Scotland, which gives car club cars more of a presence on the street. In both 2015/16 and 2014/15, word of mouth was the most common way of finding out about car clubs with 34% and in 43% of respondents respectively. Satisfaction levels remain high Satisfaction levels are very similar to last year, when 90% were very or quite satisfied with the proximity of vehicles, 91% with their quality and condition and 87% with their availability. March

28 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Experiences of using electric vehicles Key findings Two in five respondents have tried an electric vehicle 42% of all respondents have used a car club electric vehicle, up from 34% of members in 2015/16 and 14% in 2014/15. As shown in the chart below, 80% rated the experience of driving the vehicle good or very good. Members were less happy with the experience of using EV charging points, with 55% rating the experience good or very good. Those who rated the charging points poor or very poor encountered problems with charging points not working, unclear charging instructions and slow charging sockets. EVs are a curiosity and popular among those with environmental concerns I was curious to try an electric vehicle was the most popular reason for choosing an EV (52% of members). 44% of members reported they have used EVs because of they are environmentally friendly and 43% because it was the closest vehicle. 21% of members chose an EV as they prefer driving them while for 18% it was the only option available and 16% chose an EV because the size or type of vehicle available. Chart: Experience of using electric vehicles and charging points Trends Experiences of charging points and driving electric vehicles are generally positive March

29 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Attitudes towards electric vehicles Key findings Members are interested in using electric vehicles and happy to use them Of the 58% of members who had not used an electric vehicle, four out of five expressed an interest in using one: 43% would be happy to use an EV if there was one close to them and 37% would be happy to use an EV but haven t yet had the opportunity. Concerns about using electric vehicles relate to charging not range or performance Among the 20% (60 out of 306) of respondents who have concerns with using electric vehicles, the most common concerns are running out of charge during the journey, being unable to find a charging point during the journey and the car not being fully charged when it is picked up. The chart below provides more detail. The top three concerns are the same as in 2015/16. Table: Interest in using electric vehicles Attitude towards EVs Percentage I would be happy to use an electric vehicle but haven t yet had the opportunity 37% I would be happy to use an electric vehicle if there was one close to me 43% I have concerns about using electric vehicles (see chart below) 20% Chart: Concerns with using electric vehicles (amongst 60 of 306 respondents) Trends Continuing high levels of interest in electric vehicles In 2015/16, 85% of members that had not yet used an electric vehicle responded that they would be happy to use one. March

30 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report 4 Operator Survey Introduction 4.1 This section contains the information provided by car club operators about their service. Each car club operator provided details of their vehicle fleet, membership numbers and characteristics of members and data regarding use of car clubs by their members such as mileage travelled. 4.2 The data were collected across the UK (England, Wales, Scotland and London) by means of a self-completion questionnaire. This chapter includes data at a UK level. 4.3 Scotland has 5% of the UK s car club membership, with 79% in London and 16% in other parts of England and Wales. These figures include round-trip and flexible members but exclude peer-to-peer car club members. 4.4 Data in Scotland were provided by four round-trip car clubs (Co-wheels, E-Car, Enterprise and Zipcar). In addition, seven smaller community car clubs provided data. Not all operators provided data for each question. 4.5 Data about NO X, CO 2 and PM 10 emissions of car club fleets were collected separately through the emissions analysis and profiling process and is reported in chapter 2. March

31 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Characteristics of car club members Headlines Car clubs attract a young profile of members The graph below shows that 70% of Scotland car club members are younger than 49, compared to 54% of UK driving licence holders. The market for car clubs is predominantly amongst the age group. Men are more likely to join car clubs than women 69% of car club members are men compared to 54% of UK licence holders who are men. Chart: Age of members compared to age of national licence holders March

32 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report How car clubs are used Headlines Round-trip car club members typically make short trips The average duration of hire for round-trip car clubs is 5 hours 23 minutes and the average distance travelled per hire 31 miles, as shown in the table below. The average number of hires per active member is 13 per year. Most round-trip car club journeys are made off-peak 68% of round-trip bookings start outside of peak hours. Only 17% of trips start between 06:30 and 09:30 on a weekday with 15% starting between 16:30 and 19:30 on a weekday. 30% of bookings start at the weekend as shown in the chart below. Chart: Round-trip booking start times Table: Trip duration, distance and number of hires in Scotland Measure Measure Average duration of hire 5 hours 23 minutes Average number of annual hires per active member 13 Average distance per hire 31 miles Implied miles per member per year miles 6 Calculated as average number of hires multiplied by average distance per hire. March

33 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Utilisation of car clubs Headlines Car club cars are used more efficiently than private cars On average, round-trip car club cars are booked for 4 hours and 20 minutes a day, or for 18%, of the day 7. The amount of time during each booking that car club vehicles are being driven and the amount of time the vehicle is parked is not known. It is possible that utilisation is greater than that of private cars which it is estimated are being driven for 5% of the day on average Car club vehicles provide for occasional and low mileage use 55% of round-trip members use a car club vehicle fewer than six times a year, though 14% of members make more than 20 car club trips a year. 61% of hires are for trips of 20 miles or less, as shown in the graph below. However, 19% of trips are over 51 miles, which means that the average trip length is 31 miles. Chart: Miles travelled per hire 7 This includes the time that vehicles are parked during bookings March

34 Carplus Annual Survey of Car Clubs 2016/17 Report Appendices March

35 A Detailed Tables and Figures Respondent home location Figure A.1: Respondent home locations: all members March 2017 A1

36 Impact of car clubs on car ownership Figure A.2: Car ownership before and after joining a car club: all members Table A.3: Sold or disposed of a car in the last twelve months: long term members March 2017 A2

37 Impact of car clubs on car purchasing Figure A.4: Would have bought a private car if hadn t joined a car club: all members Figure A.5: Likelihood of buying a private car in the future: all members March 2017 A3

38 Figure A.6: Probability of buying a private car if car club was no longer an option: all members Impact of car clubs on miles travelled Figure A.7: Estimated household mileage by primary household car and car club cars: longerterm members March 2017 A4

39 Figure A.8: Change in household mileage since joining the car club: longer-term members Figure A.9: Average change in annual mileage since joining the car club: longer-term members March 2017 A5

40 Figure A.10: Estimated household mileage by primary household car in 12 months prior to joining: new members March 2017 A6

41 Impact of car clubs on travel behaviour: longer-term members Figure A.11: Frequency of travel by mode: longer-term members March 2017 A7

42 Impact of car clubs on travel behaviour: new members Figure A.12: Frequency of travel by mode before joining: new members Figure A.12: Frequency of travel by mode after joining: new members March 2017 A8

43 Figure A.13: Mode used to get to work/educational establishment: all members Use of other shared mobility Figure A.14: Use of other shared mobility modes: all members March 2017 A9

44 How car club vehicles are used Figure A.16: Journey purposes: all members Figure A.17: When did you last use a car club vehicle: all members March 2017 A10

45 Figure A.18: Reasons for infrequent use: all members who have not made journey in the last six months Figure A.19: Reasons for using car club on your most recent car club journey: all members March 2017 A11

46 Figure A.21: Satisfaction with car club: all members Reasons for joining a car club: all members Figure A.22: Reasons for joining a car club: new members March 2017 A12

47 Experiences of using electric and hybrid vehicles Figure A.24: Rating of driving an electric vehicle: all members Figure A.26: Reason for choosing an electric vehicle: all members March 2017 A13

48 Figure A.27: Interest in using electric vehicles from members that have not yet used them Figure A.28: Concerns with using electric vehicles: all members who are concerned with using electric vehicles March 2017 A14

49 B Survey Questionnaires March 2017 B1

50 Example Member Survey March 2017 B2

51 E-Car Club member survey About the Carplus Annual Survey Thank you for taking part in the Carplus Annual Survey of car club members. The survey provides Carplus the national organisation for shared mobility - and funding partners, Transport for London, Transport Scotland and the Department for Transport, with a better understanding of how car clubs influence travel patterns, and helps in gaining support for putting more car club cars on the street in the future. Free driving credit! Please take a few minutes to answer the following questions about how you use E-Car Club. As a way of saying thanks for completing the survey, we will automatically credit your account with two free driving hours. Please be aware that this free credit will expire at midnight on 5 December 2016 so please ensure you have booked and used the free hours by this date. Participation in the survey will also automatically enter you into a competition to win one of two free 24 hour bookings; winners will be notified once the survey has closed. In order to claim your free hours and be in with a chance to win a 24 hour booking, it is imperative that you enter your address at the end of the survey correctly Just enter your membership card number at the end of the survey to enter the prize draw. The survey closes on 18 November Responses will be kept confidential to each individual s car club operator, Carplus and our survey partners, Steer Davies Gleave. The survey results will be used for research purposes only, as authorised by Carplus. For further information, please contact Kate Gifford, Carplus on Many thanks! Where you live 1. Where do you live? England (excluding London) Wales London Scotland London boroughs 2. Which London borough do you live in? Areas in England 1

52 3. Which area in England do you live in? Areas in Wales 4. Which area in Wales do you live? Areas in Scotland 5. Which area in Scotland do you live in? Home postcode 6. What is your full home postcode? (Postcode information is used for research purposes only and will not be shared with any third party) Year of joining * 7. Which year did you join E-Car Club? Month of joining 2

53 8. Which month in 2016? January February March April May June July August September October November December Joining the car club * 9. How did you first hear about E-Car Club? Choose all that apply. Word of mouth Referred by a friend (promotional referral offer) Through my employer E-Car Club website Internet search engine Social Media Saw an E-Car Club car in the street Outdoor advertising In the media (e.g. newspaper etc.) Leaflet Attended a promotional event Other (please specify) Other car clubs and cycle hire 3

54 10. Are you also a member of, or have used any of the following in the last 12 months? Choose all that apply. "One-way car club (e.g. DriveNow, GoDrive) A "Round-trip" car club other than E-Car Club Peer-to-peer car club (e.g. EasyCar club, Rentecarlo) Ride sharing service (e.g. Liftshare, BlaBlaCar) Cycle hire scheme (e.g. Santander Cycles) Informal car sharing (borrowing a car from a friend or relative) Traditional car rental None of the above Your most recent car club journey * 11. When did you last use E-Car Club? In the last month In the last three months Between three and six months ago More than six months ago Have not yet made a journey Reasons for infrequent car club use 4

55 12. What are your main reasons for not using E-Car Club in the last six months? Choose all that apply. A free trial or special offer expired E-Car Club vehicles are not close enough to where I need them E-Car Club did not offer the type of vehicle I needed I am only an E-Car Club member as a back-up in case I need it I am using another car club I had a poor experience using the E-Car Club I haven t needed an E-Car Club car for any journeys I have made I joined E-Car Club to make a specific journey and haven t used it since I moved house It s too expensive Journeys which I previously made by in an E-Car Club car, I am now making using other transport modes Lost my licence / licence expired for use in the UK My personal circumstances have changed which means the car club is less useful to me Unable to drive due to Illness About your last journey * 13. What was the purpose of the last journey you made in an E-Car Club car? Choose all that apply. Business (a work-related trip that is not your commute) Education (including doing the school run) Shopping Personal business (e.g. going to the bank, hairdressers, dentist etc) or giving a lift Visiting friends/family Leisure (e.g. going swimming or to the cinema) Commuting (your journey to/from work) 14. How many people were you travelling with? Adults Children 5

56 15. Were you carrying any large items of furniture, luggage or shopping during any part of your journey? Yes No Alternatives to E-Car Club 16. Thinking about the last journey you made using an E-Car Club car, if one had not been available, how would you have made this journey? Choose all that apply. Would not have made the journey Bicycle (my own) Bicycle (bike hire) Bus Car driver (private car) Car driver (other car club car) Car passenger (either private or car club car) On-demand taxi (a taxi booked through a mobile phone app e.g. Uber) Other taxi or minicab Train Underground, tram or other light rail Walking Your last journey: reasons for using the car club 6

57 * 17. Thinking about the last journey you made using E-Car Club, why did you choose to use E-Car Club for this journey? Choose all that apply. For a shorter journey time I was carrying luggage / bulky items I was going to more than one place It was the cheapest option No suitable cycle routes No suitable public transport option Public transport would have taken too long / too many changes My own car was not available / suitable To experience driving an electric car Travelling with others Other (please specify) Reasons for joining E-Car Club 18. Please select the statement that best describes your household circumstances when you joined E- Car Club. A car of mine stopped working, and instead of replacing it I joined E-Car Club I am at university/college, and I joined E-Car Club to gain access to a vehicle while studying. I live in a residential development with a designated E-Car Club car and I joined through its membership arrangement My employer joined E-Car Club, and I joined through my employer. My household did not have a car, but changes in life required a car and I joined E-Car Club instead. My household did not have a car, but joined E-Car Club to gain additional personal freedom. Owned one car, but I joined E-Car Club and sold or disposed of the car. Owned more than one car, but I sold or disposed of at least one car and joined E-Car Club. Owned at least one car, but I needed an additional car for greater flexibility, and joined E-Car Club instead of acquiring an additional car. Other (please specify) How you get around 7

58 19. In the last 12 months, how often have you used the following types of transport? 3 or more times per week 1-2 times per week At least once a month At least once a year Never Bicycle Bus Car driver (private car) Car driver (E-Car Club) Car driver (other car club car) Car passenger (either private or car club vehicle) On-demand taxi (a taxi booked through a mobile phone e.g. Uber) Other taxi or minicab Train Underground, tram or other light rail Walked (for 20 minutes or more without stopping) How you got around before joining E-Car Club 8

59 20. Before joining E-Car Club, how often did you use the following types of transport? 3 or more times per week 1-2 times per week At least once a month Never At least once a year Bicycle Bus Car driver (private car) Car driver (other car club car) Car passenger (either private or car club vehicle) On-demand taxi (a taxi booked through a mobile phone e.g. Uber) Other taxi or minicab Train Underground, tram or other light rail Walked (for 20 minutes or more without stopping) Travel to work 9

60 21. How do you usually travel to work / education? Not applicable Walking Car driver (private car) Car driver (car club car) Car passenger (private car) Car passenger (car club car) Motorcycle/moped Bicycle Bus Taxi/minicab Rail Underground, tram or other light rail Tram Other (please specify) Cars in your household * 22. How many cars did your household own before joining E-Car Club? (please include lease cars or company cars where appropriate) None or more * 23. How many cars does your household own now? (please include lease cars or company cars where appropriate) None or more Encouragements to sell your car(s) 10

61 24. What would encourage you to sell or dispose of your car(s)? A better range of transport options for the journeys I make Wider availability of E-Car Club cars All your transport options paid for on one account on a monthly basis (Mobility as a Service) Better links between E-Car Club and public transport More reliable public transport Improved cycling infrastructure (cycle routes, cycle parking etc.) Parking problems becoming worse A substantial rise in the costs of owning a car (fuel, insurance, tax) Increased residential parking costs Nothing would encourage me Impact of E-Car Club on private car purchase * 25. Have you sold or otherwise disposed of and not replaced a car in the last 12 months? Yes No The car you sold / disposed of 26. How old was the car that you sold? Under 2 years 2-4 years 5-6 years 7-8 years 9-10 years More than 10 years 27. Please tell us how many miles you drove in that car in the 12 months before you sold / disposed of it 11

62 * 28. When you sold / disposed of your car, was E-Car Club...? The main reason A major factor A minor factor Not a factor * 29. What were the main factors in the decision to sell / dispose of your car and not replace it? Choose up to 3 main factors Change of personal circumstances (e.g. new job, moving house) Cost of keeping my car on the road Difficulties / cost of parking Car not used often enough to justify keeping it Environmental reasons Improvements to other travel options (e.g. public transport, cycling routes) in my area Heard about E-Car Club and decided it was a better option Other (please specify) Buying a car * 30. If you hadn't joined E-Car Club, would your household have bought a private car (or another private car)? Yes No 31. Do you think that joining E-Car Club has made it more or less likely that your household will buy a car (or another car) in the next few years? More likely Less likely No effect Don't know Private car mileage 12

63 32. What was the approximate mileage driven by your household in the last 12 months in car club vehicles and private vehicles? Approximate mileage driven Car club vehicles Private vehicles 33. How has your household's annual car driver mileage (including car club cars, private cars) changed since joining E-Car Club? Decreased No change Increased Don't know Changes in mileage 34. Please provide an estimate of the CHANGE in mileage (i.e. the amount of increase or decrease) Electric vehicles * 35. Have you ever used an electric E-Car Club vehicle? Yes No Using an electric E-Car Club vehicle 13

64 36. Why did you choose to use an electric E-Car Club vehicle? Choose all that apply I prefer driving electric vehicles I was curious to try an electric vehicle It is more environmentally friendly It was the closest vehicle available to me It was the only option The size/type of the vehicle I did not realise it was an electric vehicle when booking Other (please specify) 37. Please rate your experience of driving an electric E-Car Club vehicle on the scale below. 1 very poor very good 38. Please rate your experience of using charging points for an electric E-Car Club vehicle on the scale below. 1 very poor very good Not applicable Experiences of charging points 39. Why have you rated your experience of using charging points as poor or very poor? Views on electric E-Car Club vehicles * 40. Which of the following statements applies most closely to you? I would be happy to use an electric vehicle if there was one close to me I would be happy to use an electric vehicle but haven t yet had the opportunity I have concerns about using electric vehicles Concerns about electric vehicles 14

65 41. What are your main concerns? Choose all that apply. Running out of charge during my hire Car not being charged when picking it up I am unsure how to use charging points I am unsure where charging points are I am worried about being unable to find a charging point during my journey I am unsure how long it takes to charge the vehicle I make long journeys so I don t think electric vehicles are suitable I am worried about the driving performance of electric vehicles I don t know how to drive an electric vehicle Satisfaction with E-Car Club 42. How satisfied are you with... The proximity of E-Car Club vehicles to where you live The availability of E-Car Club vehicles when you need them The quality and condition of the vehicles Using E-Car Club 43. How easy did you find: Very Easy Easy Neither easy nor difficult Difficult Very difficult Joining E-Car Club? Booking an E-Car Club vehicle? Driving an E-Car Club vehicle? Free driving credit and prize draw 15

66 44. To receive your free 2 hours of driving credit and to enter a prize draw to win one of two 24-hour bookings, please provide your name and the address you use for your E-Car account. Name Address Free driving credit: Your driving credit will be automatically credited to your E-Car account. It must be used by 30 November Prize draw: The prize draws are only open to members of car clubs, completing the survey by 18 November The winners will be selected at random from all fully completed survey responses for each club. The address used for an E-Car account is required in order to deliver the prize. The prize winner's car club accounts will be automatically credited with the driving credits. Prize winners will be notified within 28 days of the closing date by . The draws will be undertaken by each car club operator, using an independent person. Prize winners' names will not be publicised. Case studies * 45. Are you happy for Carplus to contact you for further research? Yes No Your contact details 46. Please insert your name and address in the boxes below Name Address 47. Carplus is compiling case studies of car club members to understand more about the people who use car clubs. If you are willing to be a case study, please use this box to tell us a little bit about yourself and how you use E-Car Club. Thank you! Thank you for completing our survey! If you would like to find out more about Carplus and our work, please visit If you would like to find out more about E-Car Club and where car club vehicles are located, 16

67 Operator Survey March 2017 B3

68 Operator Survey 2016 Please complete the form below and return to by 30 th November To improve the reporting of the operator survey, the 2016 survey requests information to be provided for each of the different regions for which reports are produced: London, England and Wales (excluding London) and Scotland. If you have any difficulties in providing information in this way, please contact Kate Gifford at Carplus / How many members do you have as at 1st November 2016? Number of members London England and Scotland Total Wales Individual Corporate Total 2. How many members hired a car in the previous 12 months as at 1st November 2016? London England and Scotland Total Wales Members who hired a car in last year 3. How many members are there in each of each gender in each region? London England and Wales Scotland Total Male Female Carplus, Kings House, 1 Kings Street, Leeds LS1 2HH 1

69 4. How many members are there in each age band in each region, as at 1st November 2016? London England and Scotland Total Wales Under to to to to to to to to or over Total 5. What is the mean average distance travelled per hire (in miles)? Please provide the Distance in miles (to 2 decimal places) London England and Scotland Total Wales Mean average distance travelled per hire 6. What is the average length of hire period (in hours)? Please provide the Time in hours (to 2 decimal places) London England and Scotland Total Wales Average length of hire period Carplus, Kings House, 1 Kings Street, Leeds LS1 2HH 2

70 7. What is the average number of hires per member per year (for those who have hired a car in the last 12 months)? London England and Scotland Total Wales Average hires per active member 8. What is the distribution of number of hires per member per year (last year to 1st November 2016)? London England and Scotland Total Wales None 1 to 5 6 to to to to to to 100 Total 9. What is the distribution of mileage travelled per hire (last year to 1st November 2016) London England and Scotland Total Wales 1 to 5 6 to to to to to to 100 Total Carplus, Kings House, 1 Kings Street, Leeds LS1 2HH 3

71 10. On average, how many hours per day are your vehicles booked out (in use for one way vehicles)? Please provide the average usage (hours) per day over whole fleet London England and Scotland Total Wales Average usage (hours) per day over whole fleet 11. Please provide a breakdown of car club bookings (i.e. when a booking starts) by time period and day in the table below. % of bookings starting London England and Scotland Total Wales Weekdays 07:00 to 10:00 Weekdays 16:00 19:00 Weekdays other times Saturdays Sundays 12. Do you actively promote other modes (e.g. car rental, bike hire) to your members? YES/NO Please feel free to provide us with further information to expand on your response below. Many thanks for taking the time to provide us with this data. If you have any queries please contact Kate Gifford on Carplus, Kings House, 1 Kings Street, Leeds LS1 2HH 4

72 C Emissions Analysis and Profiling March 2017 C1

73 Introduction The following section reports on the fleet profiles of car club operators in Scotland. It is based on a comprehensive set of data that has been collected about UK car clubs. The data have been independently verified by Gfleet Services Ltd using the vehicle registration marks (VRM) and published datasets from the DVLA (Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency), VCA (Vehicle Certification Agency) and vehicle manufacturers which enables the production of more comprehensive and accurate profiling (including nitrogen oxides and particulate emissions). All UK car club operators, national and community, were asked to provide the vehicle registration marks (VRM) of all their vehicles operational during the 12 months between the 1st November 2015 and the 31st October 2016 together with the total mileage driven during that period and the dates when vehicles joined or left the fleet. Eight nationwide UK car club operators supplied fleet data but one did not provide any mileage data. Across the UK, 14 community clubs submitted data and information about a further six community clubs was submitted by their franchise operator. The VRM data from all the clubs were submitted to CarweB and a full environmental data set was obtained for each vehicle based on the data held by the DVLA and the manufacturers. For most vehicles, the air quality emission data (nitrogen oxides NO X, particulates PM 10, hydrocarbons HC, and carbon monoxide CO) were not available from the DVLA data set and these were obtained by matching, as closely as possible, the vehicle details from the DVLA with its published emission figures downloaded from the VCA. The vehicle s safety performance in the European New Car Assessment Programme (NCAP) was established using DVLA make, model and year of registration. Scottish National Car Clubs The data presented in the following sections relate to the fleets of the four national car club operators who operated vehicles in Scotland during 2015/16 and who provided usable data. The names of the car club operators have been replaced by numbers (e.g. Club 01) which correspond to those used in reports produced in previous years. Carbon Dioxide Emission Profile - Cars When a car is registered with the DVLA its carbon dioxide emissions (usually shortened to carbon emissions) as measured in grams of carbon dioxide per kilometre (gco 2 /km, usually shortened to g/km) must be submitted to the DVLA. The data supplied by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), is produced using laboratory tests paid for by the manufacturer and is related to a particular specification of the vehicle. Since 2001 the carbon emission data have been used by HM Treasury to determine the Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) payable on a car. For that purpose the emissions have been broken down into 13 bands from Band A (less than or equal to 100 g/km) to Band M (over 255 g/km). During 2015/16 no duty was payable on a Band A car while on a Band M car the duty was 505/annum. Table 4-1 shows the number and proportion of Scottish car club cars in each VED emission band at the end of October The data made available relating to fleet changes meant it was possible to accurately determine the number of vehicles on fleet at the period end. During 2015/16 there was a maximum of 374 cars on the Scottish car club fleet and a total of 332 were on the fleet and active at the year-end (31 st October 2016). However, emissions data were only provided for 291 of these; therefore the analysis presented in this section is based upon data for these 291 vehicles. March 2017 C2

74 Table 4-1 Vehicle Excise Duty emission band profile national clubs CO 2 Emission Band (gco 2 /km) Number % Band A <= % Band B Band C % Band D % Band E % Band F % Band G % Band H Band I % Band J Band K Band L Band M 256+ No data available 41 Total 332 The current definition of an ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) is one with published OEM carbon emissions of 75 g/km or less 8 ; this standard only relates to the carbon emissions and not to the air quality emissions. At the end of October 2016 there were 101 ULEV cars (35%) reported on the Scottish car club fleet (see Table 4-2). Table 4-2: Ultra Low Emission Vehicles ( 75g/km) ULEV Type Number % Fleet Models in Use Petrol-Electric Hybrid 31 11% 30 Toyota Yaris and one Plug-In Toyota Prius Electric 68 23% 30 Nissan Leaf, 37 Renault Zoe and one imiev Hydrogen Fuel Cell 2 1% Hyundai ix35 Total ULEV % Figure 4-1 shows the carbon emission profile of the Scottish car club fleet in relation to 2015/16 UK national car fleet data 9 (the 2016/17 UK data will not be available from the DfT until mid-april 2017). Clearly most Scottish car club vehicles (90%) were in the lowest three emission Bands A, B and C, with over four fifths of the cars (82%) in Band A (0-100 g/km). In the UK as a whole the largest proportion of cars (15%) was in Band G ( g/km) DfT Statistics: Table VEH0206. Licensed cars by CO 2 emission band, Great Britain, April Next Update April March 2017 C3

75 Figure 4-1 Comparison of national Scottish car clubs VED emission band profile with the UK Fleet The high proportion of low carbon cars is reflected in the average carbon emissions of the Scottish car club fleet, which is shown in Table 4-3. At the end of October 2016 the average carbon emissions of the Scottish car club fleet was 50% lower than the 2015/16 UK average car and 5% lower than the Scottish car club average for Table 4-3 Average carbon emissions of Scottish car clubs (g/km) Fleet Scottish Car Clubs UK Car Fleet No data Table 4-4 Minimum, average and maximum carbon emissions (g/km) of Scottish car clubs Fleet Min g/km Av g/km Max g/km Club Club Club Club Club 14 was 100% battery electric zero emission vehicles and two other clubs included zero emission vehicles in their fleet. Club 01 had a very small number of vehicles on fleet in Scotland at the end of October 2016 and made several vehicle changes during the year. Club 04 has both zero emission EVs and the vehicle with the highest carbon emissions in the Scottish car club fleet (179 g/km). Fuel Profile - Cars In terms of the fuels used (Figure 4-2), clubs in Scotland have adopted petrol as the dominant fuel type and only 6% of the fleet was diesel powered at the period end compared with 38% of 10 Includes zero emission electric vehicles as 0 g/km. March 2017 C4

76 the UK car fleet. Petrol hybrids, plug-in hybrids, battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, which make up less than 0.5% of all cars in the UK, comprise 44% of the Scottish car club fleet. Figure 4-2: Scottish national car clubs fuel profile It is of note that other than operating a 100% battery EV fleet there is no specific combination of fuel types that results in low overall carbon emissions. In the Scottish fleets it is down to the range of technologies selected and Club 04 has achieved a low average of 67g/km by having a small number of diesels and mixing fuel-efficient petrol cars with petrol-electric hybrids and zero emission electric vehicles. EVs are rated as zero emission at their point of use but their actual Greenhouse Gas (GHG) impact will depend on the source of the electrical energy used to charge the vehicle. The VCA records electric vehicle energy efficiency as miles/kwh. Performance ranges from 4.1 miles/kwh (2014 Nissan Leaf) to 4.9 miles/kwh (Peugeot ion and Citroen C-Zero). For comparison, a diesel vehicle with carbon emissions of 100 g/km will be achieving 1.5 miles/kwh; there is about 10.6 kwh of energy in a litre of diesel. The Defra 11 GHG emission reporting factor for the UK grid in 2015/16 was 412 gco 2 e/kwh and using this factor together with the DVLA miles/kwh data the GHG emissions of battery electric cars charged from the grid can be determined. In 2013/14 the Defra GHG factor for the grid was 494 gco 2 e/kwh so in two years it has fallen by 82 gco 2 e/kwh (16.6%) and the emissions of electric cars will have fallen by the same proportion. However, the Defra GHG reporting factor is based on generation data that are two years out of date due to verification of the data to international reporting standards. 11 Department for environment, food and rural affairs. March 2017 C5

77 Determination of the actual GHG emissions associated with an EV in real time is not simple because the carbon intensity of the grid varies throughout the day as different types of generating capacity are brought on-line to meet demand. In addition the availability of zerocarbon wind and solar power also varies throughout the day and the year. UK generation data for the summer month of July 2016 sourced from the Elexon 12 website shows the grid averaged 245 gco 2 e/kwh with a range for the month from a minimum of 158 g/kwh to a maximum of 321 g/kwh, the variation being due to generation from intermittent low-carbon sources and lower demand for power. Data for the winter month of December 2016 show the average emission factor for the month was 308 g/kwh and the intensity of the grid during the month varied from a minimum of 174 g/kwh to a maximum of 406 g/kwh. Table 4-5 demonstrates the impact of the variation in UK grid carbon intensity on the GHG emissions associated with charging an electric vehicle. The Nissan Leaf has associated GHG emissions of 62.4 g/km if the Defra GHG reporting factor is used but if it had been charged in July 2016 the average emission would be 37.1 g/km and in December 2016 it would have been 46.7 g/km. But even those figures would vary depending on the time of day the vehicle was charged and whether the day was windy and/or sunny. Table 4-5: Impact of grid generation carbon intensity on EV GHG emissions (g/km) Make Model OEM/VCA miles/kwh Defra GHG Factor 2015/16 GHG emissions (g/km) UK Grid July 2016 UK Grid December g/kwh 245 g/kwh 308 g/kwh BMW i Citroen C-Zero Mitsubishi i-miev Nissan Leaf Peugeot ion Renault Kangoo ML Renault Zoe New to the fleet for 2015/16 were two hydrogen powered fuel cell cars, both Hyundai ix35. The ix35 has a 100kW fuel cell, 152 litre hydrogen tank and a OEM range of 186 miles; there are 250 of these cars in Europe. No information was made available about how these vehicles were fuelled or how the hydrogen was produced. Hydrogen can be manufactured by the electrolysis of water using electricity which can be an energy-intensive process or from the steam reformation of methane, a process which produces large quantities of carbon dioxide. No mileage was reported for these vehicles. Air Quality - Cars As well as carbon dioxide emissions, internal combustion engines (ICE) also produce a range of other gases, many of which are toxic, and these impact on local air quality. These toxic emissions are meant to be regulated by the Euro emission standards scheme. The current standard is Euro 6, which became mandatory for all newly registered cars from September 2015 and for vans from September The DVLA classifies battery electric and hydrogen 12 Elexon: March 2017 C6

78 fuel cell cars as Euro 6, which does not reflect the fact that they are zero emission at the point of use so for clarity all electric and hydrogen cars have been categorised in this report as ZE (Zero Emission). As can be seen in Figure 4-3 the Scottish national car club fleet is now almost 100% Euro 5, Euro 6 or Zero Emission with only one Euro 4 vehicle on the fleet which was relocated from England to Scotland by the operator. Figure 4-3 Euro Emission profile of Scottish national car club fleets Table 4-6 shows the impact of fuel type on air quality emissions. Fleets with a low proportion of diesel vehicles have the lowest average nitrogen oxides and particulate emissions and the all-electric fleet is the cleanest. Table 4-6: Fuel type and air quality emissions Car Club Diesel Petrol Electric Petrol/Electric Hybrid Hydrogen Fuel Cell Average NO X mg/km Maximum NO X mg/km Average PM 10 mg/km Maximum PM 10 mg/km All Clubs 6% 50% 23% 20% 1% Club 01 0% 100% 0% 0% 0% Club 04 13% 34% 29% 21% 2% Club 05 3% 63% 13% 21% 0% Club 14 0% 0% 100% 0% 0% The principal pollutants of concern in large urban areas across Scotland are NO X (nitrogen oxides, especially nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 ) and PM 10 (particulates under 10 microns) and their output by vehicles is measured in milligrams per kilometre (mg/km). There are Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) in Scotland and most of these are associated with high nitrogen dioxide levels, with some of the highest levels being in Glasgow and Edinburgh March 2017 C7

79 Clean Air Zone Compliance In April 2015, the Supreme Court 14 ordered the UK Government to bring forward proposals to comply with 2010 UK/EU air quality standards. The plan produced by Defra in December 2015 envisaged Clean Air Zones (CAZ) in just five cities; Birmingham, Leeds, Nottingham, Derby and Southampton. These CAZs would restrict access by the most polluting diesel buses, coaches, taxis and lorries. In Birmingham and Leeds the zones would also restrict the most polluting diesel vans. At that time no restrictions on diesel cars were envisaged. In early November 2016, following further legal action against the UK government by the lobby group ClientEarth 15, the High Court 16 ruled the government s plan was far too leisurely, used over-optimistic pollution modelling and was based on flawed lab tests. In late November 2016, the court ruled 17 that an effective plan must be delivered in eight months; the draft by 24 th April 2017 and the final by 31 st July It seems likely that many more cities and towns in the UK will be required to implement a CAZ and it is possible that Glasgow and Edinburgh will be included in the new plan. It is also very possible that the scope of the new proposals will include petrol and diesel cars. The Scottish Government proposes to introduce one Low Emission Zone (LEZ) by the end of The Euro emission standards for diesel and petrol cars are not the same and for any given standard up to Euro 6 the diesel vehicle is permitted to be more polluting. A new Euro 6 diesel car is meant to achieve the same NO X emission standard that a Euro 4 petrol car was required to meet in This difference is reflected in the proposals for CAZ standards. It is not yet clear what the minimum standards will be for vehicles entering a CAZ. Possible standards for charge-free access to a CAZ are shown in Table 4-7 and are based on the standards proposed for the London Ultra Low Emission Zone (ULEZ) which will replace the current LEZ in 2019 or Defra has stated that it does not want to see an array of different standards for zone access around the country as this will confuse motorists. Table 4-7: Possible standards for charge-free access to Clean Air Zones Fuel Vehicle Type Minimum Standard Diesel All types Euro 6 Petrol Cars, Vans, HCVs, Buses Euro 4 Petrol Motorcycles Euro 3 Electric All types All Charge Free These standards have been applied to the Scottish car club fleets to identify the proportion of vehicles that are already compliant and this is shown in Figure March 2017 C8

80 Figure 4-4: Car Club fleet compliance with anticipated Clean Air Zone standards The very low proportion of diesel powered vehicles in the Scottish car club fleet is reflected in this chart as the only non-compliant vehicles are the small number of pre-euro 6 diesels which are expected to have been replaced by the time CAZ standards are introduced in the UK. Mileage & Carbon Emissions Where available the mileage of all cars that were on fleet in the year 2015/16 was used in conjunction with the published carbon dioxide emissions of the vehicles (g/km) to estimate the total carbon dioxide emissions from Scottish car club cars. In the 2014/15 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) guidelines Defra moved to using an age-related uplift of the manufacturers published data to reflect the fact that in 2001 the average difference between the manufacturers carbon emission data and real world performance was only 8% but by 2015 it had risen to 39% 18. As we have the date of first registration for the whole fleet the age-related methodology has been used in 2015/16 and can be compared with the same methodology from the 2014/15 data set. The average annual mileage figure in this table takes account of the number of days a vehicle was on fleet during the year to produce an annualised figure. 18 From Laboratory to Road: A 2016 Update, 2016, Mock, German, et al. ICCT. March 2017 C9

81 Table 4-8: Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 e) emissions of the Scottish car club fleet 2015/ / /15 Car Club Total Annual Average Annual Annual kg CO 2 Annual kg CO 2 Mileage Mileage/Car (Age Related Uplift) (Age Related Uplift) Club 01 28,832 Insufficient Data 7,553 4,114 Club ,276 6, ,951 87,823 Club 05 1,273,310 6, ,258 New 2015/16 Club 14 76,624 4, Total 2,029, ,762 Average UK Car 610,455 Carbon Saving 235,693 If the 2.03 million miles had been driven by the average 2015 UK car which had emissions (including age-related uplift) of g/km the total CO 2 e emissions would have been tonnes so there was a carbon saving of tonnes or 39% which is an improvement from the 32% saving made in 2014/15. These reductions in carbon emissions do not include the additional carbon savings arising from other modal changes made by car club members. Safety Assessment Advances in vehicle safety are in part responsible for the reduction in the number of car driver and passenger fatalities on UK roads which have been falling year-on-year. Passive safety features such as seat belts and air bags assist in the survivability of collisions while active features such as Electronic Traction Control help drivers avoid the accident. There has been a big growth in the development of active safety features and the following are now standard on cars, are an option or are in development: Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB): forward facing radar detects a possible collision and stops or slows the car. Lane Support Systems: a Lane Departure Systems warns the driver of lane wander (often also linked to a blind spot warning system to detect vehicles in the blind spot) and a Lane Keep Assist system keeps the vehicle in lane by scanning the road markings. Driver Drowsiness Detection: detects driver behaviour typical of tiredness and warns all occupants. Secondary Collision Brake Assistance: tries to prevent or mitigate secondary impacts following a collision when the vehicle may still be in motion but the occupants unconscious. Pre-Crash Systems: detects driver collision avoidance actions and prepares the vehicle s systems for an impact, for example by tensioning seat belts pulling passengers back into seats. Adaptive Forward Lighting (AFL): one set of lights look around the corner while additional lights will come on in tight urban manoeuvres. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC): adjusts the vehicle s speed to match the traffic in front and maintain a safe distance without driver intervention. Vulnerable Road User Protection: Includes blind spot detection (BSD) and pedestrian and cyclist detection with emergency braking (PACD+EBR). All new cars must meet minimum construction standards but the actual behaviour of a car in a collision is dependent on how well those mandatory standards have been integrated. The March 2017 C10

82 European New Car Assessment Programme (NCAP) was introduced in 1996 and has been independently testing cars to assess how well they perform in collisions designed to represent the more frequent real-world events: head-on, side impact, pole impact and rear impact. Since February 2009 all new Euro NCAP test results have been reported as a single overall rating that covers Adult Occupant Protection, Child Occupant Protection, Pedestrian Protection and Safety Assist technology. The post-2009 assessment added Rear Impact (Whiplash) tests as well as separately considering all safety technology on the car as standard. From 2016 two ratings may be given by NCAP for new cars; one with the standard equipment and one with all safety options fitted. Figure 4-5 shows the NCAP safety profile of the Scottish national car club fleet; it assumes a standard safety specification. Where a vehicle has achieved a rating since 2009 it is indicated with a + sign; e.g. 5+ Star. In 2015/16 96% of the Scottish car club fleet met the NCAP 5+ Star or 4+ Star standards. Figure 4-5: Safety Profile (NCAP rating) of the Scottish national car club fleet The 3+ Star vehicles in Club 04 were four 2013 Toyota Aygo models, a Nissan e-nv200 Combi and a Peugeot Teepee. March 2017 C11

83 Carbon Emission Profile - Vans There is no carbon banding scheme in place for vans and the car banding scheme is not applicable as it does not reflect the wide range in size and load carrying capability of vans. Published carbon emission data (g/km) is available for most vans registered since 2009 but was not obligatory until During 2015/16 there were 20 vans available to car club members in Scotland as shown in Table 4-9. Table 4-9: Scottish car club van fleet Model Fuel Quantity Fiat Doblo Cargo Diesel 2 Peugeot Expert HDI Diesel 2 Toyota Proace HDI Diesel 2 Ford Transit Custom 290 Diesel 7 Nissan e-nv200 E Accenta Electric 4 Renault Kangoo Maxi ZE Electric 3 There has been no change in the size of the van fleet since 2014/15. Air Quality - Vans In 2015/16 all 13 diesel car club vans on fleet at the end of the October 2016 met the recently superseded Euro 5 air quality emission standard and would not comply with the Euro 6 standard thought likely to be required for access to a Clean Air Zone. From the 1 st September 2016 all newly registered vans have been required meet the Euro 6 emission standard. The seven electric vans on the fleet are all zero emission at the point of use and would have free access to a clean air zone. Manufacturers are not obliged to publish air quality emissions data (NO X and PM 10 ) for vans and with no vehicle specific data no further analysis of van emissions can be carried out. March 2017 C12

84 Community Car Clubs Four Scottish community car clubs provided data about their fleets including two operated under a franchise; this is down from seven reporting last year and eleven the year before that. The four clubs made 16 vehicles available to their members at the end of October 2016 and 14 (87.5%) were in carbon emission Bands A, B and C. Three of the Band A vehicles were zero emission electric cars (a Nissan Leaf and two Renault Zoe) and there were also five petrolelectric hybrid cars on the fleet. Table 4-10 Vehicle Excise Duty emission band profile Scottish community clubs CO 2 Emission Band (gco 2 /km) Number % Band A <= % Band B % Band C % Band D % Band E % Band F Band G Band H Band I Band J Band K Band L Band M 256+ No data available Total 16 Figure 4-6 Comparison of Scottish community car clubs VED band profile The majority of the fleet is in Bands A and C. The two higher emission vehicles are older (2010/11) 5+2 seat MPV vehicles. Table 4-11 Average carbon emissions of Scottish community car clubs (g/km) Scottish Community Car Clubs No Data UK Car Fleet No data March 2017 C13

85 The average Scottish community car club car has emissions 47% below the UK average car and the fleet average has fallen significantly from 2013 when there were no electric vehicles (EVs) on the fleet. Community Cars Fuel Profile Figure 4-7: Scottish community car club fuel type The community car club fleet has changed significantly from 2014/15 when there was a higher proportion of diesel vehicles than in the UK fleet; however, this may due to the reduction in the number of community clubs submitting data. Community Cars Air Quality Figure 4-8 Euro emission profile of the Scottish community car club fleet There are no Euro 6 vehicles on this fleet but this should not be a matter of great concern as the fleets are based in rural areas without significant air quality problems. The lack of Euro 6 diesels is highlighted by the high NO X and PM 10 emission of Club 12 vehicles shown in Table March 2017 C14

86 Table 4-12: Fuel type and air quality emissions Car Club Diesel Petrol Electric Petrol Electric Hybrid Average NO X mg/km Maximum NO X mg/km Average PM 10 mg/km Maximum PM 10 mg/km All Clubs 31% 19% 19% 31% Club 06 0% 50% 0% 50% Club 12 67% 0% 33% 0% Club 26 33% 11% 22% 33% Club 27 0% 50% 0% 50% Clean Air Zone Compliance Figure 4-9 Scottish community car club fleet compliance with anticipated Clean Air Zone standards Most of the fleet is Clean Air Zone compliant and there are still several years before this may become an issue for members wishing to use a car to enter a CAZ in one of Scotland s cities, although there are plans to introduce Scotland s first Low Emission Zone in Community Cars - Mileage & Carbon Emissions The carbon emissions of the community fleets were determined using the same methodology as the national fleets. Table 4-13: Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 e) emissions of the Scottish community car club fleet Mileage Annual kg CO 2 e (Age Related Uplift) All Clubs 123,599 21,512 UK Average 37,186 Saving 15,674 Driving the same mileage, the average UK car ( g/km) would have produced 37 tonnes of carbon dioxide, so the Scottish Community Car Club fleet saved an estimated 15.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide in 2015/16, a reduction of 42%. March 2017 C15

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