Small Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility

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1 Small Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility Günther Brauner Hybrid and electric vehicles, energy storage technologies and control systems National and international R&D-projects, research institutions and funding programs Vienna, October 21 st 2008 in cooperation with and

2 Electrical mobility with small cars Mega cities of the future Specific energy demand for mobility Short distance in suburban areas Long distance Sustainable mobility Development of charging stations Short distance e-car Long distance e-car 2

3 Development of world settlement structure Population in Millions urban rural

4 Mega Cities Tokyo-Yokohama Mexiko-Stadt New York Seoul Bombay Sao Paulo Inhabitants in Mio Manila Jakarta Delhi Los Angeles Shangai Kairo Kalkutta Moskau London Paris Berlin Wien

5 Population Density Tokyo-Yokohama Mexiko-Stadt New York Seoul Bombay Sao Paulo Manila Population density persons/km2 Jakarta Delhi Los Angeles Shangai Kairo Kalkutta Moskau London Paris Berlin Wien

6 Los Angeles down Rethinking town Propulsion. 6

7 7

8 title of the slide Long distance traffic center suburb Urban short distance traffic 8

9 Mobility of the future Center of mega cities Walking Subway, tram, bus Small electrical car (permission) Suburb of mega cities Small electrical or conventional car Bus Inter-area traffic Conventional or hybrid car Electrical car (battery exchange, rapid charging) Fast train 9

10 Mobility Change in Austria 1971 to ,0% 70,0% 60,0% 50,0% 40,0% 30,0% 20,0% 10,0% 0,0% walking bicycle car, motorbike train tram, subway bus 10

11 title of the slide E-Motor: 30 kw Consumption: 12 kwh/100 km Max. speed: 112 km/h Reach: 115 km Battery: ZEBRA (NaCl + Ni) Charging time: 3,5 h (30 to 80 %) Full loading: 8 h (15,5 kwh) Consumption: 10 kwh/100 km Max. speed: 160 km/h Reach: 160 km Battery: Li Ion Source: TU Wien, Leitinger 11

12 km / year motor Energy density Fuel per100km kwh / 100 km Relation kwh/km CO 2 emissions Relation CO kw gasoline 8,9 kwh / liter 4,7 liter 42 3, kg / a kw electrical 12 kwh 12 1,0 20 kg / a hydro power 540 kg / a European mix Source: TU Wien Leitinger 12

13 Small electrical car Distance home to work km in Austria Energy demand for mobility: 4 kwh/d (35 km) Typical electricity demand of household kwh/a or 9,5 11 kwh/d Electrical mobility represents % of demand Two electrical cars per household will double private electrical demand Two electrical cars will save 20 kwh/d (gasoline) 13

14 Sustainable energy supply of e-mobility Hydropower Wind energy Photovoltaic Bio-electricity 14

15 Wind energy Wind converter 2 MW, h/a Annual energy supply of about small electrical cars Storage necessary (pumped hydro storage plant) Austrian wind parks 1000 MW for 1 Mio. Cars Austrian wind potential 3000 MW 15

16 Solar energy for mobility E-car demand 4 kwh/d on 300 d/a: 1200 kwh/a PV-collector Eta 12 % Solar radiation 800 W/m h/a Equivalent to 86 kwh/m 2 /a Solar collector size of per car (annual demand): 15 m 2 Solar collector size for 1h charging capability: 4 m 2 Investment about 7000 Euro per car Pumped storage hydro plants necessary 16

17 Electricity Demand for Mobility in Austria e-car: 12 kwh/100 km, km/a, 100% penetration: 500 cars per 1000 inhabitants 100 % penetration: 4 Mio. e-cars, 4.8 TWh/a = 8 % of Austrian demand E-Mobility Annual Demand in MWh % 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% E-Mobil Penetration 17

18 Charging Stations today 2800 filling stations in AT charging time 5 min., total stay at filling station 10 min. number ofl e-charging connetions per charging station % 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% e-car penetration, 5 min. charging time 18

19 Charging Stations today 2800 filling stations in AT charging time 55 min., total stay at filling station 60 min. number of e-charging connections per charging station 50,00 40,00 30,00 20,00 10,00 0,00 5% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% e-carl penetration, 60 min. charging time 19

20 Conclusion Small electrical vehicles are necessary especially for suburban traffic Sustainable traffic possible (8% of e-demand) Small electrical car technical mature Long distance traffic needs development of new batteries with short charging times Long distance car in the mid term CNG from biomass or fossil sources hydrogen (from offshore wind) 20

21 contact Prof. Dr. Günther Brauner TU Wien, Institute for Energy Systems address: Institute for Energy Systems Gusshausstrasse 25/373 A-1040 Wien tel: fax: web:

22 thank you for your attention!!!!! 22

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