ANALYZING POWER LOSSES AND THEIR EFFECTS IN COMPLEX POWER SYSTEMS

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ANALYZING POWER LOSSES AND THEIR EFFECTS IN COMPLEX POWER SYSTEMS"

Transcription

1 ANALYZING OWR LOSSS AND THIR FFCTS IN COMLX OWR SYSTMS S. Stoll, U. Konigorski Institute of lectrical Information Technology, Clausthal University of Technology, Leibnizstr. 28, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany hone: / , Fax: -3197; ABSTRACT The key prerequisite for improving system performance is understanding operating characteristics including losses. Therefore, a method has been developed that is especially designed to analyze the performance of power systems. The focus is on the system s power flows power sources and sinks that connect to the environment and power conversion mechanisms for power transfer between different system parts. Included in the analysis are power loss mechanisms that are required for prediction of system efficiency and power storage that compensates for temporary imbalance. The performance data from an operating V/Hybrid ower System is used to introduce the analysis method. The straightforward analysis allows visualization of power flows and power losses and the results match closely with actual performance. With a performance-certified model, different scenarios of configuration or operation changes can be analyzed. INTRODUCTION The authors are active in modelling, analyzing and controlling power systems for renewable energy and automotive applications. In their work, they have discovered that no suitable analysis tools are available to qualify the performance results of different operation strategies in regard to system efficiency. Therefore, a modelling approach for power systems has been developed to fill this gap. Results show that the developed method can provide accurate performance predictions as well as serve as a test bed for evaluating operational scenarios. The approach is described here. TH MODLLING AROACH ower systems can be described by few principal functions if the focus lies on the analysis of the system performance. Modules, here referred to as ower Cells, may be combined to represent even complex systems containing various types of power. In the system model, a power cell represents the mechanisms related to one form of power like electric DC power or thermal power. In figure 1, a power cell is shown with the focus on the external interfaces, while the internal mechanisms are only indicated. In figure 2, the internal mechanisms are represented in more detail. The entire system is represented by a combination of power cells that are connected to each other by the power transfer lines that go in vertical direction. They are arbitrarily defined as in (top) and out (bottom) and may be uni- or bidirectional. The power transfer mechanisms on the left side represent

2 in L out Figure 1: A ower Cell the power flow across the borders of the entire system s boundary. The transfer to the outside are loads, and the transfer from the outside are power generators. To the right, the power losses L that occur inside the power cell are shown (the internal connections are left out in the power cell to avoid confusion). These losses may be power flows to the system s outside (thus similar to a load) or they may affect other system parts. To the right also, the energy level as a measure of the stored power is shown. In contrast to the other connectors, it does not interact with other parts but serves as an important indicator of the inside system state. in age L stor L load L L gen eration ersion L conv out Figure 2: A ower Cell Details ach power cell contains the principal processes including the loss mechanisms related to one form of power (fig. 2). The and eration blocks represent the functions how the power is finally transferred to and from the outside. The power flow between power cells is controlled by the ersion which could be represented in either of the connected power cells. Often, the conversion is clearly associated with one form of power while otherwise the choice is arbitrary. The sum of the powers (the circle) can be considered a bus where all power flows from individual power cell come together. In case of an imbalance of in- and outgoing powers, the difference is stored / retrieved from age. The energy level shows the amount of stored power that potentially can be taken out. ach component may represent one or several different devices and in case the function is not used in a particular system, it may be left out. MODL OF A V/HYBRID OWR SYSTM The SunWize 1200-Watt V Hybrid System (SW1200) located at the research facility of the Southwest Technology Development Institute in New Mexico, USA had been analyzed and tested for several years

3 [2]. Collected performance data from October are used for demonstration of the proposed method. The V Hybrid System The SW1200 is a compact, skid-mounted, stand-alone electrical power supply that consists of a Siemens 1200W V array, an AT power center with charge controller, a Trojan 25 kwh battery bank (1042 Ah at 24 V), a Trace ngineering 4 kw bi-directional sine-wave Inverter and a Kohler 6.3 kw propanefueled generator. Controllable resistive ac loads are used to impose different load profiles. erally, it is loaded with about 6 kwh per day to represent a small residential application in the USA. Typically, the annual load is met with about 70% of the energy from solar and about 30% from the generator. The energy management system is designed to operate the V/hybrid system as an efficient uninterruptible power supply. The goals are to maximize use of photovoltaic energy, minimize backup generator run-time, and maintain battery SOC within a range that will produce maximum battery life. Advanced energy management strategies are currently under design [1] using the presented method for evaluation. The SW1200 Model The model of the SW1200 is shown in figure 3. The system itself consists of the DC and AC subsystems. A fictitious air-conditioning system is used as an example for detailed load modelling. Cool House L Aircon Aircon L L rec L inv L AC Inv AC Bat L bat Bat V L V L DC Figure 3: Model of the SW1200 DC Figure 4: Graphic Representation of ower Flows in the SW1200 The DC power cell consists of the V generator and the battery storage. The V system is modelled as a constant factor that is related to the V array efficiency. Then, the generated V power is the incoming irradiation power times this factor. The battery is an integrator of the incoming / outgoing power with conversion losses caused by the internal resistance in the form: const 2 and gassing near 1 The data from October 1997 have been selected because only very few hours of data are missing. Using data of other months give comparable results

4 full state of charge in the form e const ( n) when charging given the nominal battery size n and the actual amount of stored power (SOC) 2. The AC power cell consists of the inverter (conversion), the backup generator (here referred to as generator), and the AC loads. The AC part does not have its own storage (at least no significant one). Therefore, the inverter balances the power by transferring power to the DC cell and using the battery as storage. The inverter as an interface between AC and DC could be included in either power cell, AC is chosen arbitrarily. The inverter is described by a 50W constant loss and an 87% inverting / rectifying efficiency in any operation point. During generator operation, the fuel use is arbitrarily considered to be a linear function between 1 fuel unit when idling and 2 fuel units at rated power. The operation strategy is not regarded in this model. The AC load block represents the AC loads with one exception, the fictitious air- conditioning system, which is regarded separately for demonstration. The air-conditioning system is modelled structurally. It contains a converter that converts AC power to cooling power, thus it is the air-conditioner itself. The storage is the cooling storage capacity of the object that is to be cooled (e.g. a house) and the load is the transfer of the cooling power through the isolation, openings, etc. which means the mechanisms that heat up the system. RFORMANC ANALYSIS 3 A visual summary of the power flows and power losses over one month of operation (10/1997) is shown in figure 4. The air-conditioning system is excluded as the analysis has been done without it. In the figure, the principal power flows are shown that take place inside the system where the thickness of the lines represents the relative amount of power flowing. The monthly total of the AC load is 195kWh which is supplied by the V system (198kWh) and the backup generator (80kWh). The system efficiency may be calculated as 71% (the differences in the battery SOC in the beginning and in the end of the month are accounted for). It can be seen, that the generator power is in part directly consumed without losses - shown by a direct (thin) arrow. If the generator power is not directly consumed, it is converted / rectified to DC power which includes losses from rectification L rec. On the DC side, the power is stored in the battery where losses L bat occur. At another point in time, the power is taken out and inverted (with inverter losses L inv ) before supplying the load. Thus the operating sequence recharging the battery with the backup generator includes three consecutive procedures with losses. The direct load supply by V includes inverting losses (direct path to the load) or if the supply is indirect, battery losses occur additionally. What special information is provided using this method? The simulation shows that more than 80% of the system losses resulted through inverter operation while battery losses have been comparatively small. About half of these losses are caused by the 50W permanent loss that can hardly be avoided while an improved operation strategy may reduce the other losses. An analysis of generator operation options shows that increased system efficiency does not automatically mean increased fuel efficiency..g. a direct load supply by the generator when the battery is fully charged results in low losses in the electric system while the generator may only be partially loaded and thus inefficient. 2 The models represent just the principal functionality and a more detailed analysis (as is generally done) could be provided for performance predictions. For this purpose, though, the models proved sufficiently accurate simulated and measured values stayed within measurement tolerance. 3 Details of the analysis will be published soon.

5 The route of power flows and losses can be visualized. This may be useful especially in more complex systems to help detect inefficiencies. The amount of stored power given as energy levels is known for analysis. This way, system efficiency can be calculated more accurately accounting for the different energy levels. In this case, the difference of the battery SOC between the beginning and the end of the regarded time period is known and can be considered when calculating efficiencies. By calculation and visualization of scenarios, behaviour on hardware or operation changes may be predicted with a good accuracy. Scenarios As example, several possible scenarios of power flow to supply a 100Wh load (one hour operation of a 100W light bulb) are shown in addition to normal operation. Of course, during normal operation the scenarios will not occur as distinct as may be suggested but with their knowledge, e.g. preferable options may be extracted for performance enhancement. For simplified comparison, all losses are considered to be 20% of the power going through in the cases shown in below example scenarios. The visualization can be done in a very similar way as shown for the performance analysis (fig. 4). The backup generator supplies the load directly so that no losses take place (direct connection between and ). The backup generator provides the power indirectly so that the generator power is rectified (20% loss), stored in the battery (20% loss) and inverted (20% loss) before reaching the load. As result, the generator has to produce 195Wh. Ideally, V power is used directly for the load supply which results in only 20% losses (by inverting) or a necessary production of 125W. A worst-case scenario for the operation of the light bulb may be as follows: First, the backup generator provides the load with the power temporarily stored in the battery (195Wh). In addition, the light bulb is considered to be 20% efficient which means 80Wh power losses by heat. If the house is cooled by an air-conditioning system, this heat energy may have to be dissipated, as well. Then, the generator needs to supply additional 80Wh plus losses which would result to 195Wh. So, 390Wh electric power have to be produced just to receive 20W light. CONCLUSION A method for the performance analysis of power systems is presented in this paper. This modular approach focuses on power flows and losses as well as the storage of power inside the system. The method is introduced using a V/Hybrid system for which very detailed analysis data are available. Results of a performance analysis using this method indicate its strengths compared to the classic approach. In addition, the method allows to study and visualize scenarios when changes in hardware or operation take place. While the results may seem rather obvious for the example system, the method allows good insight when dealing with more complex systems. RFRNCS 1. Wiles, J.; Stoll, S. Final Test Report...: Sunwize nergy Corporation 1200 Watt Hybrid ower System. SWTDI, Las Cruces, NM, USA, Stoll, S.; Konigorski, U.; Wiles, J.; Risser, V. Rapid-rototyping Methods for the design of nergy Management Strategies 17th uropean V Solar nergy Conference, WI, München 2001

Power Management Solution: Constant Voltage (CV) Pulse Charging of Hybrid Capacitors

Power Management Solution: Constant Voltage (CV) Pulse Charging of Hybrid Capacitors VISHAY BCCOMPONENTS www.vishay.com Aluminum Capacitors By Gerald Tatschl ENYCAP TM 196 HVC SERIES GENERAL INFORMATION In order to fully utilize the performance of ENYCAP 196 HVC capacitors, a reliable

More information

Design of Active and Reactive Power Control of Grid Tied Photovoltaics

Design of Active and Reactive Power Control of Grid Tied Photovoltaics IJCTA, 9(39), 2016, pp. 187-195 International Science Press Closed Loop Control of Soft Switched Forward Converter Using Intelligent Controller 187 Design of Active and Reactive Power Control of Grid Tied

More information

InterSolar Solar Hybrid Mini-grids for Telecom and Village power supply. Elwin Veenendaal Managing Director elgris

InterSolar Solar Hybrid Mini-grids for Telecom and Village power supply.  Elwin Veenendaal Managing Director elgris InterSolar 2011 Solar Hybrid Mini-grids for Telecom and Village power supply Elwin Veenendaal Managing Director elgris Agenda Introduction elgris What is a (mini)-grid Product range Telecom solutions Village

More information

AEC PHOTOVOLTAIC TEST FACILITY FIRST YEAR TEST DATA

AEC PHOTOVOLTAIC TEST FACILITY FIRST YEAR TEST DATA AEC PHOTOVOLTAIC TEST FACILITY FIRST YEAR TEST DATA James Krumsick Alternative Energy Consortium 100 West 13 th Eugene, OR 97405 e-mail: jpkrumsick@aol.com Frank Vignola Rich Kessler University of Oregon

More information

OPTIMIZATION OF SOLAR-WIND-DIESEL HYBRID POWER SYSTEM DESIGN USING HOMER. I. A. Wibowo *, and D.Sebayang

OPTIMIZATION OF SOLAR-WIND-DIESEL HYBRID POWER SYSTEM DESIGN USING HOMER. I. A. Wibowo *, and D.Sebayang OPTIMIZATION OF SOLAR-WIND-DIESEL HYBRID POWER SYSTEM DESIGN USING HOMER I. A. Wibowo *, and D.Sebayang Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mercu Buana University Indonesia Abstract

More information

International Journal of Advance Research in Engineering, Science & Technology

International Journal of Advance Research in Engineering, Science & Technology Impact Factor (SJIF): 4.54 International Journal of Advance Research in ngineering, Science & Technology e-issn: 393-9877, p-issn: 394-444 Volume 4, Issue 4, April-17 ltracapacitor selection and design

More information

A Study of Suitable Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter Topology Essential For Battery Charge Regulation In Photovoltaic Applications

A Study of Suitable Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter Topology Essential For Battery Charge Regulation In Photovoltaic Applications IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE) e-issn: 2278-1676,p-ISSN: 2320-3331, Volume 11, Issue 2 Ver. I (Mar. Apr. 2016), PP 92-96 www.iosrjournals.org A Study of Suitable Bi-Directional

More information

Power Management Solution: Constant Voltage (CV) Pulse Charging of Hybrid Capacitors

Power Management Solution: Constant Voltage (CV) Pulse Charging of Hybrid Capacitors VISHAY BCCOMPONENTS www.vishay.com Aluminum Capacitors By Gerald Tatschl ENYCAP TM 196 HVC SERIES GENERAL INFORMATION Rechargeable energy storage solutions are of high interest because of their flexibility,

More information

Simulation Analysis of Closed Loop Dual Inductor Current-Fed Push-Pull Converter by using Soft Switching

Simulation Analysis of Closed Loop Dual Inductor Current-Fed Push-Pull Converter by using Soft Switching Journal for Research Volume 02 Issue 04 June 2016 ISSN: 2395-7549 Simulation Analysis of Closed Loop Dual Inductor Current-Fed Push-Pull Converter by using Soft Switching Ms. Manasa M P PG Scholar Department

More information

Development of SPORT HYBRID i-mmd Control System for 2014 Model Year Accord

Development of SPORT HYBRID i-mmd Control System for 2014 Model Year Accord Introduction of new Development technologies of SPORT HYBRID i-mmd Control System for 2014 Model Year Accord Development of SPORT HYBRID i-mmd Control System for 2014 Model Year Accord Hirohito IDE* Yoshihiro

More information

Small Scale-Wind Power Dispatchable Energy Source Modeling

Small Scale-Wind Power Dispatchable Energy Source Modeling Small Scale-Wind Power Dispatchable Energy Source Modeling Jordan Cannon, David Moore, Stephen Eason, Adel El Shahat Department of Electrical Engineering, Georgia Southern University, USA Abstract Due

More information

1. RENEWABLE ENERGY I.SOLAR ENERGY PROJECT TITLES WE CAN ALSO IMPLEMENT YOUR OWN CONCEPT/IDEA

1. RENEWABLE ENERGY I.SOLAR ENERGY PROJECT TITLES WE CAN ALSO IMPLEMENT YOUR OWN CONCEPT/IDEA 1. RENEWABLE ENERGY I.SOLAR ENERGY S.NO PROJECT CODE PROJECT TITLES YEAR 1 ITPW01 Highly efficient asymmetrical pwm full-bridge renewable energy sources converter for 2 ITPW02 A Three Phase Hybrid Cascaded

More information

DESIGN OF HIGH ENERGY LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGER

DESIGN OF HIGH ENERGY LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGER Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC 2004) 26-29 September 2004, Brisbane, Australia DESIGN OF HIGH ENERGY LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGER M.F.M. Elias*, A.K. Arof**, K.M. Nor* *Department

More information

Generator Efficiency Optimization at Remote Sites

Generator Efficiency Optimization at Remote Sites Generator Efficiency Optimization at Remote Sites Alex Creviston Chief Engineer, April 10, 2015 Generator Efficiency Optimization at Remote Sites Summary Remote generation is used extensively to power

More information

12-Batteries and Inverters. ECEGR 452 Renewable Energy Systems

12-Batteries and Inverters. ECEGR 452 Renewable Energy Systems 12-Batteries and Inverters ECEGR 452 Renewable Energy Systems Overview Batteries Lead-Acid Batteries Battery Specifications Battery Charge Controllers Inverters Dr. Louie 2 Batteries Incorporation of a

More information

Xcel Energy Guidelines for Interconnection of Electric Energy Storage with the Electric Power Distribution System

Xcel Energy Guidelines for Interconnection of Electric Energy Storage with the Electric Power Distribution System Xcel Energy Guidelines for Interconnection of Electric Energy Storage with the Electric Power Distribution System Adopted Based on State and Tariff Interconnection Rules Applicable to Northern States Power,

More information

Reference: Photovoltaic Systems, p References: Photovoltaic Systems, Chap. 7 National Electrical Code (NEC), Articles 110,

Reference: Photovoltaic Systems, p References: Photovoltaic Systems, Chap. 7 National Electrical Code (NEC), Articles 110, Charge controllers are required in most PV systems using a battery to protect against battery overcharging and overdischarging. There are different types of charge controller design, and their specifications

More information

Solardyne Corporation Renewable Home Power Design Guide Call

Solardyne Corporation Renewable Home Power Design Guide Call Solardyne Corporation Renewable Home Power Design Guide Call 503-830-8739 Solardyne Corporation Renewable Home Power Design Guide Call 503-830-8739 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS DESIGN OVERVIEW 2 STEP 1 - YOUR LOAD

More information

An Improved Powertrain Topology for Fuel Cell-Battery-Ultracapacitor Vehicles

An Improved Powertrain Topology for Fuel Cell-Battery-Ultracapacitor Vehicles An Improved Powertrain Topology for Fuel Cell-Battery-Ultracapacitor Vehicles J. Bauman, Student Member, IEEE, M. Kazerani, Senior Member, IEEE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University

More information

LEADING BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE SOLUTIONS AVAILABLE FROM FREEDOM WON (DATA SHEETS AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST) Freedom Lite Home & Business

LEADING BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE SOLUTIONS AVAILABLE FROM FREEDOM WON (DATA SHEETS AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST) Freedom Lite Home & Business Freedom Lite LEADING BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE SOLUTIONS AVAILABLE FROM FREEDOM WON (DATA SHEETS AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST) Freedom Lite & Business Residential and Small to Medium Businesses Lithium storage

More information

Research on PV and battery control system with energy management technology in stand-alone DC micro grid

Research on PV and battery control system with energy management technology in stand-alone DC micro grid International Industrial Informatics and Computer Engineering Conference (IIICEC 25) Research on PV and battery control system with energy management technology in stand-alone DC micro grid Chunxue Wen,a,

More information

Forecast the charging power demand for an electric vehicle. Dr. Wilson Maluenda, FH Vorarlberg; Philipp Österle, Illwerke VKW;

Forecast the charging power demand for an electric vehicle. Dr. Wilson Maluenda, FH Vorarlberg; Philipp Österle, Illwerke VKW; Forecast the charging power demand for an electric vehicle Dr. Wilson Maluenda, FH Vorarlberg; Philipp Österle, Illwerke VKW; Vienna, Bregenz; Austria 11.03.2015 Content Abstract... 1 Motivation... 2 Challenges...

More information

High Effective Availability Decentralized UPS HEAD-UPS (c) 3.0 High Effective Availability Decentralized UPS-HEAD-UPS(c)

High Effective Availability Decentralized UPS HEAD-UPS (c) 3.0 High Effective Availability Decentralized UPS-HEAD-UPS(c) High Effective Availability Decentralized UPS HEAD-UPS (c) Contents: Executive Summary 1.0 Introduction 2.0 UPS and Batteries 3.0 High Effective Availability Decentralized UPS-HEAD-UPS(c) 4.0 Availability

More information

Modelling of a Smart Grid system in EcosimPro

Modelling of a Smart Grid system in EcosimPro Modelling of a Smart Grid system in EcosimPro Víctor Pordomingo López (email: vpo@empre.es) Empresarios Agrupados Internacional. S.A. Magallanes, 3. 28015 Madrid. Spain. (www.ecosimpro.com) 1. Introduction

More information

Development of Engine Clutch Control for Parallel Hybrid

Development of Engine Clutch Control for Parallel Hybrid EVS27 Barcelona, Spain, November 17-20, 2013 Development of Engine Clutch Control for Parallel Hybrid Vehicles Joonyoung Park 1 1 Hyundai Motor Company, 772-1, Jangduk, Hwaseong, Gyeonggi, 445-706, Korea,

More information

Senior Project Off Grid Solar Array. Courtney Elliott Winter 2017

Senior Project Off Grid Solar Array. Courtney Elliott Winter 2017 1 Senior Project Off Grid Solar Array Courtney Elliott Winter 2017 2 Table of Contents: Table of Contents.2 Introduction...3 Project Goals...4 Design...5-6 Schematic...7 Market Requirements...7 Bill of

More information

Technical Series, Edition 16

Technical Series, Edition 16 Totally Integrated Power Technical Series, Edition 16 Transformer Selection according to Utilisation Profiles siemens.com/tip-cs 1. Regulations concerning efficiency requirements of dry-type transformers

More information

Expect More From An Energy Storage Solution BATTERY FREE DC ENERGY STORAGE FOR UPS BILL WOLFE NORTHEAST REGIONAL MANAGER

Expect More From An Energy Storage Solution BATTERY FREE DC ENERGY STORAGE FOR UPS BILL WOLFE NORTHEAST REGIONAL MANAGER Expect More From An Energy Storage Solution BATTERY FREE DC ENERGY STORAGE FOR UPS BILL WOLFE NORTHEAST REGIONAL MANAGER DC Energy Storage - ReGen Energy Re-cycle Markets / Applications Energy Re-cycling

More information

Implementation of low inductive strip line concept for symmetric switching in a new high power module

Implementation of low inductive strip line concept for symmetric switching in a new high power module Implementation of low inductive strip line concept for symmetric switching in a new high power module Georg Borghoff, Infineon Technologies AG, Germany Abstract The low inductive strip line concept offers

More information

DC Microgrids and Distribution Systems for Residences

DC Microgrids and Distribution Systems for Residences Microgrids and Distribution Systems for Residences Toshifumi ISE, Hiroaki KAKIGANO (Osaka University, JAPAN) Outline of the Presentation 1. Introduction 2. System Configuration and Control Scheme 3. System

More information

DER Portfolio Optimization and Dispatch, Tertiary Control/Monitoring Strategies

DER Portfolio Optimization and Dispatch, Tertiary Control/Monitoring Strategies DER Portfolio Optimization and Dispatch, Tertiary Control/Monitoring Strategies Maggie Clout Siemens Energy Management Digital Grid Siemens AG 2016 Three Pillars of a Microgrid System Mixed Generation

More information

elektronik Designing vehicle power nets A single simulation tool from initial requirements to series production

elektronik Designing vehicle power nets A single simulation tool from initial requirements to series production www.atzonline.de elektronik 04 April 2013 Volume 8 Offprint from ATZelektronik 4/2013 Springer Automotive Media Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH for Bosch Engineering Designing vehicle power nets A single

More information

DYNA4 Open Simulation Framework with Flexible Support for Your Work Processes and Modular Simulation Model Library

DYNA4 Open Simulation Framework with Flexible Support for Your Work Processes and Modular Simulation Model Library Open Simulation Framework with Flexible Support for Your Work Processes and Modular Simulation Model Library DYNA4 Concept DYNA4 is an open and modular simulation framework for efficient working with simulation

More information

Off Grid Residential Package 1.0KW

Off Grid Residential Package 1.0KW Off Grid Residential Package 1.0KW List Price: $12,876.63 Our Price: $11,545.59 Save: $1,331.04 (10%) Model: Off-Grid Res Pkg 1kW Our Code: KITOFFGRID-B This item is a package made up of the following

More information

HYBRID POWER FOR TELECOM SITES

HYBRID POWER FOR TELECOM SITES HYBRID POWER FOR TELECOM SITES ARE YOU MAKING THE MOST OF YOUR ENERGY TO REDUCE OPEX? Energy costs can amount to 55-65% of total operating expenditure for mobile operators, yet many lack the tools they

More information

NORDAC 2014 Topic and no NORDAC

NORDAC 2014 Topic and no NORDAC NORDAC 2014 Topic and no NORDAC 2014 http://www.nordac.net 8.1 Load Control System of an EV Charging Station Group Antti Rautiainen and Pertti Järventausta Tampere University of Technology Department of

More information

672W Off Grid Residential Package

672W Off Grid Residential Package 672W Off Grid Residential Package List Price:$9,578.71 Our Price: $8,523.43 Save: $1,055.28 Our Code: KITOFFGRID-A This item is a package made up of the following components. Please call to speak to a

More information

Exercise bike powered electric generator for fitness club appliances

Exercise bike powered electric generator for fitness club appliances Exercise bike powered electric generator for fitness club appliances R. Strzelecki 1, M. Jarnut 2,. Benysek 2 1 DYNIA MARITIME NIVERSITY, Department of Electrical Engineering Morska 81-87 street, 81-225

More information

User Manual. BMS123 Smart

User Manual. BMS123 Smart User Manual BMS123 Smart Introduction After the introduction of affordable LiFePO4 batteries, off-grid solutions became available for wide public. It is vital that such batteries are charged very carefully.

More information

Wayside Energy Storage System Modeling

Wayside Energy Storage System Modeling Wayside Energy Storage System Modeling Todd Hollett, P.Eng. Salwa Fouda, Ph.D. Bombardier Transportation Bombardier Transportation Kingston, Ontario Kingston, Ontario ABSTRACT Increasing environmental

More information

OPTIMORE - Optimised Modular Range Extender for every day customer usage AVL SCHRICK project summary

OPTIMORE - Optimised Modular Range Extender for every day customer usage AVL SCHRICK project summary AVL SCHRICK project summary GA05 / final meeting 18./19. September 2014 Gothenburg, Sweden AVL SCHRICK work packages and deliverables overview Work Package 5 Functional Safety (WP lead) D 5.1 - Item Definition

More information

HYBRID-PROCEDURES AND CHALLENGES FOR EMISSION MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS

HYBRID-PROCEDURES AND CHALLENGES FOR EMISSION MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS HYBRID-PROCEDURES AND CHALLENGES FOR EMISSION MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS K. Engeljehringer AVL List GmbH, Graz, Austria Prof. Dr. C. Beidl Technische Universität Darmstadt Dr. B. Lenzen Technische Universität

More information

End-To-End Cell Pack System Solution: Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery

End-To-End Cell Pack System Solution: Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery White Paper End-To-End Cell Pack System Solution: Industry has become more interested in developing optimal energy storage systems as a result of increasing gasoline prices and environmental concerns.

More information

Advanced Soft Switching for High Temperature Inverters

Advanced Soft Switching for High Temperature Inverters Advanced Soft Switching for High Temperature Inverters Plenary Presentation at The 5th IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC'9) Jih-Sheng (Jason) Lai, Professor Virginia Polytechnic Institute

More information

Comparing FEM Transfer Matrix Simulated Compressor Plenum Pressure Pulsations to Measured Pressure Pulsations and to CFD Results

Comparing FEM Transfer Matrix Simulated Compressor Plenum Pressure Pulsations to Measured Pressure Pulsations and to CFD Results Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Compressor Engineering Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2012 Comparing FEM Transfer Matrix Simulated Compressor Plenum Pressure Pulsations to Measured

More information

Design of Three Input Buck-Boost DC-DC Converter with Constant input voltage and Variable duty ratio using MATLAB/Simulink

Design of Three Input Buck-Boost DC-DC Converter with Constant input voltage and Variable duty ratio using MATLAB/Simulink Design of Three Input Buck-Boost DC-DC Converter with Constant input voltage and Variable duty ratio using MATLAB/Simulink A.Thiyagarajan, B.Gokulavasan Abstract Nowadays DC-DC converter is mostly used

More information

THE FKFS 0D/1D-SIMULATION. Concepts studies, engineering services and consulting

THE FKFS 0D/1D-SIMULATION. Concepts studies, engineering services and consulting THE FKFS 0D/1D-SIMULATION Concepts studies, engineering services and consulting r e s e a r c h i n m o t i o n. VEHICLE IN MOTION On the basis of constant engine speeds and loads, the combustion engine

More information

Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 129 (2015 ) International Conference on Industrial Engineering

Available online at  ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 129 (2015 ) International Conference on Industrial Engineering Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 129 (2015 ) 201 206 International Conference on Industrial Engineering Simulation of lithium battery operation under severe

More information

Columbia Water & Light Interconnection & Net Metering Agreement Electrical Facility

Columbia Water & Light Interconnection & Net Metering Agreement Electrical Facility Processed Date Columbia Water & Light Interconnection & Net Metering Agreement Electrical Facility Customer s Printed Name Installation Street Address Account Number Please note: Columbia Water & Light

More information

D2020N. Negative Ground 20A Max. Charge 20A Max. Load. Advanced Solar Charge Controller. DINGO User Guide. Read this before installing. Ver 1.

D2020N. Negative Ground 20A Max. Charge 20A Max. Load. Advanced Solar Charge Controller. DINGO User Guide. Read this before installing. Ver 1. D2020N Negative Ground 20A Max. Charge 20A Max. Load Advanced Solar Charge Controller DINGO User Guide Read this before installing Ver 1.5 031017 2 This is not an MPPT device: There is no voltage conversion.

More information

AVL SERIES BATTERY BENCHMARKING. Getting from low level parameter to target orientation

AVL SERIES BATTERY BENCHMARKING. Getting from low level parameter to target orientation 1 AVL SERIES BATTERY BENCHMARKING Getting from low level parameter to target orientation CONTENTS OVERVIEW 1. AVL Introduction 2. Focus Series Battery Benchmarking 3. Benchmarking process 4. Target comparability

More information

12V Li-Ion Batteries Ready for Mainstream Adoption. Christoph Fehrenbacher 1 February 2017

12V Li-Ion Batteries Ready for Mainstream Adoption. Christoph Fehrenbacher 1 February 2017 12V Li-Ion Batteries Ready for Mainstream Adoption Christoph Fehrenbacher 1 February 2017 Outline 12V Li-Ion Battery Characteristics Cold Cranking Crash Case Study Under Hood Package Case Study CO 2 Saving

More information

Using OutBack Inverters for 3-Phase 480V Applications

Using OutBack Inverters for 3-Phase 480V Applications Using OutBack Inverters for 3-Phase 480V Applications Introduction This application note will discuss how to adapt OutBack Power 230V single phase inverters for 60 Hz 480V three-phase applications using

More information

Battery Evaluation for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Battery Evaluation for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Battery Evaluation for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Mark S. Duvall Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Avenue Palo Alto, CA 9434 Abstract-This paper outlines the development of a battery

More information

Support for the revision of the CO 2 Regulation for light duty vehicles

Support for the revision of the CO 2 Regulation for light duty vehicles Support for the revision of the CO 2 Regulation for light duty vehicles and #3 for - No, Maarten Verbeek, Jordy Spreen ICCT-workshop, Brussels, April 27, 2012 Objectives of projects Assist European Commission

More information

Ms.P.Ranjani/AP. Ms.M.Lincy Luciana/AP. Neural network based method for non linear load harmonics. Mr.S.Vignesh/AP

Ms.P.Ranjani/AP. Ms.M.Lincy Luciana/AP. Neural network based method for non linear load harmonics. Mr.S.Vignesh/AP M.KUMARASAMY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KARUR DEPARTMENT OF EEE KNOWLEDGE SHARING SESSION SCHEDULE 2016-2017 S.NO DATE OF THE EVENT NAME OF THE STAFF & DESIGNATION TOPIC 1 6/1/2016 2 7/1/2016 3 20/01/2016

More information

Accurate and available today: a ready-made implementation of a battery management system for the new 48V automotive power bus

Accurate and available today: a ready-made implementation of a battery management system for the new 48V automotive power bus Accurate and available today: a ready-made implementation of a battery management system for the new 48V automotive power bus Gernot Hehn Today s personal vehicles have an electrical system operating from

More information

DP INNOVATION. A Novel Solution to Common Mode Failures in DP Class 2 Power Plant

DP INNOVATION. A Novel Solution to Common Mode Failures in DP Class 2 Power Plant DP INNOVATION A Novel Solution to Common Mode Failures in DP Class 2 Power Plant Dr. Steven Cargill Noble Denton Consultants, Ltd October 7-8, 2008 Return to Session Directory A Novel Solution to Common

More information

K. Surendhirababu *, D. Karthikeyan *, K. Vijayakumar *, K. Selvakumar * and R. Palanisamy *

K. Surendhirababu *, D. Karthikeyan *, K. Vijayakumar *, K. Selvakumar * and R. Palanisamy * I J C T A, 9(37) 2016, pp. 827-835 International Science Press Simulation and Implementation of Hybrid Solar Inverter using Synchronous Buck MPPT Charge Controller and Bidirectional Converter for Domestic

More information

Providing Energy Management of a Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fatma Keskin Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Ahmet Yigit Arabul, Ali Rifat Boynuegri

Providing Energy Management of a Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fatma Keskin Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Ahmet Yigit Arabul, Ali Rifat Boynuegri Vol:9, No:8, Providing Energy Management of a Fuel CellBattery Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fatma Keskin Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Ahmet Yigit Arabul, Ali Rifat Boynuegri International Science Index, Energy and

More information

4th European PV-Hybrid and Mini-Grid Conference, Glyfada, Greece, May 2008

4th European PV-Hybrid and Mini-Grid Conference, Glyfada, Greece, May 2008 Stability in Mini-Grids with Large PV Penetration under Weather Disturbances- Implementation to the power system of Kythnos Evangelos Rikos 1, Stathis Tselepis 1, Aristomenis Neris 2 1. Centre for Renewable

More information

Peak power shaving using Vanadium Redox Flow Battery for large scale grid connected Solar PV power system

Peak power shaving using Vanadium Redox Flow Battery for large scale grid connected Solar PV power system Peak power shaving using Vanadium Redox Flow Battery for large scale grid connected Solar PV power system Ankur Bhattacharjee*, Tathagata Sarkar, Hiranmay Saha Centre of Excellence for Green Energy and

More information

Network Powering Strategies and Alternatives

Network Powering Strategies and Alternatives Network Powering Strategies and Alternatives As new communications systems architectures are being introduced and as cable operators continue their thrust into telephony markets, reliable powering of networks

More information

Thermal Considerations: Assuring Performance of Vicors Maxi, Mini, Micro Series High-Density DC-DC Converter Modules

Thermal Considerations: Assuring Performance of Vicors Maxi, Mini, Micro Series High-Density DC-DC Converter Modules APPLICATION NOTE AN:106 Thermal Considerations: Assuring Performance of Vicors Maxi, Mini, Micro Series High-Density DC-DC Converter Modules By Jeff Ham Sr. Application Engineer As the modular DC-DC converter

More information

Modeling and Simulation of Multi-input Bi-directional Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Applications using MatLab/Simulink

Modeling and Simulation of Multi-input Bi-directional Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Applications using MatLab/Simulink Modeling and Simulation of Multi-input Bi-directional Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Applications using MatLab/Simulink Ramya. S Assistant Professor, ECE P.A. College of Engineering and Technology,

More information

MAXIMIZING THE POWER OF RENEWABLES

MAXIMIZING THE POWER OF RENEWABLES MAXIMIZING THE POWER OF RENEWABLES MAXIMIZE YOUR ENERGY HARVEST With Eltek Valere s power conversion equipment you can maximize your solar energy harvest. Whether you operate a large-scale plant, a commercial

More information

Intergrid: A Future Electronic Energy Network?

Intergrid: A Future Electronic Energy Network? Center for Power Electronics Systems The Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering College of Engineering Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA A part of Grid Technologies Collaborative

More information

Further Demonstration of the VRLA-type UltraBattery under Medium-HEV Duty and Development of the Flooded-type UltraBattery for Micro-HEV Applications

Further Demonstration of the VRLA-type UltraBattery under Medium-HEV Duty and Development of the Flooded-type UltraBattery for Micro-HEV Applications Further Demonstration of the VRLA-type UltraBattery under Medium-HEV Duty and Development of the Flooded-type UltraBattery for Micro-HEV Applications J. Furukawa, T. Takada, D. Monma The Furukawa Battery

More information

Electric Drive Vehicles: A Huge New Distributed Energy Resource. Alec Brooks. AC Propulsion, Inc. San Dimas, California.

Electric Drive Vehicles: A Huge New Distributed Energy Resource. Alec Brooks. AC Propulsion, Inc. San Dimas, California. Electric Drive Vehicles: A Huge New Distributed Energy Resource Alec Brooks AC Propulsion, Inc. San Dimas, California www.acpropulsion.com The Old and the New.. Old way of thinking: New way of thinking:

More information

Photovoltaic Solar Energy Modular Trainers

Photovoltaic Solar Energy Modular Trainers Photovoltaic Solar Energy Modular Trainers Technical Teaching Equipment Products Products range Units 5.-Energy MINI-EESF. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Modular Trainer (Complete) MINI-EESF/M. Photovoltaic

More information

INTELLIGENT ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE

INTELLIGENT ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE 7th International DAAAM Baltic Conference "INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING 22-24 April 2010, Tallinn, Estonia INTELLIGENT ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE Hiiemaa, M. & Tamre, M. Abstract: Operator

More information

High Efficiency Battery Charger using Power Components [1]

High Efficiency Battery Charger using Power Components [1] APPLICATION NOTE AN:101 High Efficiency Battery Charger using Power Components [1] Marco Panizza Senior Applications Engineer Contents Page Introduction 1 A Unique Converter Control Scheme 1 The UC3906

More information

Gay E. Canough. OFF-GRID Design. Dr. Gay E. Canough, Master trainer. Living Off the Grid

Gay E. Canough. OFF-GRID Design. Dr. Gay E. Canough, Master trainer. Living Off the Grid OFF-GRID Design Dr. Gay E. Canough, Master trainer 1 Understand the Customer s load 2 Load sizing Gay E. Canough AC Appliance watts amps how many of these? number of hours it is used per day equals watt-hr/

More information

The potential for local energy storage in distribution network Summary Report

The potential for local energy storage in distribution network Summary Report Study conducted in partnership with Power Circle, MälarEnergi, Kraftringen and InnoEnergy The potential for local energy storage in distribution network Summary Report 1 Major potential for local energy

More information

Development of Catenary and Batterypowered

Development of Catenary and Batterypowered Development of Catenary and powered hybrid railcar system Ichiro Masatsuki Environmental Engineering Research Laboratory, East Japan Railway Company Abstract-- JR East has been developing "Catenary and

More information

Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand *Corresponding author ABSTRACT

Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand *Corresponding author ABSTRACT International Journal of Renewable Energy, Vol. 2, No. 2, July 27 Performance Evaluation AC Solar Home Systems in Thailand: system using multi crystalline silicon PV module versus system using thin film

More information

Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC)

Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) Working paper No. MACTP-1-3 (Geneva, 8 June 21) Test procedure development Progress update 8-6-21 Contents Project overview Progress made so far Identification of major influential

More information

Electrical 48-V Main Coolant Pump to Reduce CO 2 Emissions

Electrical 48-V Main Coolant Pump to Reduce CO 2 Emissions DEVELOPMENT Cooling Electrical 48-V Main Coolant Pump to Reduce CO 2 Emissions Mahle has developed an electrical main coolant pump for the 48-V on-board net. It replaces the mechanical pump and offers

More information

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A SOLAR POWERED LAWN MOWER

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A SOLAR POWERED LAWN MOWER DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A SOLAR POWERED LAWN MOWER M. M. Rahman 1, Md. Naziur Rahman 2,* and Rifat Hasan 3 1-3 Department of Mechanical Engineering Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology,

More information

Sizing of Ultracapacitors and Batteries for a High Performance Electric Vehicle

Sizing of Ultracapacitors and Batteries for a High Performance Electric Vehicle 2012 IEEE International Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC) Sizing of Ultracapacitors and Batteries for a High Performance Electric Vehicle Wilmar Martinez, Member National University Bogota, Colombia whmartinezm@unal.edu.co

More information

Layout Analysis using Discrete Event Simulation: A Case Study

Layout Analysis using Discrete Event Simulation: A Case Study Proceedings of the 2010 Industrial Engineering Research Conference A. Johnson and J. Miller, eds. Layout Analysis using Discrete Event Simulation: A Case Study Abstract ID: 439 Robbie Holt, Lucas Simmons,

More information

Intelligent Power Management of Electric Vehicle with Li-Ion Battery Sheng Chen 1,a, Chih-Chen Chen 2,b

Intelligent Power Management of Electric Vehicle with Li-Ion Battery Sheng Chen 1,a, Chih-Chen Chen 2,b Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 300-301 (2013) pp 1558-1561 Online available since 2013/Feb/13 at www.scientific.net (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.300-301.1558

More information

Study on State of Charge Estimation of Batteries for Electric Vehicle

Study on State of Charge Estimation of Batteries for Electric Vehicle Study on State of Charge Estimation of Batteries for Electric Vehicle Haiying Wang 1,a, Shuangquan Liu 1,b, Shiwei Li 1,c and Gechen Li 2 1 Harbin University of Science and Technology, School of Automation,

More information

Ming Cheng, Bo Chen, Michigan Technological University

Ming Cheng, Bo Chen, Michigan Technological University THE MODEL INTEGRATION AND HARDWARE-IN-THE-LOOP (HIL) SIMULATION DESIGN FOR THE ANALYSIS OF A POWER-SPLIT HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE WITH ELECTROCHEMICAL BATTERY MODEL Ming Cheng, Bo Chen, Michigan Technological

More information

How To Set Up SimpliPhi Batteries Using OutBack Chargers

How To Set Up SimpliPhi Batteries Using OutBack Chargers Introduction How To Set Up SimpliPhi Batteries Using OutBack Chargers The main focus of this application note will be on setting up OutBack charging sources for best operational performance for SimpliPhi

More information

Technical Note. Management of Sealed Lead Acid Batteries in Reliable Small DC Standby Power Supply Systems

Technical Note. Management of Sealed Lead Acid Batteries in Reliable Small DC Standby Power Supply Systems Technical Note Management of Sealed Lead Acid Batteries in Reliable Small DC Standby Power Supply Systems Automation Products Introduction As more and more remote monitoring is installed on sites ranging

More information

APPLICATION OF BOOST INVERTER FOR GRID CONNECTED FUEL CELL BASED POWER GENERATION

APPLICATION OF BOOST INVERTER FOR GRID CONNECTED FUEL CELL BASED POWER GENERATION APPLICATION OF BOOST INVERTER FOR GRID CONNECTED FUEL CELL BASED POWER GENERATION P.Bhagyasri 1, N. Prasanth Babu 2 1 M.Tech Scholar (PS), Nalanda Institute of Engineering and Tech. (NIET), Kantepudi,

More information

Rate Impact of Net Metering. Jason Keyes & Joseph Wiedman Interstate Renewable Energy Council April 6, 2010

Rate Impact of Net Metering. Jason Keyes & Joseph Wiedman Interstate Renewable Energy Council April 6, 2010 Rate Impact of Net Metering Jason Keyes & Joseph Wiedman Interstate Renewable Energy Council April 6, 2010 1 Scope Impact of net metering on utility rates for customers without distributed generation Proposes

More information

Redflow Telco Application Whitepaper

Redflow Telco Application Whitepaper Redflow Telco Application Whitepaper RedFlow Telco Application Whitepaper 2015 1. Introduction This article reports about the successful demonstration of the RedFlow Zinc Bromine Module (ZBM) integrated

More information

BEYOND TEARDOWN - AVL SERIES BATTERY BENCHMARKING

BEYOND TEARDOWN - AVL SERIES BATTERY BENCHMARKING BEYOND TEARDOWN - AVL SERIES BATTERY BENCHMARKING Getting from low level parameter to target orientation Dr. Wenzel Prochazka AVL List GmbH (Headquarters) CONTENTS OVERVIEW 1. AVL Introduction Focus Series

More information

Energy Storage System for Home. High Efficiency - Peak efficiency 97.3% Bi-directional DC-DC converter

Energy Storage System for Home. High Efficiency - Peak efficiency 97.3% Bi-directional DC-DC converter Energy Storage System for Home Energy Self-Consumption - Daytime: Stored energy generated by Solar Panel. - Nighttime: Discharge stored energy for home use. Peak Hours Shaving - Reducing electricity consumption

More information

Design of Intelligent Charger for Electric Vehicles

Design of Intelligent Charger for Electric Vehicles Design of Intelligent Charger for Electric Vehicles Rahul A. Jagtap 1, Dr. P.M. Daigavane 2, Dr.S.G. Tarnekar 3 1 4thSem student, M.tech (PED), Dept. of Electrical Engg GHRCE, Nagpur(India). 2 Head of

More information

Implementation of a Grid Connected Solar Inverter with Maximum Power Point Tracking

Implementation of a Grid Connected Solar Inverter with Maximum Power Point Tracking ECE 4600 GROUP DESIGN PROJECT PROGRESS REPORT GROUP 03 Implementation of a Grid Connected Solar Inverter with Maximum Power Point Tracking Authors Radeon Shamilov Kresta Zumel Valeria Pevtsov Reza Fazel-Darbandi

More information

Available online at ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 170 (2017 )

Available online at  ScienceDirect. Procedia Engineering 170 (2017 ) Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 170 (2017 ) 488 495 Engineering Physics International Conference, EPIC 2016 A Study on Integration of 1kW PEM Fuel Cell into

More information

Modelling of PV Array with MPP Tracking & Boost DC-DC Converter

Modelling of PV Array with MPP Tracking & Boost DC-DC Converter IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE) e-issn: 2278-1676,p-ISSN: 2320-3331, Volume 10, Issue 1 Ver. IV (Jan Feb. 2015), PP 07-13 www.iosrjournals.org Modelling of PV Array with

More information

INTRODUCTION. I.1 - Historical review.

INTRODUCTION. I.1 - Historical review. INTRODUCTION. I.1 - Historical review. The history of electrical motors goes back as far as 1820, when Hans Christian Oersted discovered the magnetic effect of an electric current. One year later, Michael

More information

DISCRETE PISTON PUMP/MOTOR USING A MECHANICAL ROTARY VALVE CONTROL MECHANISM

DISCRETE PISTON PUMP/MOTOR USING A MECHANICAL ROTARY VALVE CONTROL MECHANISM The Eighth Workshop on Digital Fluid Power, May 24-25, 2016, Tampere, Finland DISCRETE PISTON PUMP/MOTOR USING A MECHANICAL ROTARY VALVE CONTROL MECHANISM Michael B. Rannow, Perry Y. Li*, Thomas R. Chase

More information

LIQUID MEASUREMENT STATION DESIGN Class No

LIQUID MEASUREMENT STATION DESIGN Class No LIQUID MEASUREMENT STATION DESIGN Class No. 2230.1 Michael Frey Systems Sales Manager Daniel Measurement & Control, Inc. 5650 Brittmoore Rd. Houston, Texas 77041 INTRODUCTION The industry continues to

More information

Why Is My PV Module Rating Larger Than My Inverter Rating?

Why Is My PV Module Rating Larger Than My Inverter Rating? TECHNICAL BRIEF Why Is My PV Rating Larger Than My Rating? PV module and inverter selection are two of the most important decisions in PV system design. Ensuring that these components will work together

More information

White Paper. Application of Resistive/Reactive Load Banks for kva Testing

White Paper. Application of Resistive/Reactive Load Banks for kva Testing White Paper Application of Resistive/Reactive Load Banks for kva Testing Application of Resistive/Reactive Load Banks for kva Testing Resistive load banks are the most commonly used load banks for the

More information