Charging Battery with Clean Energy

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1 Charging Battery with Clean Energy By Mr. Raksapol Thananuwong Senior Academic Staff The Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST), Thailand

2 Raksapol Thananuwong BA in Physics and Math MSc in Physics Working at IPST since Oct 2008 Working Experience Consulting on various projects, e.g. House of Little Scientist, Thailand; TV game show Wittaya- Supprayut; Science and Technology Conference for Youth, Thailand, etc. Manager of Thai student teams in international science and mathematics competitions, e.g. International Physics Olympiad, International Conference of Young Scientists Design and develop learning materials (textbooks, ebooks, digital learning modules), curriculum, STEM activity, assessments, etc. Conduct research on the effectiveness of learning materials, STEM activity.

3 To answer two questions Goals of the workshop 1. How to effectively deliver STEM lesson in a classroom? 2. How to assess STEM learning outcomes? Through Doing example activity: Charging Battery with Clean Energy

4 Outline 1. Getting to know battery 2. Charging battery with solar energy and pedal power 3. Design your innovative device and present your work 4. Discussion & Summary

5 Clean Energy 1. Write down one word for each box until all boxes are filled 2. Listen to the questions asked by the workshop trainer and then mark in the box that has a word corresponding to the correct answer. If there is no answer, do not mark any box. 3. When you get three marked boxes in a row, column or in diagonal, shout Bingo!

6 Questions 1. What type of energy that a battery converts into electrical energy? 2. What device that most power plants use to produce electricity from a rotating motion? 3. What type of electric current produced by a solar panel? 4. What we need in order to store solar energy for night time use? 5. What type of electric current produced by a wind turbine?

7 Questions 6. What could effect the energy output of a solar panel? 7. What type of energy that a wind turbine converts into electrical energy? 8. What is the term that indicates the ratio of energy output by a solar cell to energy input from the sun? 9. What electrical quantities would allow a battery to be charged more quickly?

8 Main Objective of the Activity To apply knowledge and skills in electricity, battery, generator, mathematics and energy technology to design and develop devices that could efficiently charge battery with clean energy.

9 Thai Science Curriculum Chemistry Search and give examples of chemical reactions in everyday life and specify the conditions or factors for their occurrence. Search and present examples of the application of energies from chemical reactions. Physics Conduct activity and explain how an electromotive force is induced and give some examples of how this understanding can be applied in daily life. Search and explain alternative energy and the effects of using renewable energy on the environment. Search and explain the conversions of nuclear energy and solar energy into electricity.

10 Thai Curriculum Design and Technology Safely construct objects and utensils or methodologies in accord with the technological process by conveying ideas through an image and models, leading to constructing work pieces or conveying concepts of the methodology through models, and reporting on results by using or presenting achievements. Analyze and choose to creatively apply technologies suitable to daily life for the benefit of life, society and the environment, and sustainably mange technologies through methodology of clean technologies.

11 Scenario In the near future, scientists have predicted that natural hazards will become more severe and more frequent, as a result of climate change; and our main energy sources oil, coal, natural gas will be scarce. We have to prepare to be in a situation that we are facing some natural hazards without power for unexpected length of hours or days.

12 Outline 1. Getting to know battery 2. Charging battery with solar energy and pedal power 3. Design your innovative device and present your work 4. Discussion & Summary

13 What is battery?

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15

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17 Activity 1: Getting to know battery 1. Each member of the group chooses one topic she or he likes. If not all topics are chosen, ask for volunteer to take the remaining one(s). History of a battery Types of battery Definition and the underlying science of a battery. How to efficiently and safely use battery? 2. Go to join with other members of other group who choose the same topic and in 5 minutes, read and do the worksheet of that topic. 3. After 5 min, go back and share what you learn within your group for 5 min. 4. Fill in the Worksheet of Activity 1 and have one person present what the group has learned about battery in 1 2 minutes.

18 Activity 1: Summary Battery is a device that consists of one or more electrochemical cells in which chemical energy is converted into electricity. The main components of a battery is cathode, anode, electrolyte and separator.

19

20 Outline 1. Getting to know battery 2. Charging battery with solar energy and pedal power 3. Design your innovative device and present your work 4. Discussion & Summary

21 Activity 2: Charging Battery with Solar Energy Part 1: Learn basic knowledge of solar cells by watching a clip, reading and answering question in the Part 1 of Activity 2 worksheet. Part 2: Study the factors that affect the output of a solar cell by doing activity in Part 2 of Activity 2 Worksheet. Safety considerations: Watch for heat from a lamp.

22 Activity 2: Part 1 Basic Knowledge of Solar Cell Mono Crystalline 12 15% Poly Crystalline 11 14% Thin Film 7 10%

23 How does a solar cell work?

24 Activity 2: Part 2 Factors affecting Solar Cell s Output Study the factors that affect the output of a solar cell by doing activities in Part 2. Safety considerations: Watch for heat from a lamp

25 Activity 2: Summary (1/2) A typical solar cell is a device consisting of two layers of different materials which have different electrical properties, giving rise to electric field at the junction between two layers. When sunlight hits the cell, solar cell s atoms will absorb energy. Some electrons of the atoms those have enough energy will become free electrons and will be pushed by the electric field at the junction to move through a wire that connects to an appliance, creating electric current.

26 Activity 2: Summary (2/2) To charge a mobile phone battery using solar cells, the voltage of the solar cells must be about the same as that of a battery. Tilt angle, area exposed to light and temperature are factors that affect solar cell s electrical output.

27 Break

28 Freshen-up Activity Calculate the cost of charging a mobile phone. A mobile phone s battery has 2,000 mah capacity and 3. 8 V nominal voltage. If we charge the battery once a day, from 0%- 100%, in a year, how much do we have to pay for the cost of charging the battery? **The cost of electricity is 2 bahts/unit or about 5 cents/unit.

29 Answer A mobile phone s battery has 2,000 mah capacity and 3.8 V nominal voltage. The energy consumed if it is fully charge is E = P t = V I t = 3.8 V 2 Ah= 7.6 Wh Convert to Unit: 7.6 Wh = kwh = Units In 1 year, there are 365 days. The total energy consumed in a year would be = 2.77 Units The cost of electricity is 2 bahts/unit and so in 1 year, the cost of charging the phone s battery would be = 5.54 bahts (16cents).

30 Activity 3: Charging Battery with Pedal Power Part 1: Learn basic knowledge of a generator and electronics related to charging battery with pedal power. Part 2: Build a prototype of a pedal power charger and run a test.

31 Activity 3: Part 1 Basic Knowledge of a Generator and Electronics Read and respond to questions in Part 1 of Activity 3 Worksheet.

32 How does a generator work? Faraday s Law of Induction: An electromotive force (emf) is induced in a loop when the magnetic flux through the loop changes with time. A simple AC generator consists of a loop of wire rotated by some external force in a magnetic field. The ends of the loop are connected to slip rings that rotate with the loop. The rings are in contact with stationary metallic brushes which connect to external circuit.

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34 What electronics components we need in order to charge battery with pedal power? Capacitor Bridge rectifier IC voltage regulator

35 USB port (male and female) Breadboard

36 Activity 3: Part 2 Build a prototype of a pedal power charger and run a test. Follow instruction in Part 2 of Activity 3. When you finish making a prototype, have the instructor check and approve before running a test.

37 Activity 3: Summary A generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. It s operation is based on Faraday s law of induction. To charge battery using energy from pedaling a bicycle, some electronics components are needed, such as capacitor, bridge rectifier, IC voltage generator, etc.

38 Outline 1. Getting to know battery 2. Charging battery with solar energy and pedal power 3. Design your innovative device and present your work 4. Discussion & Summary

39 Activity 4: Design a Battery Charger Scenario In the near future, scientists have predicted that natural hazards will become more severe and more frequent, as a result of climate change; and our main energy sources oil, coal, natural gas will be scarce. We have to prepare to be in a situation that we are facing some natural hazards without power for unexpected length of hours or days.

40 Activity 4: Design a Battery Charger In 15 minutes, discuss within your group, about the design of a battery charger. Draw your group s design in a flip chart paper and prepare to present it to the class. The charger must meet the following requirements.

41 Activity 4: Design a Battery Charger Duration Budget Energy Sources Efficiency Usage 15 minutes 500 bahts Requirements At least, two types of clean energy sources The more amount of energy a charger can deliver to a 5-V battery in 5 minutes, the higher the score. Safe; not causing any damages to a battery or an appliance; easy to use, install and maintain; durable.

42 Activity 4: Design a Battery Charger The device must not be a copy of any devices found in the internet or elsewhere. While designing and developing, keep in mind the scoring rubric given at the end of the worksheet.

43 Outline 1. Getting to know battery 2. Charging battery with solar energy and pedal power 3. Design your innovative device and present your work 4. Discussion & Summary

44 Discussion What make this STEM education activity different from other learning activities? Connecting to a real-world situation Emphasizing 21 st Century skills (communication, collaboration, critical thinking, creativity) Having no one right answer Requiring a product to be designed and created

45 Engineering Design Process Identify a Challenge Present the Solution Engineering Design Process Explore Ideas Test and Evaluate Journal Plan and Develop

46 Discussion From research, ** effective strategies for designing STEM activity are: Being explicit in integration. Supporting students in eliciting, connecting and reorganizing ideas. Promoting active learning (conversation, argument, worksheet recording, etc.) (teacher) Providing support and guidance for students Allowing enough time for students to develop interest and identity. Having flexible learning environment (project- and problem-based learning) ** National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. (2014). STEM Integration in K-12 Education: Status, Prospects, and an Agenda for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

47 Discussion What evidences we have obtained from the activity and how can we use them for assessment?

48 Discussion Sources of Evidences Learning Outcomes Tools/Methods Worksheet Knowledge and understanding, critical thinking skill, communication skill, science process skills Rubric Discussions Collaboration skill, knowledge, Observations Journal Presentation Math skill, knowledge, critical thinking skill, creativity, ICT Communication skill, knowledge and understanding, critical thinking skill, creativity, ICT Rubric Product Problem-solving skill, creativity Rubric Observations, rubric

49 Summary (1/2) Relevant and real-world Challenging Students are responsible for their own learning Work and learn together Skills and attitude for the fast changing world

50 Source: Future of Job Report, World Economic Forum

51 Summary (2/2) Help make explicit connections between disciplines Have flexible learning environment Biology Attend to both conceptual ideas and social aspects Be supportive in the development of identity and interest

52 Thank You

53 Mr. Raksapol (Jay) Thananuwong

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