WAVVO SAY 210 ALLALLA. code. ( 12 ) United States Patent. ( 10 ) Patent No. : US 9, 853, 473 B A um. ( 45 ) Date of Patent : Dec.

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1 IIIIIIIIIII I IIIIIIII US B2 ( 12 ) United States Patent Yebka et al. ( 10 ) Patent No. : US 9, 853, 473 B2 ( 45 ) Date of Patent : Dec. 26, 2017 ( 54 ) BATTERY PACK ASSEMBLY AND METHOD ( 71 ) Applicant : Lenovo ( Singapore ) Pte. Ltd., New Tech Park ( SG ) ( 72 ) Inventors : Bouziane Yebka, Apex, NC ( US ); Philip John Jakes, Durham, NC ( US ); Joseph Anthony Holung, Wake Forest, NC US ; Tin - Lup Wong, Chapel Hill, NC ( US ) ( 73 ) Assignee : Lenovo ( Singapore ) Pte. Ltd., New Tech Park ( SG ) ( ) Notice : Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U. S. C. 154 ( b ) by 538 days. ( 21 ) Appl. No.: 14 / 512, 970 ( 22 ) Filed : Oct. 13, 2014 ( 65 ) Prior Publication Data US 2016 / A1 Apr. 14, 2016 ( 51 ) Int. CI. BOOL 11 / 18 ( ) BOOW 20 / 00 ( ) HOIM 10 / 052 ( ) B60R 16 / 033 ( ) HO2J 7700 ( ) HOIM 10 / 44 ( ) HOIM 2 / 34 ( ) HOIM 10 / 04 ( ) G06F 1 / HO2J 7 / 34 ( ) GOOF 1 / 16 ( ) ( 52 ) U. S. CI. CPC HO2J ( ); G06F 1 / 28 ( ); HOIM 2 / 348 ( ); HOIM 10 / 0445 ( ); HOIM 10 / 441 ( ); ( 58 ) ( 56 ) GOOF 1 / 1635 ( ) ; HOIM 2200 / 106 ( ) ; HOIM 2220 / 20 ( ) ; HOLM 2220 / 30 ( ) ; HO2J 7 / 34 ( ) ; H02J 2007 / 0067 ( ) Field of Classification Search CPC HO2J 7 / 0063 ; HO2J 1 / 00 ; HO1M 10 / 441 ; HO1M 10 / 443 ; B60R 16 / 033 USPC / 117, 121 ; 307 / 9. 1 See application file for complete search history. References Cited U. S. PATENT DOCUMENTS 2003 / A1 1 / 2003 Dubac HO2J 7 / / / A1 4 / 2009 White BOOL 11 / / / Al 8 / 2009 Greening GOOF 1 / / / A1 12 / 2009 Greening... G06F / / A1 12 / 2011 Kamijima HO2J 7 / / 66 ( Continued ) Primary Examiner Jared Fureman Assistant Examiner Win Htun ( 74 ) Attorney, Agent, or Firm Dean D. Small ; The Small Patent Law Group, LLC ( 57 ) ABSTRACT A battery pack assembly includes a first battery cell supply ing electric current to an electronic load, a second battery cell supplying electric current to the electronic load, and a first switch operatively coupled with the first battery cell and the electronic load. The first switch stops conduction of the electric current to the electronic load responsive to an increase in electric demand of the electronic load above a designated threshold. A method of powering an electronic load using a battery pack assembly also is provided. 16 Claims, 4 Drawing Sheets preema 104 SAY 210 very hard A um Controller ALLALLA VES WAVVO 1. me www. even????? va Logo ww w m hers MAY vo B code

2 Page 2 ( 56 ) References Cited U. S. PATENT DOCUMENTS 2012 / Al 5 / 2012 Gottlieb HO2J 1 / / / A1 10 / 2012 Park HO1M 10 / / / A1 1 / 2013 Hongo HO1M 4 / / / A1 6 / 2013 Gaul HO2J 7 / / / A1 7 / 2013 Iwasaki HO1M 10 / / / A1 5 / 2014 Weissinger, Jr H02J 7 / / / A1 8 / 2014 Skipper H02J 7 / / / A1 8 / 2014 Takeshita HO2J 7 / / A1 12 / 2014 Katou / 117 HO2J 7 / / / A1 2 / 2015 Suzuki HOIM 10 / / / A1 7 / 2015 Le B60L 11 / / / A1 8 / 2015 Im HO2J 7 / / / A1 10 / 2015 Cheng HO2J 7 / / / A1 10 / 2015 Iwai B60R 16 / / / A1 1 / 2016 Wu B6OL 11 / / / A1 2 / 2016 Sugiyama HO2J 7 / / / Al 3 / 2016 Dulle HO2J 7 / / / A1 5 / 2016 Murayama HO2J 50 / / 104 cited by examiner

3 . U. S. Patent Dec. 26, 2017 Sheet 1 of 4 US 9, 853, 473 B2 104 UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU WVOEVE ovakvorc Marvinnunarinnar wykrywa operustaminman own WMOTORVOSAURUSAN AronorerWWWW wwwyour usugrirano namapinas ng wagonmaryxmonxona cryshme consumption ng wa wengineers mas ang on theorethane aprovato orwarmenanta tomaricomorstamu wory kon Wytrenger Aww mungkin many were DNU wwwww er 106 OOD W WUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU The 100 FIG. 1 WWWWWWUWULAN

4 U. S. Patent Dec. 26, 2017 Sheet 2 of 4 US 9, 853, 473 B promenaman 200 Wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww 1202 Vem ARDAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHARA ALANL m wym wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww wwwwww wwwww WWWXWWVYVVW 208A 208B DO D 208E 2085 VUK H MYYYYYYYYYYYY MYYYY VYYYYYYYYYYYYY m 58 Myvauwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww www wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww FIG mm 300 HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH M K 208N R L 208P 2081 WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWxy wwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwww W WWWWWWWWWWWWWYWWWWWWWWWWWWAY???????????????????????????????????????????????? wwwwwwwwwwwwww W ORLDCAREX XXXCENTERCOOLEXXXXX 02 RRRAAAAKKK ranny FIG. 3 TURARE w eve your Supply current to load from plural sets of battery cells ON Is demand from load in excess of one or more w thresholds? Yes Prevent at least a first set of the sets of battery cells from supplying current to the load Supply current to the load from at least a second set of the sets of battery cells LULU MUUUUU }???? Yes from load in excess of one or more w thresholds? ON mm FIG. 6

5 M. E. A U. S. Patent Dec. 26, 2017 Sheet 3 of 4 US 9, 853, 473 B A Cell kg Controller > DUG LODIZUT anima 104 Nuo 44 wwwwwwwwww 14. MM TOOTGIE ?????????????? B FIG JULKAUKAKAMALAAAKKAKAMAMMALALAMAN of cente 502 Controller 210A ILL0001 > IZIOLET 402 ILIMIELIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII MIESIILI 4 : ERR 1 TUMU U U 404 FIG. 5 MAYYAN mwon B < IITOITTORI

6 U. S. Patent Dec. 26, 2017 Sheet 4 of 4 US 9, 853, 473 B2 my pro Battery Pack Assembly Controller Load FIG. 7

7 BATTERY PACK ASSEMBLY AND METHOD US 9, 853, 473 B2 coupled with the first battery. The first switch switches to a blocking state to stop conduction of the electric current from FIELD the first battery cell to the electronic load and to a conducting state to conduct the electric current from the first battery cell Embodiments of the subject matter described herein relate 5 to the electronic load. The first switch is in the conducting to battery assemblies and methods. state during a low demand time period of the electronic device and in the blocking state during a high demand time BACKGROUND period of the electronic device. The low demand time period Battery pack assemblies include battery cells that supply 10 occurring responsive to an electric demand of the electronic load being no greater than a designated threshold, and the electric current ( e. g., direct current ) to electronic loads to power the loads. The cells may be separate batteries that are high demand time period occurring responsive to the electric connected in series or parallel with each other to supply the demand of the electronic load exceeding the designated loads with power. Many battery pack assemblies have the threshold. ability to power a wide variety of loads. These loads can 15 have varying power demands. For example, laptop comput BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS ers and electric vehicles may need to have battery pack assemblies having relatively large energy storage capacities. The present inventive subject matter will be better under Power tools may need battery pack assemblies that can stood from reading the following description of non - limiting provide relatively large amounts of power. Computers ( e. g., 20 er embodiments, with reference to the attached drawings, server systems ) and lights may need battery pack assemblies wherein below : that can provide power over extended periods of time. FIG. 1 illustrates a perspective view of a powered system With increasing processing capabilities of loads such as according to one embodiment of the subject matter computers and mobile workstations, the power demands on described herein ; battery pack assemblies continue to increase. For example, 25 FIG. 2 is a cross - sectional view of a battery pack assem newer mobile workstations may require the ability to power bly according to one embodiment ; the workstations for extended periods of time ( referred to as FIG. 3 is a cross - sectional view of a battery pack assem " run times ) to reduce the frequency and duration of bly according to another embodiment ; recharging times for the battery pack assemblies, but also FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram of the battery pack assembly may require the ability to draw significant amounts of 30 shown in FIG. 1 according to one embodiment ; current and power from the battery pack assemblies. These FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram of a battery pack assembly workstations may demand relatively large pulses of current according to another embodiment ; over time periods that are longer than can be provided by FIG. 6 illustrates a flowchart of a method for supplying some known capacitors. Additionally, the battery pack current to an electronic load from a battery pack assembly assemblies for such workstations typically need to be rela - 35 according to one embodiment ; and tively small to fit inside and / or otherwise couple with the FIG. 7 illustrates a perspective view of another powered workstations in a non - obtrusive manner. Some known bat - system according to another embodiment of the subject tery pack assemblies can have relatively long run times, but matter described herein. may not be able to meet the increased pulse demands of the workstations. 40 DETAILED DESCRIPTION BRIEF DESCRIPTION FIG. 1 illustrates a perspective view of a powered system 100 according to one embodiment of the subject matter In one embodiment, an assembly ( e. g., a battery pack described herein. The powered system 100 includes an assembly ) includes a first battery cell supplying electric 45 electronic load 102 and a battery pack assembly 104. In the current to an electronic load, a second battery cell supplying illustrated embodiment, the powered system 100 can repre electric current to the electronic load, and a first switch sent a mobile computing system, such as a mobile computer operatively coupled with the first battery cell and the elec device ( e. g., a laptop computer, tablet computer, smart tronic load. The first switch stops conduction of the electric phone, or other computer device ) having one or more current to the electronic load responsive to an increase in an 50 components ( e. g., the load 102 ) that are powered by the electric demand of the electronic load above a designated battery pack assembly 104 to perform work, such as micro threshold. processors, graphic processors, wireless transceiving cir In another embodiment, a method ( e. g., for supplying cuitry, displays, touchscreens, or the like, that process data, current to an electronic load from a battery pack assembly ) generate displays, wirelessly communicate, receive input, or includes conducting electric current from a first battery cell 55 the like. Alternatively, the powered system 100 may not be of a hybrid battery pack assembly to an electronic load, and a mobile computer device. For example, the powered system preventing conduction of the electric current to the elec may be one or more vehicles, power tools, vacuums, tronic load responsive to an increase in an electric demand communication devices ( e. g., radios, mobile phones, etc. ), of the electronic load above a designated threshold. The lights, or the like. method also includes conducting electric current from a 60 The battery pack assembly 104 supplies electric current to second battery cell of the hybrid battery pack assembly to the load 102 to power the load 102. The powered system 100 the electronic load. in the illustrated embodiment operates using software and / or In another embodiment, a powered system includes performs various types of data processing, such as graphic battery pack assembly including a first battery cell and a processing, audio processing, and the like. The battery pack second battery cell, an electronic load consuming electric 65 assembly 104 can include several rechargeable batteries or current supplied by the first battery cell and the second battery cells that supply the load 102 with electric current to battery cell to perform work, and a first switch operatively power the load 102.

8 In one embodiment, the battery pack assembly 104 can be the like ( e. g., the electric demand ), to one or more desig referred to as a hybrid battery pack assembly that includes nated thresholds. Responsive to the electric demand exceed some battery cells ( also referred to as batteries ) dedicated to ing the one or more designated thresholds, the controller 106 supplying the load 102 with electric current during time can direct the battery pack assembly 104 to change which periods of low demand by the load 102 ( referred to herein as 5 cells power the load 102 and which cells do not power the " low demand time periods ) and other battery cells dedi - load 102, as described herein. Alternatively, the battery pack cated to supplying the load 102 with electric current during assembly 104 can change which cells power the load 102 time periods of high demand by the load 102 ( referred to without direction from the controller 106 or another com herein as high demand time periods ). For example, during ponent of the powered system 100. time periods that the load 102 demands relatively low 10 FIG. 2 is a cross - sectional view of a battery pack assem current and / or power, such as when the load 102 is idle, is bly 200 according to one embodiment. The battery pack operating word processing software, or the like, a first set of assembly 200 can represent the battery pack assembly 104 the battery cells in the battery pack assembly 104 may be shown in FIG. 1. The battery pack assembly 200 includes an supplying current to the load 102. Responsive to the current outer housing 202 having outer dimensions that are suffi and / or power demand from the load 102 increasing above 15 ciently small to allow for the battery pack assembly 200 to one or more thresholds, the battery pack assembly 104 can be at least partially installed in the load 102 ( shown in FIG. stop one or more of these battery cells from supplying 1 ). For example, the housing 202 may have a width dimen current to the load 102 while one or more other battery cells sion 204 of 250 millimeters or less, 260 millimeters or less, supply current to the load 102. As a result, a different, second or another distance, a height dimension ( along a direction set of the battery cells supplies current to the load 102. In 20 that extends into and out of the plane of FIG. 2 ) of 10 one aspect, all or substantially all of the battery cells in the millimeters or less, 13 millimeters or less, or another dis battery pack assembly 104 can provide electric current to the tance, and / or a depth dimension 206 of 70 millimeters or load 102 during the low demand time period and a subset of less, 73 millimeters or less, or another distance. all or substantially all of the battery cells in the battery pack The battery pack assembly 200 includes several recharge assembly 104 can provide electric current to the load able battery cells 208 ( e. g., cells 208A - H ). In the illustrated during the high demand time period. Alternatively, some of example, the battery pack assembly 200 includes eight the battery cells may be dedicated to only supplying the load battery cells 208. Alternatively, a larger or smaller number 102 with current during the low demand time periods and of battery cells 208 may be provided. The battery cells 208 other battery cells may be dedicated to only supplying the can be conductively coupled with each other in series and / or load 102 with current during the high demand time periods. 30 in parallel. The battery cells 208 can be conductively In another embodiment, battery cells may not be solely coupled with conductive terminals 210 of the battery pack dedicated to only providing current during low or high assembly 200. The battery cells 208 can be connected with demand time periods. Instead, one or more of the battery the terminals 210 such that, when the battery pack assembly cells may provide current during both the low and high 200 is coupled with the load 102, the terminals 210 engage demand time periods, while one or more other battery cells 35 corresponding terminals of the load 102 so that electric may provide current during only the low demand time current can be conducted from the battery cells 208 to the period or only the high demand time period. load 102 ( e. g., to power the load 102 ) and / or from the load Controlling which battery cells in the battery pack assem to the battery cells 208 ( e. g., to charge the battery cells bly 104 provide current to the load 102 based on the current 208 ). The terminals 210 can include one or more cathode and / or power demanded by the load 102 can increase 40 terminals and / or one or more anode terminals. performance of the battery pack assembly 104. For example, FIG. 3 is a cross - sectional view of a battery pack assem dedicating some battery cells to providing current only bly 300 according to another embodiment. The battery pack during high demand time periods can allow the battery pack assembly 300 can represent the battery pack assembly 104 assembly 104 to provide relatively large amounts of current shown in FIG. 1. The battery pack assembly 300 includes an ( e. g., at least two amps, at least four amps, at least six amps, 45 outer housing that may be similar or identical to the housing at least ten amps, or another amount ), to provide relatively 202 shown in FIG. 2. The battery pack assembly 300 high pulses of electric power ( e. g., at least two hundred includes several of the rechargeable battery cells 208 ( e. g., watts, at least two hundred forty watts, at least two hundred cells T ). In the illustrated example, the battery pack fifty watts, or the like, for at least three seconds, at least five assembly 300 includes twelve battery cells 208. Alterna seconds, or the like ), and / or to provide relatively long cycle 50 tively, a larger or smaller number of battery cells 208 may or run lives for the load 102 ( e. g., can power the load 102 be provided. Similar to in the battery pack assembly 200, the for at least eight hours, at least ten hours, at least twelve battery cells 208 in the battery pack assembly 300 can be hours, at least fifteen hours, or another time period, of conductively coupled with each other in series and / or in continuous use ) when compared to battery packs that do not parallel. The battery cells 208 also can be connected with dedicate battery cells in this manner. 55 conductive terminals 210 of the battery pack assembly 300. In one aspect, the powered system 100 can include a The terminals 210 can include one or more cathode termi controller 106 that monitors and / or controls operations of nals and / or one or more anode terminals. the powered system 100. The controller 106 can represent Different battery cells 208 in the battery pack assemblies hardware circuits or circuitry that include and / or are con 104, 200, 300 ( shown in FIGS. 1-3 ) can be used to power the nected with one or more processors ( e. g., computer micro - 60 load 102 during different amounts of demanded current processors, microcontrollers, or the like ). The controller 106 and / or power from the load 102. By way of example, the may monitor electric demand of the load 102 to determine battery cells 208B and 208C in the battery pack assembly whether to switch which of the battery cells in the battery 200 and / or the battery cells 208J, 208K, 208N, and 2080 in pack assembly 104 are to provide current to the load 102. the battery pack assembly 300 can be dedicated to supplying For example, the controller 106 can measure how much 65 current to the load 102 during high demand time periods current, power, voltage, or the like, is demanded by the load while one or more other battery cells 208 or all of the 102 and compare the demanded current, power, voltage, or remaining battery cells 208 in the battery pack assemblies

9 200, 300 are dedicated to supplying current to the load that are monitored by the controller 400. For example, during low demand time periods. The battery cells 208 in response to detecting a temperature increase above a dedicated to supplying current during the low demand time designated temperature threshold, an increase in the mag periods may not supply current during the high demand time nitude of current being conducted by the buses 212 above a periods. Alternatively, a different set of the battery cells 2085 designated current threshold, a change in the direction of the may be dedicated to supplying current during the high current being conducted by the buses 212, or the like, the demand time period and / or the low demand time period. In controller 400 can open one or more of the FETs 404 to stop one embodiment, the battery cells 208 dedicated to supply ing current during the high demand time period may also conduction of the current in the battery pack assembly 104. supply current to the load 102 during the low demand time 10 Alternatively, the controller 400 may open one or more other periods as well. Alternatively, the battery cells 208 dedicated switches in the battery pack assembly 104. to supplying current during the high demand time period Two battery cells 208 and 208 " are shown in FIG. 4. Each may not supply current to the load 102 during the low of these battery cells 208 ', 208 " can represent a single battery demand time periods as well. cell 208, two or more battery cells 208 connected in parallel FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram of the battery pack assembly 15 with each other, or two or more battery cells 208 connected 104 shown in FIG. 1 according to one embodiment. The in series with each other. The battery cell 208 ' may be diagram shown in FIG. 4 also may represent the circuit referred to as a low demand battery cell 208 ' and the battery diagram for the battery pack assembly 200 and / or 300 cell 208 " may be referred to as a high demand battery cell shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. The battery pack assembly ". The battery cells 208 ', 208 " are connected with the includes several components that are conductively coupled 20 anode and cathode terminals 210A, 210B in parallel to each by conductive buses 212. The buses 212 are conductively other between the anode and cathode terminals 210A, 210B coupled with the terminals 210, which can include one or in the illustrated embodiment. more anode terminals 210A and one or more cathode The battery cell 208 ' is conductively coupled with a terminals 210B. switch 406. The switch 406 operates to open or close to A controller 400 monitors operating characteristics of the 25 prevent or allow conduction of current from and / or to the battery pack assembly 104 to protect the battery pack battery cell 208 '. For example, the switch 406 can be closed assembly 104 and / or the load 102 from damage. The con - to conduct current from the battery cell 208 ' to the terminals troller 400 can represent one or more integrated circuits, one 210, or from the terminals 210 to the battery cell 208 '. The or more computer processors, or other devices that operate switch 406 can be opened to stop conduction of the current based on hard - wired logic, software, or the like, to monitor 30 from the battery cell 208 ' to the terminals 210, or from the the battery pack assembly 104. In one aspect, the controller terminals 210 to the battery cell 208 '. In the illustrated 400 can be referred to as a protection integrated circuit, and embodiment, the switch 406 is between the battery cell 208 can monitor the voltage of the electric energy stored in one and the terminal 210B. Alternatively, the switch 406 may be or more of the battery cells 208. The controller 400 option in another location. ally can monitor temperatures of the battery pack assembly 35 The switch 406 may not control conduction of current 104. For example, a temperature - sensitive device 402, such from and / or to the battery cell 208 " in one embodiment. For as one or more thermistors or other devices, may be opera - example, as shown in FIG. 4, the switch 406 can be tively coupled with the controller 400. The temperature positioned between the battery cell 208 ' and the terminal sensitive device 402 can indicate temperatures of the battery 210B, but not between the battery cell 208 " and the termi pack assembly 104 to the controller 400. For example, the 40 nals 210, such that opening the switch 406 does not prevent electrical resistance of the temperature - sensitive device 402 current from being conducted from the battery cell 208 " to can change based on temperatures of the battery pack the terminals 210 and / or from the terminals 210 to the assembly 104. The controller 400 can monitor the resistance battery cell 208 ". Alternatively, the switch 406 can be of the device 402 to determine or estimate the temperature positioned to also control conduction of current from and / or of the battery pack assembly to the battery cell 208 ". In the illustrated embodiment, the battery pack assembly The switch 406 can operate by opening in response to an 104 includes field effect transistors ( FETs ) 404 conductively increase in the electric energy demanded by an electronic coupled with the battery cells 208 and the cathode terminal load ( e. g., the load 102 shown in FIG. 1 ). For example, the 210B between the battery cells 208 and the cathode terminal switch 406 can include a positive temperature coefficient 210B. Alternatively, one or more of the FETs 404 may be 50 ( PTC ) device. Such a device can change the amount of disposed elsewhere in the battery pack assembly 104. The resistance of the device 406 in response to temperature controller 400 can be operatively connected with the FETs changes in the device 406. As the electronic load in order to monitor the direction and / or magnitude of the demands more current and / or power from the battery pack current being conducted between the battery cells 208 and assembly 104 via the terminals 210, the temperature of the the cathode terminal 210B. For example, the controller device 406 can increase. As the temperature increases, the can be conductively coupled with the FETs 404 in order to resistance of the device 406 also can increase. If the monitor voltage drops across the FETs 404. These voltage demanded current exceeds a designated current threshold drops and / or changes in the voltage drops with respect to and / or the demanded power exceeds a designated power time can represent the direction and / or magnitude of current threshold, then the resistance of the device 406 may become being conducted along one or more buses 212 between the 60 sufficiently large to prevent conduction of current from the battery cells 208 and the terminals 210. Alternatively, battery cell 208 ' to the load 102 via the terminals 210. For another type of sensing device may be used in place of the example, the device 406 may effectively act as an open FETs 404 to monitor direction and / or magnitude of the switch. Alternatively, the device 406 can represent a switch current conduction. ( e. g., a solid state switch or the like ), that is controlled by the The controller 400 can control conduction of current 65 controller 400. The controller 400 can open the device 406 between the battery cells 208 and the terminals 210 based on responsive to the current and / or power demanded by the the operating characteristics of the battery pack assembly load 102 exceeding one or more thresholds.

10 During time periods of low demand by the load 102, the twelve cell 208 embodiment of the battery assembly pack switch 406 may be a sufficiently low temperature so that the 104 shown in FIG. 3 as the pack 300, the battery cell 208 ' switch 406 has a lower resistance. As a result, current may may represent the battery cells 208M, 208N, 2080, 208P, be conducted between the battery cell 208 ' and the load 102, 2080, 208R, 208S, and 208T connected in series and / or and between the battery cell 208 " and the load 102. As a 5 parallel, or another number and / or combination of the bat result, the load 102 can be powered by the battery cells 208 tery cells 208, while the battery cell 208 " may represent the and 208 ". But, during periods of high demand by the load battery cells 2081, 208 ), 208K, and 208L connected in series 102, the switch 406 can prevent conduction between the and / or in parallel, or another number and / or combination of battery cell 208 ' and the load 102 such that the load 102 is the battery cells 208. powered by the battery cell 208 ", but not the battery cell 10 FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram of a battery pack assembly according to another embodiment. The diagram shown in As one example, the switch 406 can stop conduction of FIG. 5 may represent the circuit diagram for the battery pack current from or to the battery cell 208 ' responsive to the assembly 104, 200, and / or 300 shown in FIGS The current demanded by the load 102 exceeding a threshold of battery pack assembly 500 includes many of the same at least two amps, at least four amps, at least six amps, at 15 components as the battery pack assembly 104 shown in FIG. least eight amps, at least fifteen amps, at least twenty amps, 4. or another amount. The switch 406 can allow conduction of One difference between the battery pack assembly 104 the current from and / or to the battery cell 208 ' responsive to shown in FIG. 4 and the battery pack assembly 500 shown the current demanded by the load being no greater than this in FIG. 5 is the addition of a switch 502. The switch 502 may threshold. 20 be the same as the switch 406 except that the switch 502 is As another example, the switch 406 can stop conduction operatively coupled with the battery cell 208 ". Similar to the of current from or to the battery cell 208 ' responsive to the switch 406, the switch 502 can control when the battery cell power demanded by the load 102 exceeding a designated 208 " supplies current to the load 102 and when the battery power threshold for at least a designated time period. The cell 208 " is prevented from supplying current to the load power threshold and the time threshold can be referred to as For example, during low demand time periods, the a designated pulse threshold. For example, the power switch 406 can allow the battery cell 208 ' to supply current demanded by the load 102 can exceed the pulse threshold to the load 102 while the switch 502 prevents the battery cell when the demanded power exceeds the power threshold over 208 " from supplying current to the load 102. During high a time period that is longer than the time threshold. On the demand time periods, the switch 406 can prevent the battery other hand, the power demanded by the load 102 may not 30 cell 208 ' from powering the load 102, while the switch 502 exceed the pulse threshold when the demanded power does allows the battery cell 208 " to power the load 102. As a not exceed the power threshold and / or when the demanded result, in one embodiment, the battery cell 208 " may only power exceeds the power threshold but for a time period that supply current to the load 102 when the current and / or power is not longer than the time threshold. In one embodiment, the demanded by the load 102 exceeds one or more thresholds power threshold may be at least 200 watts, at least 240 watts, 35 described herein. at least 250 watts, or another amount. The time threshold In one aspect of the various embodiments described may be at least three seconds, at least five seconds, or herein, controlling which battery cells 208 supply current to another time period. the load 102 during different time periods based on the The time threshold may be longer than a capacitor can current and / or power demanded by the load 102 can allow provide the demanded power. For example, some capacitors 40 the battery pack assembly 104 to supply large amounts of may be able to store sufficient energy to supply the load 102 current to the load 102 ( e. g., by using batteries such as high with the demanded power or at least enough power to meet power lithium batteries or other batteries as the cells 208 ), or exceed the power threshold. But, the capacitors may be to supply large amounts of power to the load 102 ( e. g., at unable to continue providing this much power for at least the least 200 watts or another amount ), and to supply large time threshold. 45 pulses of power to the load 102 ( e. g., to supply at least 200 In operation, the terminals 210 can be conductively watts or another amount for at least three seconds or longer ), coupled with conductive terminals ( e. g., contacts ) of the all while the battery pack assembly 104 continues to power load 102. The load 102 can draw current from the battery the load 102 for relatively long run times of eight hours or cells 208 to power the load 102. During time periods that the longer ( or another length of time ). Dedicating some battery current demanded by the load 102 does increase sufficiently 50 cells 208 to meeting the high current, high power, and / or high and / or the power demanded by the load 102 does not high pulse demands of the load 102 can allow the other increase sufficiently high ( and / or for sufficiently long ) to battery cells 208 to power the load 102 during lower current, cause the switch 406 to block conduction of the current from lower power, and / or lower pulse time periods, which can the battery cell 208 ', both the battery cell 208 ' and the battery extend the run life of the battery pack assembly 104 and the cell 208 " may provide current to the load 102. But, when the 55 load 102 relative to battery pack assemblies that do not current and / or power demanded by the load 102 increase by dedicate battery cells 208 in this manner. sufficient amounts to cause the switch 406 to prevent con - The inventors of the subject matter described herein have duction of current from the battery cell 208 ', only the battery found that controlling the battery cells 208 in this manner cell 208 " may supply current to the load 102. can increase the total time period that the battery pack In the eight cell 208 embodiment of the battery assembly 60 assemblies 104, 200, 300, 500 can power the load 102, pack 104 shown in FIG. 2 as the pack 200, the battery cell without reducing the amount of current or power supplied to 208 ' may represent the battery cells 208A, 208D, 208E, the load 102 relative to other battery pack assemblies. For 208F, 2086, and 208H connected in series and / or parallel, or example, Table 1 below illustrates non - limiting examples of another number and / or combination of the battery cells 208, the current and power supplied by battery pack assemblies while the battery cell 208 " may represent the battery cells 65 having eight and twelve battery cells that are not controlled 208B, 208C connected in series or in parallel, or another according to one or more embodiments described herein. number and / or combination of the battery cells 208. In the Table 2 illustrates non - limiting examples of the increased

11 10 current and / or power supplied by the battery pack assem assembly. In one aspect, different sets of the battery cells blies 104, 200, 300, 500 having eight and twelve battery may concurrently supply the current to the load. Alterna cells that are controlled according to one or more embodi tively, only one or more, but not all, of the sets of the battery ments described herein. cells supplies the current to the load while one or more other sets, or all other sets, of the battery cells do not supply the TABLE 1 current to the load. This time period may be referred to as the low demand time period described above. Power ( Wh ) At 604, a determination is made as to whether the load is Charge Current ( A ) ( 8 cells ) ( 12 cells ) demanding current in excess of one or more thresholds. For 10 example, the current and / or power demanded by the load can Ah 86 be compared to the current threshold, the power threshold, Ah and / or the pulse threshold described above. If the current and / or power demanded by the load exceeds one or more of these thresholds, then a change may need to be made as to TABLE 2 which battery cells supply current to the load to prevent all of the battery cells from being drained of electric energy too Power ( Wh ) soon. Charge Current ( A ) ( 8 cells ) ( 12 cells ) If the current and / or power demanded by the load does exceed one or more of these thresholds, then flow of the Ah method 600 can proceed to 606. Alternatively, if the current Ah and / or power demanded by the load does not exceed these thresholds, then flow of the method 600 can return to 602. As shown by a comparison of Tables 1 and 2, operating At 606, at least a first set of the sets of battery cells is the battery pack assemblies as described herein can unex - prevented from supplying current to the load. At 608, at least pectedly increase the watt - hours supplied by the battery 25 a different, second set of the battery cells supplies current to pack assemblies 104, 200, 300, 400 having eight battery the load. The time period during which 606 and / or 608 cells 208 from 57 Wh to 68 Wh when the battery cells 208 occurs can be referred to as the high demand time period are charged with Ah of energy. This represents an described above. The battery cells that are prevented from increase of 19 % in the energy that can be supplied by the supplying current can save the energy stored in those cells, battery pack assemblies 104, 200, 300, 500 relative to other 30 while the battery cells that are supplying current to the load eight cell battery pack assemblies that are not operated in can power the load during the high demand time period. this manner. At 610, a determination is made as to whether the load is As another example, operating the battery pack assem - still demanding current in excess of one or more of the blies as described herein can unexpectedly increase the thresholds. For example, the current and / or power demanded watt - hours supplied by the battery pack assemblies 104, 200, 35 by the load can be compared to the current threshold, the 300, 400 having eight battery cells 208 from 60 Wh to 92 power threshold, and / or the pulse threshold described above. Wh when the battery cells 208 are charged with Ah of If the current and / or power demanded by the load continues energy. This represents an increase of 53 % in the energy that to exceed one or more of these thresholds, then the battery can be supplied by the battery pack assemblies 104, 200, cells that have been prevented from supplying current to the 300, 500 relative to other eight cell battery pack assemblies 40 load can continue being prevented from supplying current to that are not operated in this manner. the load. The other battery cells ( or all other battery cells ) Also as shown by a comparison of Tables 1 and 2, that are supplying current to the load can continue to supply operating the battery pack assemblies as described herein current to the load. As a result, flow of the method 600 can unexpectedly increase the watt - hours supplied by the returns to 608. battery pack assemblies 104, 200, 300, 400 having twelve 45 On the other hand, if the current and / or power demanded battery cells 208 from 86 Wh to 100 Wh when the battery by the load does not continue to exceed these thresholds cells 208 are charged with Ah of energy. This represents then flow of the method 600 can return to 602. For example, an increase of 16 % in the energy that can be supplied by the the battery cells that were prevented from supplying current battery pack assemblies 104, 200, 300, 500 relative to other to the load may return to supplying current to the load. eight cell battery pack assemblies that are not operated in 50 FIG. 7 illustrates a perspective view of another powered this manner. system 700 according to another embodiment of the subject As another example, operating the battery pack assem matter described herein. The powered system 700 includes blies as described herein can unexpectedly increase the the electronic load 102 and the battery pack assembly 104. watt - hours supplied by the battery pack assemblies 104, 200, In the illustrated embodiment, the powered system 700 can 300, 400 having twelve battery cells 208 from 90 Wh to represent a vehicle, such as a hybrid vehicle, an all - electric Wh when the battery cells 208 are charged with Ah of vehicle, or another type of vehicle having one or more energy. This represents an increase of 47 % in the energy that components ( e. g., the load 102 ) that are powered by the can be supplied by the battery pack assemblies 104, 200, battery pack assembly 104 to perform work. For example, 300, 500 relative to other eight cell battery pack assemblies the load 102 of the powered system 700 can represent one that are not operated in this manner. 60 or more motors that rotate wheels of the powered system FIG. 6 illustrates a flowchart of a method 600 for sup - 700, one or more computer processors, displays, guidance plying current to an electronic load from a battery pack systems, or the like, of the powered system 700. assembly according to one embodiment. The method 600 The battery pack assembly 104 supplies electric current to may be performed using one or more embodiments of the the load 102 to power the load 102. In one aspect, the battery pack assemblies shown and described herein, or may 65 powered system 700 can include a controller 702 that be performed by a different battery pack assembly. At 602, monitors and / or controls operations of the powered system current is supplied from battery cells in the battery pack 700. The controller 702 can represent hardware circuits or

12 11 12 circuitry that include and / or are connected with one or more ( ASICs ), field - programmable gate arrays ( FPGAs ), logic processors ( e. g., computer microprocessors, microcon - circuits, and any other circuit or processor capable of trollers, or the like ). The controller 702 may monitor electric executing the functions described herein. Additionally or demand of the load 102 to determine whether to switch alternatively, the modules / controllers herein may represent which of the battery cells in the battery pack assembly 1045 circuit modules that may be implemented as hardware with are to provide current to the load 102, as described herein. associated instructions ( for example, software stored on a For example, the controller 702 can measure how much tangible and non - transitory computer readable storage current, power, voltage, or the like, is demanded by the load 102 and compare the demanded current, power, voltage, or medium, such as a computer hard drive, ROM, RAM, or the the like ( e. g., the electric demand ), to one or more desig - 10 like ) that perform the operations described herein. The nated thresholds. Responsive to the electric demand exceed above examples are exemplary only, and are thus not ing the one or more designated thresholds, the controller 106 intended to limit in any way the definition and / or meaning can direct the battery pack assembly 104 to change which of the term " controller. The modules / applications herein cells power the load 102 and which cells do not power the may execute a set of instructions that are stored in one or load 102. as described herein. Alternatively, the battery pack 15 more storage elements, in order to process data. The storage assembly 104 can change which cells power the load 102 elements may also store data or other information as desired without direction from the controller 702 or another com - or needed. The storage element may be in the form of an ponent of the powered system 700. It will be readily information source or a physical memory element within the understood that the components of the embodiments as modules / controllers herein. The set of instructions may generally described and illustrated in the figures herein, may 20 include various commands that instruct the modules / appli be arranged and designed in a wide variety of different cations herein to perform specific operations such as the configurations in addition to the described example embodi methods and processes of the various embodiments of the ments. Thus, the preceding description of the example subject matter described herein. The set of instructions may embodiments, as represented in the figures, is not intended be in the form of a software program. The software may be to limit the scope of the embodiments, as claimed, but is 25 in various forms such as system software or application merely representative of example embodiments. Reference software. Further, the software may be in the form of a throughout this specification to one embodiment or an collection of separate programs or modules, a program embodiment ( or the like ) means that a particular feature, module within a larger program or a portion of a program structure, or characteristic described in connection with the module. The software also may include modular program embodiment is included in at least one embodiment. Thus, 30 ming in the form of object - oriented programming. The appearances of the phrases in one embodiment or in an processing of input data by the processing machine may be embodiment or the like in various places throughout this in response to user commands, or in response to results of specification are not necessarily all referring to the same previous processing, or in response to a request made by embodiment. Furthermore, the described features, struc - another processing machine. tures, or characteristics may be combined in any suitable 35 It is to be understood that the subject matter described manner in one or more embodiments. In the preceding herein is not limited in its application to the details of description, numerous specific details are provided to give a construction and the arrangement of components set forth in thorough understanding of embodiments. One skilled in the the description herein or illustrated in the drawings hereof. relevant art will recognize, however, that the various The subject matter described herein is capable of other embodiments can be practiced without one or more of the 40 embodiments and of being practiced or of being carried out specific details, or with other methods, components mate in various ways. Also, it is to be understood that the rials, etc. In other instances, well - known structures, mate - phraseology and terminology used herein is for the purpose rials, or operations are not shown or described in detail to of description and should not be regarded as limiting. The avoid obfuscation. The following description is intended use of including," " comprising, or having and variations only by way of example, and simply illustrates certain 45 thereof herein is meant to encompass the items listed there example embodiments. after and equivalents thereof as well as additional items. In accordance with at least one embodiment herein, to the It is to be understood that the above description is extent that electronic loads are discussed herein, it should be intended to be illustrative, and not restrictive. For example, understood that they can represent a very wide range of the above - described embodiments ( and / or aspects thereof ) devices. Thus, by way of illustrative and non - restrictive 50 may be used in combination with each other. In addition, examples, such loads can include laptop computers, mobile many modifications may be made to adapt a particular workstations, mobile telephones, tablet computers, power tools, electric and / or hybrid vehicles, lights, etc. As will be appreciated by one skilled in the art, various situation or material to the teachings herein without depart ing from its scope. While the dimensions, types of materials and coatings described herein are intended to define various aspects may be embodied as a system, method or computer 55 parameters, they are by no means limiting and are illustra ( device ) program product. Accordingly, aspects may take the tive in nature. Many other embodiments will be apparent to form of an entirely hardware embodiment or an embodiment those of skill in the art upon reviewing the above descrip including hardware and software that may all generally be tion. The scope of the embodiments should, therefore, be referred to herein as a circuit," " module or system. determined with reference to the appended claims, along Furthermore, aspects may take the form of a computer 60 with the full scope of equivalents to which such claims are ( device ) program product embodied in one or more com - entitled. In the appended claims, the terms including and puter ( device ) readable storage medium ( s ) having computer in which are used as the plain - English equivalents of the ( device ) readable program code embodied thereon. respective terms " comprising and wherein. Moreover, in The modules / applications herein may include any proces the following claims, the terms first, second, and sor - based or microprocessor - based system including sys 65 third, etc. are used merely as labels, and are not intended tems using microcontrollers, reduced instruction set com - to impose numerical requirements on their objects or order puters ( RISC ), application specific integrated circuits of execution on their acts.

13 13 14 What is claimed is : period that the second battery cell also supplies the electric 1. An assembly comprising : current to the electronic load. a first battery cell supplying electric current to an elec 10. The method of claim 9, further comprising closing the tronic load ; and first switch responsive to an electric demand of the elec a second battery cell supplying electric current to the 5 tronic " load being no greater than a designated load threshold. electronic load ; 11. The method of claim 8, further comprising conducting a first switch operatively coupled with the first battery cell the electric current from the second battery cell to the and the electronic load, wherein the first switch stops electronic load through a second switch operatively coupled conduction of the electric current to the electronic load with and disposed between the second battery cell and the from the first battery cell responsive Insive to a temperature of 10 electronic load. the first switch increasing above a designated threshold 12. A powered system comprising : temperature while the second battery cell continues a battery pack assembly including a first battery cell and supplying the electric current to the electronic load. a second battery cell ; 2. The assembly of claim 1, wherein the first switch closes an electronic load consuming electric current supplied by to conduct the electric current from the first battery cell to 15 the first battery cell and the second battery cell to the electronic load during a common time period that the perform work, and second battery cell also supplies the electric current to the a first switch operatively coupled with the first battery, the electronic load. first switch switching to a blocking state to stop con 3. The assembly of claim 1, wherein the first switch closes duction of the electric current from the first battery cell responsive to an electric demand of the electronic load being 20 to the electronic load and to a conducting state to no greater than a designated load threshold. conduct the electric current from the first battery cell to 4. The assembly of claim 1, further comprising a second the electronic load, switch operatively coupled with and disposed between the wherein the first switch is in the conducting state during second battery cell and the electronic load. a low demand time period of the electronic device and 5. The assembly of claim 1, wherein the first switch 25 while a temperature of the first switch is no greater than includes a positive temperature coefficient device. a designated temperature threshold, the first switch in 6. The assembly of claim 1, further comprising an anode the blocking state while the temperature of the first terminal and a cathode terminal operatively coupled with the switch exceeds the designated temperature threshold, electronic load, wherein the first battery cell and the second the low demand time period occurring responsive to an battery cell are operatively coupled in parallel to each other 30 electric demand of the electronic load being no greater between the anode terminal and the cathode terminal. than a designated threshold. 7. The assembly of claim 1, wherein the first switch also 13. The powered system of claim 12, further comprising opens responsive to an increase in electric demand from the a controller monitoring the electric demand of the electronic load, switching the first switch to the blocking state respon electronic load exceeding a designated load threshold. 8. A method comprising : 35 sive to the electric demand of the electronic load exceeding conducting electric current from a first battery cell and the designated threshold, and switching the switch device to from a second battery cell of a hybrid battery pack the conducting state responsive to the electric demand of the assembly to an electronic load ; and electronic load not exceeding the designated threshold. stopping conduction of the electric current to the elec 14. The powered system of claim 12, wherein the elec tronic load from the first battery cell responsive to a 40 tronic load includes one or more processors of a computing temperature of a first switch increasing above a desig System. nated threshold temperature while the second battery 15. The powered system of claim 12, wherein the elec cell continues to conduct the electric current to the tronic load includes one or more electronic components of a electronic load. vehicle. 9. The method of claim 8. further comprising closing the The powered system of claim 12, wherein the elec first switch to conduct the electric current from the first tronic load includes a power tool. battery cell to the electronic load during a common time

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