SOLVENT DEASPHALTING OPTIONS How SDA can increase residue upgrading margins

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1 SOLVENT DEASPHALTING OPTIONS How SDA can increase residue upgrading margins ME Tech Dubai, February 18 & 19, 2014 Steve Beeston - Vice President, Technology

2 Business Environment Requirements Improve refinery economics Produce higher quantities of transportation fuels Allow processing of heavier and sourer crudes Allow processing of opportunity crudes Reduce or eliminate heavy fuel oil production Improve refinery flexibility Not limited to one crude or products market Meet financing criteria Rate of return hurdles Based on proven technologies Aim is to convert low value vacuum resid into higher value products 1

3 Residue Processing Options Catalytic RFCC Residue Hydrotreating Residue Hydrocracking Non-Catalytic Visbreaking Solvent Deasphalting Coking 2

4 Residue Processing Options Hydrogen Addition Residue Hydrotreating Residue Hydrocracking Carbon Rejection Visbreaking Solvent Deasphalting Coking RFCC 3

5 Residue Processing Options Conversion Residue Hydrocracking Residue Hydrotreating Visbreaking Coking RFCC Separation Solvent Deasphalting SDA is unique in how it processes residues 4

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9 What do Beckam, Yao and Tendulkar have in common with SDA? 8

10 Solvent Deasphalting Process Physical separation by molecular type Deasphalted oil (DAO) Pitch Light paraffin solvent Advanced, counter-current extractor with packing Minimizes utilities Supercritical solvent recovery Optimized heat integration Fuels and lubes applications Foster Wheeler has been designing and constructing SDA units since 1940 SDA technology licensed by UOP/FW 9

11 The Good Old Days 10

12 The Good Old Days Asphalt cannot be separated from the oil fraction by distillation without destroying the oil characteristics Asphalt can be precipitated using solvents in which the oil fraction is soluble and the asphalt is insoluble Suitable solvents are: sulfuric acid, alcohol, acetone, gasoline and naphthas Best solvents are hydrocarbons which are gaseous at normal conditions (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, iso-butane) Basic process fundamentals unchanged in last 83 years but there have been significant improvements in hardware and operating conditions 11

13 SDA Process Originally developed for lube oil production Early units used propane Following adoption of FCC technology, fuels SDA units became popular Technology improvements Extractor Solvent / oil ratios Solvent recovery Heat integration and efficiency 12

14 Fuels SDA Capacity in USA 450,000 Operating Capacity (BPSD) 400, , , , , , ,000 50,000 Average capacity is 21,000 BPSD Year 13

15 Residue Upgrading Capacity in USA 2,500,000 Operating Capacity (BPSD) 2,250,000 2,000,000 1,750,000 1,500,000 1,250,000 1,000, , , ,000 Coking SDA Year 14

16 SDA Process Traditional Applications DAO Hydroprocessing Lube oil production FCC/RFCC Conversion unit feed Hydrocracking (FCC) Coking Feed + Dilution Solvent Mixing Main Solvent Settling Contacting Initial Separation Feed Extraction Zone Residual Fuel Oil Road Bitumen Fuel oil Conventional Combustion Asphalt Fluid Bitumen Bed Combustion Visbreaking Gasification Pitch Coking disposal can be an issue Pitch 15

17 SDA Process Feed + Dilution Solvent Mixing Main Solvent New Applications DAO Settling Contacting Initial Separation Feed Extraction Zone Hydroprocessing FCC/RFCC Conversion unit feed Hydrocracking (hydrocracking or residue Coking conversion) Residual Fuel Oil Road Primary Bitumen residue conversion unit Conventional Gasification Combustion Fluid Performance Bed Combustion asphalts Visbreaking Gasification Coking Pitch 16

18 Conventional Residue Conversion Scheme Vacuum Residue Residue Conversion Unit Conversion Products Residual/ Unconverted Material Single process to try and meet all objectives 17

19 New Role For Solvent Deasphalting Residue Conversion Unit Feed Preparation 1 Vacuum Residue Solvent Deasphalting Deasphalted Oil Pitch Conversion Products Residue Conversion Unit Produces high quality deasphalted oil Reduces residue conversion unit size Increases liquid yields Improves project economics Residual/ Unconverted Material 18

20 New Role For Solvent Deasphalting Residue Conversion Unit Feed Preparation 2 Vacuum Residue Solvent Deasphalting DAO Residue Conversion Unit Conversion Products Residual/ Unconverted Material Pitch Reduces residue conversion unit size Reduces feed impurities to residue conversion unit Increases conversion Improves project economics Revamp opportunity 19

21 Integrating Solvent Deasphalting With Coking Mastering the Molecules SDA selectively separates residue components into those: suitable for catalytic conversion (DAO) suitable for thermal conversion (pitch) Vacuum Residue Solvent Deasphalting Pitch DAO Coker Products Increases yields of desirable products Delayed Coking Further increases margins SDA + coking overall capital cost similar to coking Coke 20

22 New Role For Solvent Deasphalting Residue Conversion Unit Recycle Vacuum Residue Residue Conversion Unit Conversion Products Unconverted Material DAO Solvent Deasphalting Reduces residue conversion unit severity Deasphalted oil recycle increases overall conversion Improves project economics Revamp opportunity Pitch 21

23 Today s Solvent Deasphalting Requirements Maximize Refinery Profitability High DAO yield Maximize vacuum gasoil conversion unit (e.g. hydrocracker) feed Minimize pitch processing unit capacity High quality DAO Meet hydrocracking unit feed requirements DAO yield limited by DAO quality 22

24 100 Solvent Deasphalting Selectivity Rejection of Asphaltenes and Resins Determines DAO Quality Contaminants in DAO Deasphalted Oil Yield, Vol %

25 VGO Hydrocracking FEED Comparison Middle East Sour Vacuum Residue Medium Lift DAO High Lift DAO VOL-% API Sp.Gr S, wt-% N, wppm 1,310 1,930 Con Carbon, wt-% C7 insols, wt-% Ni +V, wppm 5 15 Color Scheme Okay Desirable Undesirable High lift DAO is undesirable hydrocracker feed

26 SDA - Molecular Distribution in Products Average Molecular Weight Aromatic Naphthenic Aliphatic 0 First 50% DAO molecules are suitable for hydrocracking % DAO molecules are challenging to hydrocrack DAO Yield 25

27 FW SDA-RT Process New Solution for High Yield & High Quality DAO Unique three product SDAbased flow scheme Resins hydrotreated and further separated in SDA unit Maximizes high quality DAO production Reduces pitch yield Integrates very well with delayed coking Vacuum Residue SDA-RT Solvent Deasphalting Section Resin Treating Section DAO Pitch 26

28 Foster Wheeler SDA-RT Flow Scheme Low Pressure Solvent Return 3 Product SDA High-Pressure Section Feed Extractor Resin Settler DAO Separator DAO (to solvent recovery) Resins (after (to solvent recovery) Makeup H 2 Pitch (to solvent recovery) Hdt Resin Extractor Hdt Resins Resin Hydrotreater Light Fractions Uses proven technologies to maximize high-quality DAO

29 SDA DAO Quality Comparison Middle East Sour Vacuum Residue Medium Lift DAO High Lift DAO SDA-RT DAO VOL-% API Sp.Gr S, wt-% N, wppm 1,310 1,930 1,360 Con Carbon, wt-% C7 insols, wt-% Ni +V, wppm Color Scheme Okay Desirable Undesirable SDA-RT maximizes high quality DAO yield

30 SDA-RT & Coking Integration DAO SDA-RT Vacuum Residue Solvent Deasphalting Section Resin Treating Section Coker Products HHCGO Pitch Delayed Coking Coke Maximizes catalytic conversion feedstock with conventional residue processing technologies 29

31 Distillate Hydrocracking-Based Refinery Basis: 300,000 BPD Middle East sour crude 2015 forecast price set Full conversion hydrocracking Options: Residue Upgrading Case Study Coking SDA + coking SDA-RT + coking EBED HC + coking Slurry hydrocracking Coke combustion to power and steam 30

32 Vol% of Vacuum Residue Feed 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% -5% Refinery Product Yields Relative to Delayed Coking Distillate Hydrocracking-Based Refinery Middle East Sour Crude SDA + Coking Gasoline Distillates G + D SDA-RT + Coking EBED HC + Coking Slurry HC SDA-RT + DCU has highest distillate yield 31

33 Coke/Pitch Yields 3,000 Distillate Hydrocracking Based Refinery Middle East Sour Crude 2,500 Coke/Pitch TPD 2,000 1,500 1, Coking SDA + Coking SDA-RT + Coking EBED HC + Coking Slurry HC 32

34 Net Refinery Operating Margins 9 Distillate Hydrocracking-Based Refinery Middle East Sour Crude S/bbl Crude Coking SDA + Coking SDA-RT + Coking EBED HC + Coking Slurry HC SDA-RT + DCU competes with residue hydrocracking

35 Coke/Pitch Yields 3,000 2,500 Distillate Hydrocracking-Based Refinery Middle East Sour Crude Coke Surplus coke Coke/Pitch TPD 2,000 1,500 1, Refinery Energy Demand Gap Gap 0 Coking SDA + Coking SDA-RT + Coking EBED HC + Coking Slurry HC SDA-RT + DCU coke make in balance with energy demand 34

36 Net Refinery Operating Margins Incremental power and steam margin Yield margin Distillate Hydrocracking-Based Refinery Middle East Sour Crude 6 S/bbl Crude Coking SDA + Coking SDA-RT + Coking EBED HC + Coking Slurry HC SDA-RT + DCU after coke conversion to energy has margins similar to residue hydrocracking

37 Summary There are a number of options for residue upgrading Traditional one step approaches have limitations Conversion Yields Inclusion of Solvent Deasphalting: Increases overall residue conversion Increases yields Reduces size of main residue conversion unit Can debottleneck existing residue conversion units Can improve feed quality to residue conversion units Improves refinery margins SDA-RT maximizes high quality DAO yield takes SDA to a new level SDA/Coking combinations can compete with other technologies by mastering the molecules SDA has a key role in any residue conversion scheme 36

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