Študija primera EXXON VALDEZ. Seminarska naloga

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1 UPEŠ - redni študij Predmet: Poslovno okolje Študijsko leto 2008/2009 Nosilec predmeta: Dr. Marko Jaklič, prof. Asistenta: Blaž Zupan, univ. dipl. ekon. mag. Aljaž Hribernik Študija primera EXXON VALDEZ Seminarska naloga Člana skupine: Janja B. Jana Janežič Ljubljana, november 2008

2 KAZALO UVOD... 3 PREDSTAVITEV PODJETJA EXXON MOBIL... 4 ZGODOVINA PODJETJA V SLIKAH... 4 PREDSTAVITEV TANKERJA EXXON VALDEZ... 8 NESREČA TANKERJA EXXON VALDEZ... 8 NARAVNO OKOLJE... 9 POSLEDICE NESREČE IN NJIHOV VPLIV NA NARAVNO OKOLJE DRUŽBENA ODGOVORNOST PODJETJA UKREPI PO NESREČI UKREPI ZA VAROVANJE OKOLJA V EXXON MOBIL ZAKLJUČEK VIRI PRILOGE

3 UVOD 24. marca 1989 se je zgodila nesreča tankerja Exxon Valdez, ko se je v morje na južni obali Aljaske izlilo okoli kubičnih metrov surove nafte in povzročilo najhujšo tovrstno nesrečo v zgodovini. Vlada ZDA ni bila pripravljena na tako nesrečo, zato je bil odziv na tako katastrofo zelo počasen. Celotna škoda je bila ocenjena na 9 miljard dolarjev. Nesreča sicer glede na količino iztekle nafte ne spada med največje tankerske nesreče, vendar pa je bila za naravo ena najhujših. Močno onesnaženih je bilo približno 320 kilometrov dotlej nedotaknjene obale, ki so jo čistili kar približno štiri leta, vendar še danes niso očiščene vse posledice te katastrofe. Pri čiščenju so uporabljali različne metode, od pranja skal z močnimi curki vode, do uporabe bakterij, ki se hranijo z ogljikovodiki in manjše količine kemikalij. Problematično pri čiščenju je bilo to, da je ta predel težko dostopen in so morali čistiti z več tisoč ladij, čolni ter z letali. V tej seminarski želiva predstaviti potek te katastrofe, vzroke in posledice nesreče tako za okolje, kot za podjetje. Predstavili bova tudi naravno okolje, probleme naravnega okolja in povezavo s primerom Exxon Valdez. Poleg tega bova predstavili samo podjetje in njegovo zgodovino ter pogledali kaj podjetje počne dandanes v smislu družbene odgovornosti. 3

4 PREDSTAVITEV PODJETJA EXXON MOBIL Podjetje se je prvotno imenovalo Standard Oil, ustanovil pa ga je John D. Rockefeller leta Leta 1911 je razpadel v 34 podjetij, dve od teh sta bili Standard Oil of New York/Mobil in Standard Oil of New Jersey/Exxon. Leta 1999 pa je prišlo do združitve teh dveh podjetij in je nastalo Exxon Mobil. Od 1. Januarja 2006 je direktor podjetja Rex Tillerson. Njihovi glavni proizvodi so gorivo, mazivo za stroje in kemikalije iz bencina. Podjetje je ameriška bencinska in naftna korporacija, ki je bila z imenom Exxon Mobil Corporation oziroma skrajšano Exxon Mobil ustanovljena 30. Novembra 1999 z združitvijo dveh velikih naftnih družb Exxon in Mobil. Exxon Mobil je največja družba na svetu glede na dohodek. Leta 2007 so imeli 404,552 milijard dolarjev dohodka, 40,610 milijard dolarjev neto dobička, 242,082 milijard dolarjev vseh sredstev in zaposlenih. Sedaj pa je njegova konkurenca Wall-Mart, saj so cene nafte nestalne. Exxon Mobil je največja izmed šestih največjih naftnih družb z dnevno proizvodnjo 4,18 milijonov sodčkov v letu Exxon Mobil ima sedež podjetja v mestu Irwing v Texasu. Njihove glavne znamke so Exxon, Mobil in Esso. Lastniški delež ima podjetje tudi v podružnicah Imperial Oil limited in SeaRiver Maritime. 12. junija 2008 je Exxon Mobil napovedal, da bo prenehal trgovati na drobno, saj se je vse težje ukvarjati z bencinskimi črpalkami ob naraščanju stroškov surove nafte. Prodaja ne bo pomenila izginotja firme Exxon Mobil, saj se bo nadaljevala prodaja Exxon Mobil bencina. ZGODOVINA PODJETJA V SLIKAH Skozi zadnji 125 let se je Exxon Mobil iz regionalnega prodajalca petroleja v ZDA razvil v največjega javnega ponudnika petroleja na svetu. Danes delujejo v večini držav sveta in so najbolj poznani po njihovih znamkah Exxon, Esso in Mobil. Leta 1859 polkovnik Edwin Drake in Billy Smith zavrtata v prvo uspešno naftno vrtino v Titusville-u v Pensilvaniji. Leta 1870 Rockefeller in njegovi partnerji izoblikujejo Standard Oil Company v Ohio. Matthew Ewing in Hiram Bond Everest sta ustanovila Vacuum Oil Company leta 1866 na osnovi patentiranja nove metode destilacije petroleja v vakuumu, s čimer se proizvede visoko kakovostno mazilo za stroje. Leta 1879 Standard Oil Corporation kupi tri četrtine deleža Vacuum Oil Company za dolarjev. 4

5 Leta 1882 Standard Oil Trust vključi v sestavo podjetja Standard Oil Company v New Jerseyju (Jersey Standard) in Standard Oil Company v New Yorku (Socony). Leta 1885 Standard Oil Trust preseli sedež podjetja v New York. Devetnadstropna zgradba s pisarnami postane prepoznaven znak. Leta 1906 Socony pridobi močno oporo v trgu petroleja na Kitajskem z razvojem majhnih petrolejnih svetilk. Zaradi določitve vrhovnega sodišča v ZDA, se je leta 1911 Standard Oil razcepil na 34 nepovezanih družb. Med njimi so bile tudi Jersey Standard, Socony in Vacuum Oil. Tega leta tudi prvič prodajo petroleja prekosi prodaja bencina. Leta 1919 Jersey Standard pridobi 50 odstotni delež v podjetju Humble Oil & Refining Company v Texasu. Leta 1920 so z raziskavami Jersey Standard-a iznašli prvi petrokemični proizvod - Isopropil alkohol, ki se uporablja za razmaščevanje elektronskih delov. Leta 1926 Jersey Standards objavi novo znamko goriva pod imenom Esso. To področje je prvo v ZDA, kjer so z uporabo tehnike opazovanja potresnega vala odkrili izvor nafte. Odkril ga je Humble-ov geofizik leta 1927 z uporabo seizmografa v Sugarlandu v Texasu. 5

6 Leta 1927 Charles Lindbergh uporabi Mobiloil v prvem solo poletu čez Atlantik, naslednje leto pa Amelia Earhart prav tako uporabi Mobiloil v svojem zgodovinskem solo letu čez Atlantik. Leta 1937 Jersey Standard proizvede umetno gumo, Butil. Danes se Butil uporablja pri izdelavi gum, zaščitnih plaščev, in podobno Jersey Standard predstavi Uniflo motorno olje, prvo motorno olje, ki je uporabno tako poleti, kot pozimi. Leta 1955 Jersey Standard ustanovi Esso Education Foundation, program, ki finančno pomaga privatnim višjim šolam in univerzam. Leta 1958 Pan American Airways prvič leti z letalom Beoing 707 iz New Yorka v London z gorivom za letala Mobil. Leta 1972 Jersey Standard uradno zamenja ime v Exxon Corporation. Leta 1974 Mobil predstavi sintetično avtomobilsko motorno olje Mobil 1. Mobil 1 je danes vodilno sintetično motorno olje na svetu. 6

7 Leta 1975 Mobil sodeluje pri dokončevanju prve naftne ploščadi visoke 50 nadstropij, ki je bila prototip za vse ostale ploščadi v Severnem morju. Leta 1989 pride do razlitja Exxon Valdez tankerja za katerega ExxonMobil takoj prevzame odgovornost in prične s čiščenjem posledic. Od ustanovitve, je ExxonMobil zagotovil milijon dolarjev letno za pomoč tigrom. Leta 1995 Exxon ustanovi sklad Save the tiger s partnerstvom National Fish-a in Wildlife Fundation. Ta sklad je namenjen ohranitvi azijskih tigrov v divjini. Leta 1997 Mobil predstavi Speedpass, elektronski sistem, ki aktivira črpanje goriva in stroške zaračuna nakup preko kreditne kartice. 30. novembra 1999 se Exxon in Mobil združita v Exxon Mobil Corporation. Leta 2005 se ExxonMobil in Qatar Petroleum združita v partnerstvo in razširita razvoj ogromnega nezdruženega plinskega polja na svetu, ki se nahaja na Severnem polju daleč od Qatarja. 7

8 PREDSTAVITEV TANKERJA EXXON VALDEZ Exxon Valdez je bilo prvotno ime naftnega tankerja, ki se je kasneje preimenoval v Mediterranean. Bil je last podjetja Exxon Corporation, današnjega Exxon Mobil. Tanker je 300 metrov dolg, 50 metrov širok in 27 metrov globok. Celotna konstrukcija je iz jekla in prazen tehta ton. Maksimalna hitrost je 30 km/h, prevaža pa lahko ton tovora. Po razlitju nafte leta 1989 so tanker prepeljali v San Diego, kamor je prispel 10. Junija 1989, popravila pa so se pričela 20 dni kasneje. Zamenjanega je bilo približno 1600 ton jekla in porabili so okoli 30 milijonov dolarjev za popravilo. Exxon Mobil je poskušal Valdeza vpeljati v severno Ameriško zaliv, vendar je sodišče prepovedala vstop v zaliv princa Williama, kjer se je katastrofa zgodila. Leta 2002 so tanker prodali v vzhodno Azijo. NESREČA TANKERJA EXXON VALDEZ 23. marca 1989 je Exxon Valdez zapustil terminal v Aljaski okoli 21:12. Tanker je bil z ,6 kubičnih metrov surove nafte namenjen v Long Beach v Kalifornijo. Ob 23:25 je kapitan Joseph Hazelwood spremenil smer iz začrtane poti zaradi kosov ledu, ki so plavali v vodi. Če bi hotel ostati na začrtani poti, bi moral zmanjšati hitrost, da ti kosi ne bi poškodovali tankerja, tako pa je s spremembo smeri lahko plul hitreje. Ob 23:40 je kapitan še enkrat spremenil smer in kmalu zapustil kabino. Zaposleni, ki je krmilil tanker Gregory Cousins, je takrat delal že 6 ur in bi ga moral drugi zaposleni Lloyd LeCain nadomestiti, vendar pa je Lloyd pomagal že pri črpanju nafte v tanker in ga Cousins ni hotel buditi. Ko je Cousins tanker obrnil proti začrtani poti, je poklical kapitana Hazelwooda in povedal tudi, da bodo na tej poti naleteli na ledeno goro. Istočasno je opazovalec Maureen Jones javil, da se je luč svetilnika na otoku Busby pojavila na desni strani ladijskega nosu, morali pa bi jo videti na levi strani, če bi pluli po začrtani poti. Ta sprememba je pomenila veliko nevarnost, saj so pluli proti velikim kosom ledu. Okoli 00:04 zjutraj so zadeli greben Bligh Reef kar je povzročilo šest močnih sunkov, ki so poškodovali tanker. V petih urah se je razlilo kubičnih metrov surove nafte, po sedmih urah pa je bil naftni madež širok skoraj 305 metrov ter dolg 6436 metrov. V tej nesreči so naredili veliko napak. Kapitan ni dajal pravih navodil posadki, Gregory Cousins bi moral varno obrniti tanker, pa ga zaradi neznanega vzroka ni, podjetje Exxon bi moral kapitana Hazelwooda bolj nadzirati in najeti bolj usposobljeno posadko, saj je bil kapitan edini, ki je sploh imel licenco za upravljanje z tankerjem. Poleg tega kapitan sploh ne bi smel zapustiti kabine, dokler nevarnost ne bi bila mimo. Tudi posadke so imeli premalo, saj je bilo na ladji le 19 oseb, čeprav so na veliko manjših tankerjih po navadi imeli 40 glavo posadko. Kasneje so celo izvedeli, da je kapitan tisto noč spil vsaj osem dvojnih vodk in imel v krvi več kot šestkrat preveliko količino alkohola, kot je dovoljeno po zakonu. Kapitan je bil zdravljeni alkoholik, ki je izstopil iz programa zdravljenja. Kasneje je direktor Exxona priznal, da je naredil veliko napako, ko je postavil Hazelwooda na mesto kapitana. 8

9 NARAVNO OKOLJE Naravno okolje, velikokrat rečeno kar okolje, obsega vse žive in nežive stvari, ki so nastale na Zemlji spontano ni jih naredil človek. Koncept naravnega okolja lahko razdelimo na nekaj komponent: - ekološke enote, ki funkcionirajo kot naravni sistemi; brez množičnega vtikanja ljudi. Vsebujejo vso vegetacijo, živali, mikroorganizme, skale, atmosfero... - naravne vire in fizične fenomene, kot so zrak, voda, klima, energija, sevanje, električni naboj, magnetizem; kar ne izvira od človeške dejavnosti je naravno dano Mogoče je prav zaradi dejstva, da so vse te stvari dane, človek egoistično mislil, da jih bo zanj vedno dovolj in je neodgovorno ravnal z njimi. Faktorji, ki so zelo prizadeli naravno okolje so predvsem naslednji: 1. Industrijska revolucija Industrija zahteva energijo, ki onesnažuje zrak, vodo; onesnažuje z odpadki, ki se pojavijo v produkcijskem procesu, pa tudi s končnimi izdelki, ki jih ljudje po uporabi zavržejo. Povzroča tudi onesnaženje s pesticidi in kemikalijami. 2. Življenjski standard Na razpolago je vedno več dobrin, kar spet pomeni večje onesnaževanje. 3. Rast prebivalstva Ljudje živimo dlje in zato posledično porabimo več dobrin. Spremembe v družbenih vrednotah Ta dejavnik naj bi stanje izboljšal. Ljudje naj bi vedno več časa namenjali rekreaciji, hobijem, ki se vežejo na naravno okolje. Bolj se ukvarjamo z zdravjem in prehranjevanjem, zato naj bi se spremenil oz. izboljšal tudi odnos do narave. Vse bolj močnejša so gibanja ljudi za varstvo okolja, pa tudi podjetja se bolj kot v preteklosti trudijo za bolj ekološke načine proizvodnje, pri čemer jih ponavadi podpira tudi vlada. Problemi naravnega okolja Probleme naravnega okolja lahko razdelimo na: 1. Globalni problemi: klimatske spremembe, tanjšanje plasti stratosferskega ozona, rastoča svetovna populacija. 2. Regionalni problemi: onesnaženost zraka in kisel dež, uničenje ekosistemov. 3. Lokalni problemi: komunalni odpadki, strupene kemikalije in industrijski kemični odpadki. (povzeto po Jaklič, 2005, Poslovno okolje podjetja) Nesreča tankerja Exxon Valdez je povzročila regionalne probleme in sicer uničenje ekosistemov, pa tudi lokalne probleme strupene kemikalije oz. razlitje nafte, ki je zastrupila naravno okolje. Več o posledicah nesreče pa v nadaljevanju. 9

10 POSLEDICE NESREČE IN NJIHOV VPLIV NA NARAVNO OKOLJE Posledice razlitja nafte, ki jih najprej opazimo, so tiste, ki so vidne kot onesnaženje obale in so bolj ali manj estetske narave. Obsežna razlitja pa imajo nedvomno hujše posledice, ki so precej bolj dolgotrajne kot je samo fizično onesnaženje. Zelo prizadenejo naravno okolje, saj potrebuje veliko časa, da se spet vzpostavi neko ravnovesje. Prizadeto naravno okolje ima poleg ekoloških posledic, tudi druge: Psihološke, sociološke Ekonomske posledice Pravne posledice Ekološke posledice Surova nafta in njeni derivati so zelo težko razgradljive snovi, zato je biološka razgradnja nafte v naravnih razmerah zelo počasen proces. Mikroorganizmi za razkroj nafte potrebujejo kisik in dodatek drugih hranilnih snovi, ki pa jih v takih razmerah ni v izobilju. Zato so ob nesreči tankerja Exxon Valdez mikrobom skušali pomagati tako, da so oljni madež razpršili z uporabo detergentov, s čimer so povečali njegovo površino, na onesnaženo območje pa so pršili tudi umetna gnojila, s čimer so mikrobom zagotovili dodatno hrano. Na Aljaski je bilo pred nesrečo okolje praktično neomadeževano, pa je kljub dodatnim posegom vendar minilo veliko let, da si je tamkajšnje okolje vsaj do neke mere opomoglo. Tovrstne nesreče imajo za posledico tudi pogin velikega števila živali, ki živijo v morju, ali pa se prehranjujejo z morsko hrano. Zaradi razlitja tankerja Exxon Valdez je poginilo okoli različnih morskih ptic, morskih vider, 300 tjulnjev, 250 gologlavih orlov in okoli 22 ork in celo več milijonov lososov. Dolgoročne posledice na naravno okolje Problem pa je še toliko večji, ker razlitje pušča dolgoročne posledice. Na primer konstantno izpostavljanje nafti je povzročilo večjo smrtnost nekaterih živali še več let po nesreči. Leta 2001 je bila narejena raziskava 2001 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) study, s katero so poskušali ugotoviti, koliko nafte je ostalo v zalivu Prince William še od razlitja leta Pri raziskovanju so ločili madeže, ki so na površju in nafto, ki je skrita, oz. je pod površjem. Predvsem je zaskrbljujoča slednja, saj veliko let ''spi'' in ostane veliko let tekoča in strupena. Predvsem je nevarno zaradi izkopavanj živali ali obalnih neviht, zaradi česar lahko nafta spet priteče v morje. Raziskava je pokazala, da je bilo leta 2001, še zmeraj 20 jutr obrežja (1 jutro = 40,467 arov) prekritih z nafto. Psihološke in sociološke posledice Ljudje izgubijo zaupanje v hrano, ki prihaja iz morja, bojijo se bolezni, onesnaženosti okolja ter imajo strah, da bi se to še kdaj ponovilo. Prihaja tudi do brezposelnosti in povečanja kriminala. 10

11 Na področju, kjer je prišlo do razlitja tankerja Exxon Valdez so celo zaznali povečanje števila samomorov, alkoholizma in odvisnosti od drog. Raziskava, ki je bila narejena leta 2003 je pokazala, da še 15 let po dogodku, ljudje trpijo zaradi depresije in post-travmatičnega stresa. Ekonomske posledice Ekonomska škoda po takšnih katastrofah je ogromna in jo štejemo v milijardah dolarjev. Škodo utrpijo lokalni prebivalci ter okolje in seveda tudi podjetje, zaradi katerega je prišlo do nesreče. Nesreče imajo vpliv na številna področja: npr. na ribištvo, marikulture, rekreativni ribolov, turistično dejavnost, jadranje, potapljanje in podobno. Prav nič drugače ni bilo v primeru Exxon Valdeza. Razlitje je vplivalo na ribištvo Južne in Srednje Aljaske, ki preživlja tamkajšnje manjše skupnosti. Ribiči so utrpeli ogromno škode, saj so bila v letu 1989 njihova lovišča uničena. Prav tako je škodo utrpel turizem. Zaliv Princa Williama je bil namreč popularna turistična točka predvsem zaradi plaž in slikovite pokrajine, glavna atrakcija pa so bile morske vidre. Dejavnosti, ki so najbolj občutile katastrofo: 1. Rekreativno športno ribištvo Škoda je bila ocenjena glede na vplive, ki ga je imelo razlitje na športen ribolov. Pri ocenjevanju je treba upoštevati število ribičev, število izletov, velikost območja kjer so lovili ribe, vrste rib in podobno. Tako so leta 1989 škodo ocenjevali med 0 in 580 milijoni dolarjev, leta 1990 pa je bil rang med 3,6 in 50,5 milijoni. 2. Turizem Pri turzmu je imelo razlitje kljub mnogim negativnim vplivom tudi nekaj pozitivnih. Glavni negativni vplivi so bili: - zmanjšano število dopustnikov oz. izletnikov v območju razlitja, zaradi pomanjkanja storitev, ki jih gostje potrebujejo (nastanitev, čarterske ladje,...) - pomanjkanje delovne sile v turizmu, saj je vlada ponujala dobro plačana dela za čiščenje - 59 odstotkov podjetij na najbolj prizadetem območju je poročalo o ukinitvi poslov zaradi razlitja, 16 odstotkov pa jih je poročalo, da so bili posli slabši od pričakovanih. Pozitivni učinki so bili predvsem v tem, da je bila zasedenost hotelov višja, več izposoj avtomobilov in tudi zasedenost čarterjev je bila večja. Pravne posledice - Exxon je dobil kazen v višini 150 milijonov dolarjev, največja kar je bila kdajkoli naložena za 'kriminal nad okoljem'. Sodišče je odštelo 125 milijonov, ker je Exxon pomagal pri čiščenju in plačal nekatere zasebne terjatve. Od ostalih 25 milijonov jih je šlo 12 milijonov skladu North American Wetlands Conservation Fund, 13 milijonov pa skladu 'Žrtve kriminala'. - Plačati so morali tudi odškodnino 100 milijonov dolarjev, za škodo, ki so jo povzročili okolju ribam, naravi, območju ob razlitju. Ta denar je bil razdeljen med zvezno in državno vlado. - Dodatnih 900 milijonov odškodnine so morali poravnati v 10-ih letnih zneskih, zadnji je bil plačan septembra

12 DRUŽBENA ODGOVORNOST PODJETJA Podjetje ExxonMobil je priznalo, da je bilo razlitje nafte njihovega tankerja tragična nesreča, ki jo globoko obžalujejo. Takoj so priznali odgovornost za razlitje in tako tudi plačali za čiščenje ter za odškodnine tistim, ki jih je nesreča neposredno prizadela. Tako so takoj prostovoljno plačali 300 milijonov dolarjev odškodnine 11 tisočim prebivalcem Aljaske in podjetjem, ki so zaradi njih utrpeli škodo. Plačali so tudi 2,2 milijardi dolarjev za čiščenje zaliva Prince William in kot že napisano milijardo dolarjev vladama Aljaske in ZDA. V primeru Valdeza je sodišče določilo, da mora povrh že prej naštetih izdatkov plačati še 5 milijard dolarjev Aljaškim ribičem, vendar se je podjetje pritožilo, češ da so plačali že dovolj. Podjetje naj bi še celo v letošnjem letu plačalo 383 milijonov dolarjev ribičem in drugim, ki so jih tožili zaradi nesreče. UKREPI PO NESREČI Takoj po nesreči: Razliti madež nafte je ogrožal preživetje prehranjevalne verige (rib, lososov, ptičev, tjulnjev...), ki prinaša dobiček ribiški dejavnosti od ribičev, predelovalne industrije, do prodajalcev itd. Takšnega razlitja še nikoli niso doživeli, zato so bile tudi reakcije na reševanje počasnejše in bolj neučinkovite, kot če bi bili na kaj takšnega pripravljeni. Poleg tega je bila lokacija razlitja oddaljena in dosegljiva samo s helikopterji ali čolni. Najbolj pomembna naloga je bila seveda zajeziti madež, nato pa ga počistiti kolikor hitro je mogoče. Nalogo čiščenja je prevzelo podjetje Alyseka Pipeline Service Company, ki naj bi bilo zadolženo prav za reševanje tovrstnih nesreč, vendar je bil njihov odgovor na nesrečo izjemno počasen in neprimeren. Končno je reševanje na svoje stroške prevzel Exxon in poklical njihov krizni center v Houston, ki jim je poslal opremo za stabilizacijo ladje. Izvedli so tudi naslednje ukrepe: - ustanovitev komunikacijske mreže, da bi bili na tekočem z informacijami o reševanju, - postavitev štirih vremenskih postaj, saj je bilo prav od vremena velikokrat odvisen potek reševanja - sodelovanje z raznimi okoljskimi organizacijami, obalno stražo, specialisti... Ukrepi za dolgoročno varnost Lahko bi rekli, da je nesreča prinesla tudi nekaj dobrega, saj so se po njej začeli ukvarjati in misliti na mnogo stvari, na katere prej niso. Tako so lahko za zgled tudi drugim podjetjem, da tudi ta naredijo vse za preventivo ali za učinkovito delovanje po nesreči. V primeru Exxon in na področju zaliva Prince William je bilo sprejetih po nesreči mnogo ukrepov za preprečitev oziroma sanacijo razlitja: 1. Ameriška Obalna straža sedaj kontrolira polno natovorjene tankerje s pomočjo satelitov. 2. Ko tanker pluje po zalivu, ga spremljata dve ladji, ki pazita na dogajanje na tankerju in sta tudi sposobni pomagati tankerju v nujnih primerih, kot na primer v primeru izgube moči ali izgube kontrole nad krmilom. 3. Tanker krmarijo posebno izurjeni krmarji s posebnimi izkušnjami prav na območju zaliva Prince William. Kriteriji za varno krmarjenje pa so natančno določeni. 12

13 4. Kongres je določil zakon, ki zahteva, da imajo vsi tankerji v zalivu Prince William dvojne ladijske trupe. Ocenili so namreč, da bi bila v primeru Exxon Valdez količina razlite nafte ob taki konstrukciji pol manjša. 5. Načrti za primere nesreč razlitja v zalivu Prince William morajo zdaj vsebovati scenarij v primeru, da se razlije 12,6 milijonov galon (galona je 4,54609 litra) nafte. 6. Sposobnosti sistemov za posnemanje nafte iz vode so sedaj 10-krat večje kot leta Četudi bi leta 1989 potegnili iz morja vso mešanico nafte in vode, ne bi imeli prostora kamor bi jo lahko dali. Danes so te kapacitete ogromne, saj lahko shranijo barelov mešanice (1 barel=159 litrov). 8. Sedaj imajo razpršilce, s katerimi razpršijo naftne madeže, na zalogi ter jih lahko uporabijo s pomočjo helikopterjev, letal ali čolnov. 9. Uvedli so testiranje za droge in alkohol za vse zaposlene, ki morajo skrbeti za varnost, prepovedali so zaposlenim, ki imajo izkušnje z uporabo prepovedanih substanc, da se zaposlujejo na delovnih mestih, ki so odgovorna za varnost. Najemanje znanstvenikov Podjetje je najemalo tudi znanstvenike, ki so preučevali vplive razlitja nafte. Znanstveniki priznavajo, da je nafta, ki je ostala pod površjem, zahrbtna in je proces razkroja dolgotrajen, vendar naj to ne bi predstavljalo kakšne resne nevarnosti. Po njihovem mnenju sedaj tudi ni nobene živalske oziroma rastlinske vrste, ki bi bila v nevarnosti zaradi vplivov razlitja leta Trdijo, da se je ekosistem v zalivu Prince William popolnoma obnovil. Vendar pa temu mnogi nasprotujejo, saj podjetju očitajo, da najema znanstvenike, ki podajajo ugotovitve v njihovo korist in ne resničnega stanja. UKREPI ZA VAROVANJE OKOLJA V EXXON MOBIL V podjetju si prizadevajo za varovanje okolja tako, da pozivajo k skrbnemu ravnanju z energijo ter delajo na tem, da iščejo nove in boljše načine, ki bodo omogočali manjšo porabo energije. R3M tehnologija Tehnologija, ki bi jim omogočila locirati nafto, ki je skrita na težko dostopnih mestih (na primer globoko pod oceanskim dnom ali v kompleksnih skalnatih tvorbah) in se do nje še ne da priti. Ta tehnologija naj bi omogočila ne le priti do te nafte ampak naj bi zraven tega poskrbela, da bi do tega prišli na okolju prijazen način. LNG (liquefied natural gas) tehnologija Zemeljski plin je eden od najčistejših goriv, zato je po njem visoko povpraševanje. Za prevoz plina prek oceanov mora biti najprej ohlajen v tekočino LNG. V podjetju sedaj razvijajo novo generacijo ladij, z 80 odstotki več kapacitet za varen prevoz. Čistejša energija V podjetju problem klimatskih sprememb jemljejo resno in se zato trudijo zmanjšati emisije toplogrednih plinov ter podpirajo raziskave v ta namen. Exxonovo prizadevanje za varnost in okolje so opazile tudi številne zunanje organizacije in tako je Exxon v kampanji za čistejše združbe rangiran na drugo mesto glede na vsesplošno prizadevanje za okolje in na prvo mesto glede na vpliv na okolje. Agencija za okolje v Čilu je Exxona izbrala za najbolj zanesljivo in najbolj upravljano družbo v deželi. Komisija za zemljo v Texasu je podelila certifikat kot oceno za izrazit prispevek k zaščiti okolja v državnih obalnih vodah. Ministrstvo za naravne vire in okolje v Nikaragvi je Exxonu podelilo nagrado s posebno pohvalo za prispevanje k zaščiti okolja. 13

14 ZAKLJUČEK V seminarski nalogi sva pisali predvsem o podjetju Exxobn Mobil, njegovi zgodovini, predvsem pa o nesreči njihovega tankerja Exxon Valdez in o tem kakšne razsežnosti je ta nesreča imela. Ugotovili sva, da je imela številne posledice od ekonomskih do pravnih, pa tudi psihološke in seveda pomenila je pravo ekološko katastrofo. Poginilo je ogromno živali, dvignila se je brezposelnost, trpele so gospodarske dejavnosti, najbolj turizem in športno ribištvo. Ljudje so imeli še leta po dogodku težave zaradi depresije in post-travmatičnega stresa. Podjetje je plačalo milijarde za sanacijo nesreče in za odškodnine. Po nesreči so dokaj hitro ukrepali in izplačali odškodnino prizadetim posameznikom in tudi podjetjem. Prav tako so vzeli čiščenje v svoje roke. Sprejeli so tudi mnoge ukrepe, ki zagotavljajo večjo varnost in po tudi naredili plane za učinkovito urgiranje, če bi se kaj takega še kdaj ponovilo. Naprimer kontrolo tankerjev, ki potujejo po zalitu s pomočjo satelitov; povečali kapacitete za umazano vodo; na zalogi imajo tudi razpršilce za razpršitev naftnih madežev itd. Postali so tudi družbeno odgovorno podjetje, prizadevajo si namreč za skrbno ravnanje z energijo, ter veliko vlagajo v nove tehnologije za čistejšo energijo. Prizadevanje jim priznavajo številne organizacije in agencije, ki podjetje postavljajo na visoko mesto, ko ocenjujejo njihov vpliv in prizadevanje za okolje. V Exxon Mobilu so tudi najemli znanstvenike, ki so preučevali kako se čuti vpliv razlitja na okolje še po letih. Njihovi znanstveniki pravijo, da ni več nevarnosti zaradi tega, ampak marsikdo temu nasprotuje. Pravijo, da je nafta, ki je ostala skrita pod površjem še vedno nevarna. Tako lahko zaključimo, da se podjetje res potrudilo za odpravljanje posledic po razlitju, ne moremo jim tudi očitati, da sedaj niso družbeno odgovorno podjetje. Vendar pa še vedno ostaja siva senca na njih, saj bodo vedno dvomi o tem, da mogoče do nesreče ne bi prišlo, če bi bili tudi v letu 1989 bolj previdni. 14

15 VIRI OpenDocument dmconfigid= &newsid= &newslang=en d=2 Type=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS= &clientId=16601 Jaklič, M.:Poslovno okolje podjetja, Ljubljana: Ekonomska fakulteta,

16 PRILOGE PRILOGA A Blagovne znamke podjetja Exxon Mobil: Vir: PRILOGA B Slika 1: Delovna sila glede na geografske regije leta 2007 Vir: 16

17 PRILOGA C Slika 2: Tanker Exxon Valdez leta 1989 Vir: PRILOGA D Slika 3: Zemljevid zaliva princa Williama Vir: 17

18 PRILOGA E: Članek Oil spill Oil spill Lead Author: Stanislav Patin (other articles) Article Topics: Energy, Pollution and Fisheries This article has been reviewed and approved by the following Topic Editor: Cutler J. Cleveland (other articles) Last Updated: January 23, 2008 The ''Exxon Valdez'' oil spill. (Source: NOAA) An oil spill is the accidental petroleum release into the environment. On land, oil spills are usually localized and thus their impact can be eliminated relatively easily. In contrast, marine oil spills may result in oil pollution over large areas and present serious environmental hazards. The primary source of accidental oil input into seas is associated with oil transportation by tankers and pipelines (about 70%), whereas the contribution of offshore drilling and production activities is minimal (less than 1%). Large and catastrophic spills releasing more than 30,000 tons of oil are relatively rare events and their frequency in recent decades has decreased perceptibly. Yet, such episodes have the potential to cause the most serious ecological risk (primarily for sea birds and mammals) and result in long-term environmental disturbances (mainly in coastal zones) and economic impact on coastal activities (especially on fisheries and mariculture). Public concern over marine oil spills has been clearly augmented since the 1967 Torrey Canyon supertanker accident off the UK coast, when 100,000 tonnes of spilled oil caused heavy pollution of the French and British shores with serious ecological and fisheries consequences. More recently, the highly publicized 1989 spill of the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska caused unprecedented damage to the fragile Arctic system. Since then, impressive technical, political, and legal experience in managing the problem has been gained in many countries and at the international level, mainly through a number of Conventions initiated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). As a result of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, the U.S. passed legislation requiring all newly built tankers to have a double hull. When the oil reaches the shoreline, on rocky shores some components of the oil evaporate, leaving behind the heaviest components and turning the oil into tar. On rocky shores with 18

19 surf, the tar will erode away from the wave action, and biological communities will return rather quickly. In marshes, however, oil can sink down below the surface and remain for many years. Oil accumulated in marsh sediments undergoes some microbial breakdown, but it is slow. Low-energy environments like marshes are the most vulnerable and show the slowest rates of recovery from oil spills. Effects of a rather small oil spill in Falmouth, MA in the late 1960s were seen to last for a decade by a team of scientists from the nearby Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. It is seldom that a spill occurs right in an area that has been intensively studied prior to the spill. Fiddler crabs were particularly sensitive, and were still affected after seven years. The oil affected their burrow construction the burrows did not go straight down, but leveled off to a horizontal plane. While this was not a problem during the summer, when winter came the crabs were not below the freezing zone of the marsh as they should have been and froze to death. Benthic communities took about a decade to return to normal. After 30 years, some abnormalities still are noted in fiddler crab burrows in the oiled areas. Marshes and sediments in Prince William Sound in Alaska retained oil from the massive oil spill of the Exxon Valdez in 1989 for many years, affecting the development of fish embryos on the bottom. After ten years, pockets of oil remained in these marshes, and mussels, clams, ducks and sea otters showed evidence of harm in some localized areas. Remedial actions after oil spills are controversial, and some of the cures (e.g. aggressive cleaning with large heavy equipment) may be worse than the original problem, as was seen in the attempted clean up after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Vir: PRILOGA F: Članek Zgodilo se je 27. februarja... Leta 1990 sta bila podjetje Exxon in Exxonovo ladijsko podjetje obtožena petih kriminalnih dejanj. Razlitje nafte iz tankerja Exxon Valdez je bilo najbolj uničujoče razlitje nafte ob obali ZDA. Zaradi oddaljenosti - razlitje je bilo dosegljivo le s helikopterji ali čolni - je bilo čiščenje oljnih madežev zelo oteženo. Na območju razlitja na Aljaski je naravno okolje lososov, morskih vider, tjulnjev in različnih vrst morskih ptičev. Nesreča tankerja Exxon Valdez se je zgodila 23. marca 1989, ko se je tanker odpravil na svojo 28. pot iz aljaškega Valdeza. Odplul je proti jugu in je bil poln nafte. Kapitan Joseph Hazelwood je prek radijske zveze sporočil obalni straži, da bo spremenil smer plovbe, saj se je želel izogniti nekaj manjšim ledenim goram, ki so se odtrgale od ledenika Columbia. Obalna straža je spremembo poti odobrila. Preden je odšel v kabino, je Hazelwood naročil Gregoryju Cousinsu, naj začne spreminjati smer, ko bo ladja tako blizu otoka Busby, da bodo videli luč svetilnika. Cousins je ubogal, a se ladja na desno ni obračala pravilno. 24. marca štiri minute čez polnoč je ladja zadela ob morski greben Bligh. Ni jasno, ali je Cousins prepozno dal navodilo za spremembo smeri ali pa ga mornarji niso dobro razumeli. 19

20 Iz tankerja je izteklo okoli kubičnih metrov surove nafte, ki je onesnažila kilometrov obale. Exxon je za čiščenje porabil okoli dve milijardi dolarjev. Pri čiščenju je sodelovalo delavcev. Milijardo dolarjev pa je moralo podjetje odšteti za civilne tožbe. V tožbi je sodišče določilo štiri milijarde dolarjev kazni za podjetje. Exxon se je večkrat pritožil na razsodbo, kdaj pa bodo znova razpravljali o ponovni pritožbi podjetja, ni znano. Tanker so 10. julija 1989 prepeljali v San Diego, 30. julija pa so ga začeli popravljati. Zamenjali so okoli ton jekla. Junija naslednje leto je tanker, ki so ga preimenovali v Sea River Mediterranean, zapustil luko, še pred tem pa je Exxon za popravila odštel 30 milijonov dolarjev. Zaradi posledic razlitja nafte je umrlo okoli različnih morskih ptic, morskih vider, 300 tjulnjev, 250 gologlavih orlov in okoli 22 ork. Poginilo je več milijonov lososov in več milijard iker lososov in slanikov. 29. januarja 1990 se je v aljaškem Anchorageu začelo sojenje kapitanu Josephu Hazelwoodu, 27. februarja pa se je začelo sojenje Exxonu in njihovemu ladijskemu podjetju. Leta 1991 je ameriško ministrstvo za pravosodje razglasilo, da se je Exxon strinjal, da bo plačal milijardo dolarjev kazni. Vir: PRILOGA G: Članek Oil Pollution Act of 1990, United States Oil Pollution Act of 1990, United States Lead Author: Robyn Kenney (other articles) Article Topics: Environmental policy and Energy policy This article has been reviewed and approved by the following Topic Editor: Cutler J. Cleveland (other articles) Last Updated: November 10, 2008 The Exxon Valdez aground on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound. (Source: NOAA) The Oil Pollution Act (OPA) was signed by George H. Bush in 1990, primarily in response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska that discharged more than 10 million gallons of crude oil into the Prince William Sound. The Act was designed to expand 20

21 oil spill prevention measures and to establish new requirements for oil transportation, cleanups, and response capabilities of the federal government and industry. The OPA amends Section 311 of the Clean Water Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Amendments included: changes to federal response authority; penalty increases for oil spills; establishment of U.S. Coast Guard response organizations; mandated tank vessel and facility response plans; and the formulation of area contingency plans for selected areas. Under the OPA, the owner or operator of a facility from which oil is discharged (the responsible party) is liable for the costs associated with containment or cleanup of the spill and any damages resulting from the spill. If a responsible party is unknown or refuses to pay, an Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund will provide up to one billion dollars for any one oil pollution incident or oil spill. The trust fund receives primary revenue from a five-cent tax on every barrel of imported or domestic oil. However, the primary revenues ceased in 1994 due to a sunset provision law. Under the Act, the Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) was established. The office is responsible for implementing the Oil Pollution Act for onshore pipelines. Their objective is to decrease the potential for pipeline spills, diminish environmental consequences of spills, and ensure quick response and well-planned spill cleanup. The OPS participates with the National Response Team, led by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and United States Coast Guard. The Coast Guard Maritime Transportation Act of 2004 amended portions of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 by providing exemption liability for passive financial entities who are lessors in vessel lease financing transactions. Congress borrowed this amendment exemption from the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Vir: PRILOGA H: Članek A power shift in the world of oil A power shift in the world of oil Big Oil is still king, but its dominance is under siege. Around the world, oil multinationals, such as ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell, and BP, have never been so challenged. Even amid record profits from high oil prices, they're battling increased drilling costs, a serious shortage of skilled labor, and threats of higher taxes. And eclipsing all of these headaches is the muscle-flexing of such oil-rich countries as Russia, Venezuela, and Middle Eastern petrostates, which are increasingly shutting their doors to Big Oil to cultivate their own homegrown companies. The multinationals remain industry leaders, but this year's rankings in Platts Top 250 Global Energy Companies, scheduled to be released on Oct. 20, highlight the declining power of U.S. and European heavyweights. (Platts, like BusinessWeek, is a unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies.) While Western oil companies occupy the top five spots, players from other regions are rapidly moving up the list. Russia, not represented among the top 10 companies on last year's list, now holds two slots. State-controlled Rosneft has moved up to No. 6, from No. 16 last year; while natural gas behemoth Gazprom is No. 10, up from No. 17. (Private Lukoil has advanced to No. 11.) The 21

22 Russian companies have benefited from a combination of high oil prices and Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin's consolidation of the country's oil assets into a handful of players. U.S. UTILITIES Platts annually ranks the companies by assets, revenue, profit, and return on invested capital. Asian countries have added five more players to the top 100 over the past four years, while Eastern European countries have added the same number since The steady shift of power is occurring beyond the realm of oil. The top half of the list also contains more U.S. electric utilities, which, after several tough years, are benefiting from higher prices, deregulation, and cost controls. Europe is also seeing a new generation of superutilities, spurred by privatizations of state-run businesses and new rules that encourage cross-border mergers. The latest list also reflects a trend to public listings in previously opaque parts of the world, such as the Middle East. Abu Dhabi National Electric (234) and Saudi Electric (170) are the first gulf outfits to be ranked. With more players seeking to augment state support with investor capital, the list is sure to grow. For the complete Platts ranking of the Top 250 Global Energy Companies, go to businessweek.com/interactive_reports/platts_2008 PLATTS' 2008 TOP 10 RETURN ON 3-YEAR INVESTED GROWTH COMPANY ASSETS* REVENUES* PROFITS* CAPITAL RATE** 1. ExxonMobil (U.S.) $242,082 $358,600 $40, % 10.7% 2. Royal Dutch Shell 269, ,782 31, (Britain) 3. Total (France) 176, ,872 19, Chevron (U.S.) 148, ,091 18, BP (Britain) 236, ,365 20, Rosneft (Russia) 74,805 48,355 12, ENI (Italy) 157, ,825 14, StatoilHydro 94,743 95,607 8, (Norway) 9. Petrochina (China) 152, ,901 19, Gazprom (Russia) 224,037 87,073 24, Vir: Steve LeVine. Business Week. New York: Oct 27, 2008., Iss. 4105; pg

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