Internal Combustion Engines

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1 Lecture-31 Prepared under QIP-CD Cell Project Internal Combustion Engines Ujjwal K Saha, Ph.D. Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 1

2 Introduction Known as Hot air engine Earlier abandoned due to development of superior power-to-weight engines Remained as academic interest due to its unique feature during 19 th century In 1938, N.V.Philips developed small gas refrigerating machine for production of liquefied gases In 1953, Stirling engine with an efficiency of 40% with specific power of 82 kw/l was invented 2

3 The working principle The basis of stirling engine is the same as that of all internal combustion engines i.e. the alternate compression at low temperature and expansion at high temperature of a confined working fluid. However, the gas is heated in a radically different manner. The conventional engines burn fuel internally and intermittently whereas stirling engine burns its fuel outside the engine itself and continuously, i.e., it is an external continuous combustion engine. 3

4 Difference The fuel do not enter the engine cylinder to become the working gas. The cyclic flow of working fluid within the engine is achieved solely through geometric volume changes and without the use of intermittently-closed valves or ports. 4

5 Difference An intermittent flow heat exchanger stores a large portion of heat of the working fluid after expansion and subsequently returns it to the working fluid after compression, thereby, accomplishing thermal regeneration. 5

6 Ideal thermodynamic cycle Isothermal compression and simultaneous heat rejection Constant volume heat addition (by regeneration) Isothermal expansion with simultaneous heat addition Constant volume heat rejection (by regeneration) 6

7 Basic types of stirling engine Two-piston mechanism (Alpha type) Piston displacer system Beta type Gamma type 7

8 Two piston mechanism 8

9 Different configurations of two piston mechanism Simple two piston mechanism is unsuitable for higher output engines. So came the double acting engines with following two mechanical configurations: In line crankshaft drive Circular swashplate drive In line 4-cylinder stirling engine 9

10 The piston displacer engine Two pistons power and displacer. Displacer piston heat and cools the working gas. Power piston compress and expand the gas. Stirling engine is governed by the relative motion of these two pistons. 10

11 Phases of the operating cycle 11

12 Types of piston displacer engine Beta type single cylinder classic sterling engine configuration. Gamma type power piston and displacer piston in different cylinders. Convenient complete separation between the regenerator associated with displacer and the expansion and compression work of power piston. Larger unswept volume. Lower specific power. Used when the advantage of separate cylinders outweighs the specific power disadvantage 12

13 Phasing between power piston and displacer Power piston and displacer must be connected with some mechanical linkage to obtain the required phasing. Types of linkages are: Crankshaft with displaced throws Rhombic drive. Two symmetrically placed connecting rods drive the power piston while the displacer piston is driven by a displacer rod extending through the power piston. 13

14 Two crankshafts rotating in opposite directions. Rhombic drive Two synchronizing gears for timing the shafts. Symmetry makes even single cylinder engine balanced. No horizontal thrust as forces are balanced at yoke. Hence low frictional losses too. 14

15 Engine parts Combustor and heater head. Regenerator. Cooler. Power piston and displacer piston assembly. Buffer space and the rhombic drive. 15

16 Performance of stirling engine The stirling cycle engine is specially suitable for automotive applications because of:-- High brake thermal efficiency. Low noise. Low emissions. Specific power output comparable to Otto engine. Desirable output shaft maximum to ideal speed ratio. 16

17 Advantages Multi fuel capability Perfect balancing Reduced exhaust emissions Efficiency and size Smooth and noise free engine operation Overload capacity Reliable starting No lubricating oil needed 17

18 Disadvantages Complex design due to use of rhombic drive, regenerators, heaters and coolers. Needs a large amount of cooling water which increases the size of the radiator. High cost. Requires a blower which reduces the engine efficiency and increases the noise. 18

19 References 1. Crouse WH, and Anglin DL, (1985), Automotive Engines, Tata McGraw Hill. 2. Eastop TD, and McConkey A, (1993), Applied Thermodynamics for Engg. Technologists, Addison Wisley. 3. Fergusan CR, and Kirkpatrick AT, (2001), Internal Combustion Engines, John Wiley & Sons. 4. Gill PW, Smith JH, and Ziurys EJ, (1959), Fundamentals of I. C. Engines, Oxford and IBH Pub Ltd. 5. Heisler H, (1999), Vehicle and Engine Technology, Arnold Publishers. 6. Heywood JB, (1989), Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw Hill. 7. Heywood JB, and Sher E, (1999), The Two-Stroke Cycle Engine, Taylor & Francis. 8. Mathur ML, and Sharma RP, (1994), A Course in Internal Combustion Engines, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, New Delhi. 9. Pulkrabek WW, (1997), Engineering Fundamentals of the I. C. Engine, Prentice Hall. 10. Rogers GFC, and Mayhew YR, (1992), Engineering Thermodynamics, Addison Wisley. 11. Stone R, (1992), Internal Combustion Engines, The Macmillan Press Limited, London. 12. Taylor CF, (1985), The Internal-Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice, Vol. 1 & 2, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 19

20 Web Resources me429/lecture-air-cyc-web%5b1%5d.ppt ppt/ secondary/powerpoint/sge-parts.ppt

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