Put that in your (exhaust) pipe and smoke it! PEMS Testing of NZ Vehicles

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1 Put that in your (exhaust) pipe and smoke it! PEMS Testing of NZ Vehicles Joint CASANZ and TEKH-EG Workshop December 2017 Jayne Metcalfe Emission Impossible Ltd Paul Baynham Mote 1

2 What s the issue? Research overseas and in New Zealand has found that vehicles on the road consume more fuel and produce higher emissions (both harmful and greenhouse gas) than the values that they are type approved to when manufactured. 2

3 Fuel consumption data (overseas) In Europe, the gap between real world and type approved fuel consumption is growing 3 (Tietge et al 2015)

4 Fuel consumption data (NZ) In NZ, the gap between average type approval and estimated real world fuel consumption for light duty vehicles (using fuel card transactions) shows similar trends 4 (Wang et al 2015)

5 Harmful emissions data (overseas) Euro 6 vehicles are better than Euro 5 but still emit much more in the real world than the approval limit Average actual Approval limit 5 (UK Department for Transport 2016)

6 Harmful emissions data (NZ) Actual NO (a measure of NOx) and smoke emissions for NZ new diesel vehicles essentially no observable change for NO despite much improved emission standard (Auckland Council TR2012/ ) 6

7 Why are these findings a worry? Governments (local and central) have historically set policies based on what they expect will be delivered from the various standards e.g. for Euro standards for light diesel vehicles we d expect ~30% or more improvement with each step Pollutant (g/km) Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 CO (NOx + HC) NOx HC PM

8 So why the difference? Drive cycles Differ by country Current cycles don t reflect real world driving Cheating Certain manufacturers have gamed the system Tampering Lack of comprehensive in service testing/checking 8

9 What are we proposing to do? To improve understanding of real world fuel consumption and real world emissions from the New Zealand fleet Develop an on-road testing methodology Carry out real world testing on a range of representative vehicles including 26 light duty and 6 heavy duty Investigate the reasons for differences between expected results and actual findings Develop factors for later incorporation into emissions models where appropriate 9

10 What equipment are we using? PEMS technology has evolved considerably since it was first trialled and even in the months after we submitted our original proposal! 10

11 11 What equipment are we using?

12 What equipment are we using? We have built a modular system based on commercially available components Dustrak PM 10 Gravimetric PM 10 Ecophysics NO/NO 2 12

13 13 Does it work?

14 Exahust flow rate (l/s) Yes! 60 Volumetric exhaust flow comparison between AirQuality ltd and the University of Auckland 28/10/ Time elapsed (seconds) AirQuality FlowRate Uni VolumetricFlowRate

15 What are we going to measure? Particulate (g/km) NO and NO 2 (g/km) CO 2 and fuel consumption Velocity and acceleration Road gradient Exhaust gas temperature Location (via GPS) Meteorology (including ambient temperature, humidity and pressure) Air conditioning (on or off, temperature, etc.) 15

16 16 Example test route

17 Which vehicles are we going to test? Aiming to test 26 light vehicles (20 diesel, 6 petrol) and 6 heavy duty vehicles (all diesel) in Dec-Feb 2018 as follows: Fuel & Duty Emission Standard Y of M %CO 2 %PM %NO X %VKT No of veh Light Duty Petrol NZ New Euro 2 Pre % 3% 16% 14% 0 Jap Used Pre J00 Pre % 1% 7% 10% 0 NZ New Euro 3 & % 3% 6% 27% 3 Jap Used J00 & J onwards 15% 2% 3% 18% 3 NZ New Euro 5 & onwards 1% 0% 0% 1% 0 Hybrid various All years 0% 0% 0% 1% 0 Light Duty Diesel NZ New Euro 2 Pre % 14% 5% 2% 5 Jap Used Pre J98 Pre % 11% 2% 2% 5 NZ New Euro 3 & % 28% 14% 16% 8 Jap Used J02 & J onwards 1% 3% 1% 1% 0 NZ New Euro 5 & onwards 1% 0% 1% 1% 2 Heavy Duty Diesel NZ New Euro II Pre % 11% 9% 1% 0 Jap Used Pre J98 Pre % 5% 6% 1% 0 NZ New Euro III & IV % 12% 17% 2% 3 Jap Used J03 & J onwards 3% 3% 4% 1% 1 NZ New Euro V & VI 2012 onwards 7% 4% 8% 2% 2 Total 32 17

18 What will we do with the results? Reporting Progress reporting each month to the steering group (NZTA, MoT, AC, AT and EECA) Final reporting due in mid 2018 Modelling Will develop emission factors and compare with ones being used for GHG (VFEM) and harmful emissions (VEPM) 18 Bench marking Will compare with other PEMS results to see how different the fleet in NZ is versus other countries

19 19 How can you help?

20 Do you have candidate vehicles? Fuel & Duty Emission Standard Y of M %CO 2 %PM %NO X %VKT No of veh Light Duty Petrol NZ New Euro 2 Pre % 3% 16% 14% 0 Jap Used Pre J00 Pre % 1% 7% 10% 0 NZ New Euro 3 & % 3% 6% 27% 3 Jap Used J00 & J onwards 15% 2% 3% 18% 3 NZ New Euro 5 & onwards 1% 0% 0% 1% 0 Hybrid various All years 0% 0% 0% 1% 0 Light Duty Diesel NZ New Euro 2 Pre % 14% 5% 2% 5 Jap Used Pre J98 Pre % 11% 2% 2% 5 NZ New Euro 3 & % 28% 14% 16% 8 Jap Used J02 & J onwards 1% 3% 1% 1% 0 NZ New Euro 5 & onwards 1% 0% 1% 1% 2 Heavy Duty Diesel NZ New Euro II Pre % 11% 9% 1% 0 Jap Used Pre J98 Pre % 5% 6% 1% 0 NZ New Euro III & IV % 12% 17% 2% 3 Jap Used J03 & J onwards 3% 3% 4% 1% 1 NZ New Euro V & VI 2012 onwards 7% 4% 8% 2% 2 Total 32 20

21 21 Thanks!

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