FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQs)

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1 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQs) What are the Petrochemicals? Any chemical derived from crude oil,crude products or natural gas. Where the petrochemicals are used? In the manufacture of Synthetic rubber, fibers, plastics, fertilizers, detergents, paints and pesticides. Are you testing Paraffin waxes also? Yes,we have the complete testing facility for Paraffin waxes as per ISS. Do you have the Organometallic SRM s as per ASTM D-3605 for trace metal analysis in fuels? Yes, We have the SRM s of Calcium, Lead, Vanadium & Zinc. What are the common protocols followed by you? ASTM, IP, JIS, DIN, BS, ISS. Does your laboratory is recognized by NABL? Yes, we are a NABL accrediated laboratory. How you are analyzing the Carbon,Hydrogen & Nitrogen in Fuels? By CHN elemental analyzer. What is a Multi grade oil? Engine oil that meets the requirement of more than one /SAE viscosity grade classification. What is a lubricant? It is a blend of base oils & performance enhancing additives. What is Spindle oil? Low viscosity oil for the lubrication of high speed spindle such as those used in the textile mills. What is viscosity? Measure of the resistance to flow of a fluid. Does viscosity changes with temperature? Yes.

2 What is viscosity improver? A lubricant additive. Why viscosity index improver is used? To reduce the oils tendency to change viscosity with change of temperature. What is Ash? Metallic deposit formed in the engine parts during high temperature operation. What is the importance of sulphated ash? Used as a measure of the amount of metallic organic additives present in new oils. What is Carbon residue? Measure of the amount of carbon left behind after pyrolysis. What is the main purpose of the lubricants? To lubricate moving parts of the vehicles to reduce friction and wear -tear by providing smooth & trouble free performance. What is an additive? Any material that is incorporated into a product at relatively low concentration to improve new properties or enhance existing properties. What does the additive do? Impart or enhance the desirable functional properties. Give examples of additives? Dispersants,Detergents, Corrosion inhibitors, Depressants, Friction modifiers, Metal deactivators & Anti foamants. What does the dispersants do? Keeps sludge,carbon & other deposit suspended in oil. What does depressants do? Lowers the freezing point of oils allowing free flow at lower temperatures. What does anti -foamants do? Reduces foam in crankcase & blending. What is Cetane Index? Value calculated from the density & distillation mid point temperature of a fuel. Used as an alternative to Cetane number.

3 What is the importance of Cetane index? To indicate relative diesel ignition quality. Why Acid number is done? To indicate the extent of contamination of used oil. What is Total Base number (TBN)? Amount of acid needs to neutralize all or part of a lubricant s basicity. What is the significance of Base number? Used to indicate the capacity of an oil to counter the corrosive effects of acidic products of combustion. What is demulsibility? Ability of a lubricant to separate from water. Give full form of SAE? Society of automotive Engineers organization. What is SAE grade? Grade indicating the viscosity range of a crankcase lubricant,according to system designated by SAE. What do you understand by SAE 10 w 40? Multi grade oils having two viscosity grade numbers indicating their lowest and highest classification. What is the full form of PMCC? Pensky Martens Close cup (Flash point). What is COC? Cleveland open cup (Flash Point). What is drop point? Temperature at which the first drop of liquid separates when grease is heated. What is congealing point? Temperature at which the wax gets cold and develops a resistance to flow. What is Carbon residue? Measure of the amount of carbon left behind after pyrolysis. What is the effect of Ash on the calorific value?

4 It reduces the calorific value. What does corrosion inhibitor do? Controls or prevent oxidation of oil. What is Neutralization number? Measure of the total acidity or alkalinity of an oil. Give expanded form of SOAP? Spectrographic oil analysis program. On the basis of which test grading of Coal is done? Useful heat value. What is the effect of fixed carbon on fuel? Increases the calorific value. What is the full form of EVT? Equiviscous temperature. Which tests are conducted for Ultimate analysis? Carbon,Sulphur, Hydrogen,Nitrogen,Oxygen & Ash. Which tests comes under Proximate analysis? Total Moisture, Volatile matter,ash and Fixed carbon. What is CFPP? Cold filter plugging point, estimates the lowest temperature at which the fuel will give a trouble free flow in the fuel system. What is dielectric strength? Measure of the voltage at which the oil breaks down when subjected to an AC electric field with a continuously voltage. What is SK Value? The behavior of insulating oils in the presence of sulphuric acid. What does Caking index measures? Measure of determination of stickiness or agglutinating power of coal. What is PNA analysis?

5 Detection of Paraffinic, Napthenic and Aromatic carbons in the mineral base oils. Which test is used to check the compatibility of solvent with wax in shoe polish? Oozing test. What does the Doctor test detect? Mercaptants. What is the effect of Volatile matter in coal? Lesser is the volatile matter, better is the quality of Coal.

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