Institute for Transport Studies FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT. Remote Sensing Vehicle Emissions

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1 Institute for Transport Studies FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT Tuesday 27 th September 2011 ERMES Group, Brussels Dr James Tate Remote Sensing Vehicle Emissions

2 METHOD A Remote Sensing Device (RSD) Detailed vehicle registration information Ratios of NO 2 NOX in vehicle exhausts NO X EMISSION FACTOR UN-CERTAINTIES Comparison of RSD emission factors with UK & HBEFA 2010 SUMMARY Comparison with a coupled micro-scopic traffic simulator and instantaneous emission model (PHEM, 2010) Projects Extensions for 2012 Conclusions < Remote sensing vehicle emissions ERMES 27 th Sept 2011 James Tate Slide 1 / 10 >

3 < Remote sensing vehicle emissions ERMES 27 th Sept 2011 James Tate Slide 2 / 10 > REMOTE SENSING VEHICLE EMISSIONS Surveying the vehicle fleet on the road Camera (Number plate) Vehicle Detector (Speed andacceleration) Emission ratios From peak exhaust plume conc. Source/Detector Emissions Analyser (Common Configurations) Mirror Box Source Detector ESP RSD-4600 instrument UV IR NO / CO 2 CO / CO 2 HC / CO 2 & PM 10 Valid measurement 60% pass-bys Sufficient CO 2 plume 5 60 km/h Number plate record ANPR Detailed vehicle registration info. Collaboration with Vehicle & FUEL type Date of registration & EURO Make, model, weight, CO 2 rating etc. QA / QC On-site calibration with reference cell Audited puff release of blended gas (13.6% CO 2, NO 1000 ppm, 2% CO, propane 1000ppm)

4 NO 2 NOX RATIOS IN VEHICLE EXHAUSTS Used for estimating total NO X emissions from vehicles Vehicle class Euro class % NO 2 (by volume) Grice et al. (2009) % NO 2 (by volume) Jerksj o et al. (2008) Petrol cars All 3 1 [12551] Diesel cars and LGVs Euro II and earlier Euro III Euro IV - VI [177] [538] [881] HGVs Euro II and earlier Euro III Euro IV - VI [218] 9 [353] 13 [52] Buses Euro II and earlier Euro III (no trap) Euro III (trap) Euro IV - VI [218] 30 [353] [52] 48 Jerksjo, M., Sjodin, A., Bishop, G.A. and Stedman, D.H. (2008), On-road emission performance of a European vehicle fleet over the period as measured by remote sensing. 18 th CRC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Worskhop San Diego, March 31 April 2, < Remote sensing vehicle emissions ERMES 27 th Sept 2011 James Tate Slide 3 / 10 >

5 NO X EMISSION FACTOR UNCERTAINTIES Comparison of RSD with UK & HBEFA emission factors Carslaw, D., Beevers, S. Westmoreland, E. Williams, M. Tate, J. Murrells, T. Stedman, J. Li, Y., Grice, S., Kent, A., Tsagatakis, I. (2011). Trends in NO X and NO 2 emissions and ambient measurements in the UK. Available at: from 25 th August 2011 < Remote sensing vehicle emissions ERMES 27 th Sept 2011 James Tate Slide 4 / 10 >

6 DETAILED TRAFFIC-EMISSION MODELLING Coupled micro-scopic traffic & instantaneous emission model TRAFFIC MICROSIMULATION S-Paramics, Version Multiple simulations (x10) VEHICLE TYPE PROPORTIONS % Car, Taxi, LGV, HGV Rigid & Artic, Bus (scheduled), Coach. Speed (km.h 1 ) Time (seconds) Vehicle trajectory data at 1Hz. DETAILED VEHICLE REGISTRATION INFORMATION (LOCAL). ANPR surveys hrs. VEHICLE EMISSION MODEL Instantaneous emission model PHEM VEHICLE SUB-CATEGORIES % Euro, Fuel (Petrol/ Diesel), EGR/ SCR, Weight etc. Dis-aggregate emission data RESULTS Broken down by area, road section, time-of-day, vehicle & < Remote sensing vehicle emissions ERMES 27 th Sept 2011 James Tate Slide 5 / 10 >

7 07:00-08:00 08:00-09:00 09:00-10:00 10:00-11:00 11:00-12:00 12:00-13:00 13:00-14:00 14:00-15:00 15:00-16:00 16:00-17:00 17:00-18:00 18:00-19:00 Fleet % NOTE: Truncated scale VEHICLE FLEET IN AN AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT AREA City of York - Detailed UK Vehicle Registration Information (May 2011) 100% 95% TAXI COACH PSV (Double) PSV (Single) HGV (Artic) HGV (Rigid) LGV 90% 85% Passenger CAR 80% 75% TIME (hh:mm) TAXI COACH PSV (Double-decker) PSV (Single-decker) HGV (Artic) HGV (Rigid) LGV CAR < Remote sensing vehicle emissions ERMES 27 th Sept 2011 James Tate Slide 6 / 10 >

8 PASSENGER CARS Detailed UK Vehicle Registration Information (May 2011) < Remote sensing vehicle emissions ERMES 27 th Sept 2011 James Tate Slide 7 / 10 >

9 NO X EMISSION FACTOR UNCERTAINTIES Comparison of RSD with PHEM Euro0 Euro1 Euro2 Euro3 Euro4 Euro5 Euro6 2.5 DIESEL PETROL 2.0 NO X (grams/km) Euro0 Euro1 Euro2 Euro3 Euro4 Euro5 Euro6 Euro class Carslaw, D. et al Trends in NO X and NO 2 emissions and ambient measurements in the UK. July < Remote sensing vehicle emissions ERMES 27 th Sept 2011 James Tate Slide 8 /10 >

10 SUMMARY PROJECTS DATA COLLECTION & ANALYSIS ( ) Funded by DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs) 100,000 measurements in association with Borough / City Authorities: Calderdale, Devon, Kirklees, Leeds, London, Shropshire, York TRENDS IN NO X AND NO 2 EMISSIONS AND AMBIENT MEASUREMENTS, UK (DEFRA led by D. Carslaw, KCL) EXTENSIONS DATA COLLECTION ( ) Bradford, Canterbury, London Planning to bring a RSD able to speciate NO/ NO 2 over from the US (Stedman, D.) < Remote sensing vehicle emissions ERMES 27 th Sept 2011 James Tate Slide 9 /10 >

11 CONCLUSIONS Remote sensing can be a useful approach to validate emissions factors On-road fleet Large sample population in-use Naturally considers: cold-starts and high-emitters Could prove to be useful to target future laboratory testing Develop a detailed knowledge of the local in-use vehicle fleet Fast turn-round early look at Euro 6 vehicles? Limitations: Only practical in urban-type conditions In the basic configuration vehicles with elevated exhausts are missed Presence of the instrument may influence driver behaviour The current instrument only measures NO and not also NO 2 < Remote sensing vehicle emissions ERMES 27 th Sept 2011 James Tate Slide 10 /10 >

12 Institute for Transport Studies FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT Tuesday 27 th September 2011 ERMES Group, Brussels Dr James Tate Remote Sensing Vehicle Emissions

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