Preface. Acknowledgments. List of Tables. Nomenclature: organizations. Nomenclature: acronyms. Nomenclature: main symbols. Nomenclature: Greek symbols

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1 Contents Preface Acknowledgments List of Tables Nomenclature: organizations Nomenclature: acronyms Nomenclature: main symbols Nomenclature: Greek symbols Nomenclature: subscripts/superscripts Supplements to the text xi xv xvii xix xx xxii xxv xxvi xxvii Part I Fixed-Wing Aircraft Performance 1 Introduction Physical units used Performance parameters Performance optimization Certificate of Airworthiness Upgrading of aircraft performance Mission profiles 9 Problems 13 2 The aircraft and its environment General aircraft model Reference systems Forces on the aircraft Moments of inertia Flight dynamics equations The International Standard Atmosphere Non-standard conditions 28 Problems 30 3 Weight performance The aircraft s weight Definition of weights Weight estimation 42 v

2 vi Contents 3.4 Weight management Range/payload diagram Direct Operating Costs 46 Problems 47 4 Aerodynamic performance Aerodynamic forces Lift equation Vortex lift High-lift systems Drag equation Glide ratio Glide ratio at transonic and supersonic speed Practical estimation of the drag coefficient Compressibility effects Transonic drag rise Lift and transonic buffet Aero-thermodynamic heating Aerodynamic penetration and radius Aircraft vortex wakes Aerodynamics and performance 74 Problems 75 5 Engine performance Gas turbine engines Internal combustion engines Engine flight envelopes Power and thrust definitions Generalized engine performance Fuel flow Propulsive efficiency Thrust characteristics Propeller characteristics 95 Problems Flight envelopes General definitions Aircraft speed range Definition of speeds Steady state level flight Speed in level flight Absolute ceiling of jet aircraft Absolute ceiling of propeller aircraft Optimal speeds for level flight General flight envelopes Limiting factors on flight envelopes Dash speed of supersonic aircraft 128

3 Contents vii 6.12 Absolute ceiling of supersonic aircraft Supersonic acceleration 131 Problems Take-off and landing Definition of terminal phases Conventional take-off Ground run of jet aircraft Solutions of the take-off equation Rotation and initial climb Take-off with one engine inoperative Calculation of the balanced field length Ground run of propeller aircraft WAT charts Missed take-off Final approach and landing Landing run Effects of the wind Ground maneuvering 161 Problems Climb and gliding Governing equations Rate of climb Steady climb of propeller airplane Climb of jet airplane Polar diagram for rate of climb Energy methods Specific excess power diagrams Differential excess power plots Minimum problems with energy method Steady state gliding General gliding flight Maximum glide range with energy method Minimum flight paths Additional research on aircraft climb 201 Problems Cruise performance Importance of the cruise flight General definitions Point performance The Breguet range equation Subsonic cruise of jet aircraft Mission fuel Cruise with intermediate stop Aircraft selection 232

4 viii Contents 9.9 Supersonic cruise Cruise range of propeller aircraft Endurance Effect of weight on cruise range Effect of the wind on cruise range Additional research on aircraft cruise Formation flight 241 Problems Maneuver performance Banked level turns Banked turn at constant thrust Power requirements Effect of weight on turn radius Maneuver envelope: n V diagram Turn rates Sustainable g-loads Unpowered turn Soaring flight Roll performance Aircraft control under thrust asymmetry Pull-up maneuver and the loop Zero-gravity atmospheric flight Flight path to a moving target 295 Problems 297 Part II Rotary-Wing Aircraft Performance 11 Rotorcraft performance Fundamentals Helicopter configurations Mission profiles Flight envelopes Definitions and reference systems Non-dimensional parameters Methods for performance calculations 312 Problems Rotorcraft in vertical flight Hover performance Effect of blade twist Non-dimensional hover performance Vertical climb Ceiling performance Ground effect Vertical descent Hover endurance 334 Problems 335

5 Contents ix 13 Rotorcraft in forward flight Asymmetry of rotor loads Power requirements Rotor disk angle Calculation of forward flight power L/D of the helicopter Forward flight analysis Propulsive efficiency Climb performance Performance of tandem helicopters Single or tandem helicopter? 377 Problems Rotorcraft maneuver Limits on flight envelopes Kinetic energy of the rotor Autorotative index Autorotative performance Height/velocity diagram The vortex ring state Take-off and landing Turn performance Power required for turning More on tail rotor performance 410 Problems Rotorcraft mission analysis Specific air range Non-dimensional analysis of the SAR Endurance and specific endurance Speed for minimum power Speed for maximum range Fuel to climb Payload/range diagram Comparative payload fraction Mission analysis 429 Problems 430 Part III V/STOL and Noise Performance 16 V/STOL performance Hover characteristics Jet-induced lift Lift augmentation Calculation of short take-off Ski jump 445

6 x Contents 16.6 Convertiplanes or tilt rotors V/STOL flight envelopes 449 Problems Noise performance Definitions of sound and noise Trends in noise reduction Airframe noise of fixed-wing aircraft Engine noise Noise certification procedure Noise reduction from operations Minimum noise to climb Helicopter noise Helicopter noise reduction Noise certification of civil helicopters Sonic boom 473 Problems 478 Appendix A Aircraft models 479 A.1 Aircraft A: subsonic commercial jet 479 A.2 Aircraft B: turboprop transport aircraft 484 A.3 Aircraft C: supersonic jet fighter 487 A.4 Aircraft D: General utility helicopter 494 A.5 Aircraft E: tandem helicopter 502 Appendix B Noise data 507 Appendix C Selected simulation programs 509 C.1 Assembling aircraft forces 509 C.2 Calculation of numerical derivatives 510 C.3 Optimal climb of fighter jet aircraft 510 C.4 Optimal climb rate of turboprop 513 C.5 Calculation of mission fuel 515 C.6 Supersonic acceleration 518 C.7 Asymmetric thrust control 521 C.8 Hover power with blade element theory 524 C.9 Forward flight power of helicopter 526 Bibliography 531 Index 553

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