ALCOHOL LOX STEAM GENERATOR TEST EXPERIENCE

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ALCOHOL LOX STEAM GENERATOR TEST EXPERIENCE"

Transcription

1 ALCOHOL LOX STEAM GENERATOR TEST EXPERIENCE Klaus Schäfer, Michael Dommers DLR, German Aerospace Center, Institute of Space Propulsion D Hardthausen / Lampoldshausen, Germany 1 ABSTRACT At the DLR test centre in Lampoldshausen there is a long experience in the development of rocket steam generators as a main subsystem for the altitude simulation. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The rocket steam generators are based on the combustion of liquid oxygen (LOX) and ethyl alcohol (ALC). The paper deals with the experience of the development of the steam generators and the operation at the altitude simulation P1.0 for satellite propulsion and P4.2 for altitude simulation of AESTUS upper stage engine. Igniter ALC Face Plate Combustion Chamber LOX 2 INTRODUCTION Altitude simulation of rocket engines and propulsion systems requires for a short large quantities of steam to operate the steam jet ejectors. The principle of rocket steam generators is to inject water into the hot gases of a rocket combustion chamber and to evaporate the water in a mixture chamber. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The concept of the new steam generators Fig. 1 is based on the combustion of Ethyl - alcohol and liquid oxygen operated by an electrical H2/O2 Igniter. The combustion chamber is water cooled. The sonic cross section is not at the combustion chamber, it s inside the steam nozzle several meters away. This influences the ignition and start up of the combustion chamber. Therefore the steam generator is developed in two steps, the combustion chamber mode like an rocket engine and the steam generator mode with mixture chamber, steam lines and steam nozzle. Fig. 1: Steam Generator Combustion Chamber 45 kg/s Combustion Chamber Mixture Chamber 1 Mixture Chamber 2 Steam lines Ejector Nozzle Fig. 2: Steam Generator 45 kg/s Proc. 2 nd Int. Conference on Green Propellants for Space Propulsion, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy 7-8 June 2004 (ESA SP-557, October 2004)

2 3 DEVELOPMENT The principle function and experience of the main systems are: The development was done on the test position P1.1. Ignition System: The ignition system operates with gaseous hydrogen GH2 and gaseous oxygen GO2. A conventional spark plug is used for the electrical ignition. With the central GO2 jet and the GH2 injection coaxial in an outer ring the exhaust gas jet has a slightly H2-rich surface to reduce the head loads of the igniting tube. For the kg/s units the Igniter was moved from the central position on the face plate Fig. 1 to the side of the combustion chamber below the baffles Fig. 8. Hot gas tube GO2 Supply Fig. 3: 45 kg/s Steam Generator at Test Psition P1.1 Different units of steam generators are developed Tab. 1 for the altitude simulation P1.0, P4.1 and P4.2. Tab. 1: Steam Generator Development Spark GH2 supply year steam generator development 1995: 4,5 kg/s sub scale 1996: 28 kg/s sub scale 1997/1998: 10 kg/s P1.0 - satellites 1999/2000: 45 kg/s P4.2 - AESTUS 2001/2002: 16 kg/s P4.1 - VINCI 2000/2003: 55 kg/s P4.1 - VINCI Fig. 5: Igniter With the igniter we have a very good test experience. With the oxygen pre flow and the hydrogen rich Igniter flow the ignition of the steam generators are very reliable. Special points are the conditioning due to humidity particularly for the re ignition, and the gas mixing at the spark particularly the contents of oxygen. Combustor: There is a coaxial like on like injection. There are radial (4,5-16 kg/s unit) and checkerboard (45 55 kg/s unit) arrangements Fig. 6 of the like on like doublets. Fig. 4: Combustion Chamber Test 45 kg/s Fig. 6: Injection Element 45 kg/s

3 First Redesign: During development of the 45 kg/s unit the combustor becomes spontaneous combustion instability. The first redesign was the increasing of the injection holes on the fuel side d inj,fuel. The reasons were: Increasing water content of the fuel (from 10 % to 20 %Vol). Decrease the injection velocity of fuel. The latter point was dedicated from the empirical Hewitt criteria [1]. The experimental studies of the cavity ring were done by parameters studies of different length of the cavities, with and without N2 conditioning Fig. 9 of the cavities and by bomb tests. The results showed critical points for the control and set up of the acoustic conditions inside the cavity mainly during ignition and Start up. With the first redesign the steam generator becomes stable at operational points but become in-stable after triggering during Start up. Second Redesign: The second redesign was the adjustment of the Start up phase to avoid triggering and the implementation of acoustic absorber. The experimental studies of the acoustic absorber were: 1. Verification of the unstable mode and frequencies 2. Design of a quarter wave ring Fig. 7 and adaptation of the combustor. 3. Verification by testing (incl. bomb tests). 4. Designs of a three blade baffle Fig. 8 and adaptation of the combustor. 5. Verification by testing (incl. bomb tests). Adjustment crew Fig. 9: Test Results Cavities The baffles showed good behavior of damping during bomb tests Fig. 10 and sufficient water cooling. The nominal configuration today is with baffles. Bomb Cavity Cooling slots Fig. 10: Test Results Baffle Bomb Test Fig. 7: Quarter Wave Ring The first injection head was completely design out of copper. But with the experience during testing the head was modified Fig. 11 to an outer ring of stainless steel and cooper for the injection plate to increase the operational life. Fig. 8: Baffle Fig. 11: Ring and Face Plate

4 4 TEST FACILITY P1.0 The test facility was build for the altitude simulation of satellites engines up to 600 N thrust and to verify the behavior of new components and system for the altitude simulation. Since 2001 the test bench is in nominal operational conditions. deceleration inside the diffuser the exhaust gas is sucked by two steam jet ejector stages. The ejectors are supplied by one steam generator Fig. 14. The steam generator is supplied by pumps for Alc, LOX and water. With the P1.0 it s possible to test more than 2 h which less than 2 mbar vacuum simulation. Fig. 12: P1.0 test facility Fig. 14: 10 kg/s Steam Generator P1.0 Between 2001 and 2004 the steam generator was used for 53 tests and a total run off s (33,6 h) without modifications or exchange of hardware. Tab. 2: Tests with Steam Generator P1.0 (April 2004) Year Tests total failure Test total max Availabi lity N N [s] [s] [%] , , , , total , > 90 Fig. 13: P1.0 Principle 1: Vacuum chamber (V: 4,5 m³) 2: Steam Generator (Steam: 10 kg/s, 200 C, 20 bar, supplied by pumps) 3: First Steam Ejector (m Steam : 1,5 kg/s, P V : 60 mbar) 4: Second Steam Ejector (m Steam : 8 kg/s, P V : 280 mbar) 5: Auxiliary Nozzle (m Steam : 0,4 kg/s, P V : 1 mbar) 6: Diffuser ( = 0,35 m) 7: Exhaust Cooler (1400 kw, 1280 C 80 C) 8: Vacuum Flap 9: Emergency Flap 10: Engine The satellite engine is vertical mounted within a thrust measurement device inside a vacuum chamber. After The test failures were linked to the ignition and start up for the first 6.5 s. There was no test shut down with hot run of the engine due to steam generator. Lessons learned were concerning calcinations and sealing. Calcinations With increasing operational there was more and more calcinations inside the combustion chamber Fig. 15. Fig. 15: View 10 kg/s Combustion Chamber Exit

5 There were no big problems but the calcinations of the combustion chamber surface influences the water film cooling. To reduce the necessary maintenance and to prevent future problems the water is now treated to degree of hardness. The faceplate Fig. 16 was quit good after 53 tests. LOX underground water reservoir P4.2 ejectors ejector P4.1 condenser P4.1 LH2 steam generators Fig. 16: Face Plate 10 kg/s Combustion Chamber Sealing Another problem was the chosen sealing. Due to galvanic process for material with different electrical potential we have got problems with metallic seal during increasing operational. 5 TEST FACILITY P4.2 The test facility P4 consists of two test positions P4.2 for the altitude simulation AESTUS and P4.1 actual modified for the VINCI altitude simulation. Fig. 18: Principle P4 The steam generator plant consists of 5 systems. 4 systems with kg/s steam supplied by pumps and 1 system for 16 kg/s steam supplied by pressurisation of the run tanks Tab. 3. Tab. 3: Steam Generation P4 Steam generator plant P4: P4.2 P4.1 units: 2* 1 2+2* LOX kg/s 8,2 2,9 10 ALC kg/s 4,0 1,5 4,8 Water kg/s 32,8 11,6 40,2 Steam kg/s run s Steam kg/s )* switched between P4.1 and P4.2. With the 45 kg/s unit of P4.2 there was in 2003 and 2004 a total test of 8738 s in 19 tests performed. With the 16 kg/s unit there was in 2004 a total test of 555,3 s in 7 tests performed Tab. 4. Fig. 17: Test Facility P4 Both altitude simulations are supplied by the steam generator plant. The P4.2 requires 90 kg/s steam (corresponding to 250 MW thermal power) and P4.1 requires 235 kg/s steam (corresponding to 650 MW thermal power). Fig. 19: Steam Generator Plant P4

6 Tab. 4: Steam Generators P4 (April 2004) Year Tests Run total 45 kg/s unit 16 kg/s unit Run max Tests Run total Run max Before the first hot run the injection plate Fig. 22, the combustion chamber Fig. 23 and the mixture chamber is checked by water flow to verify the hydraulic and injection conditions. The calculated life cycles for the steam generators are higher than ,3 444 total , Tests were done in altitude configuration with two steam generators of 45 kg/s in parallel and 1663 s test. The steam generators 55 kg/s of P4.1 are still in commissioning phase. First test with 55 kg/s are successful performed including the re ignition. The problems are primarily linked to the MCC systems and mechanical problems Fig. 20. Fig. 22: Water Flow Check Injection Element % Other MCC digital Mechanical MCC analog Fig. 20: Non Conformances Steam Generator P4 Some tests start with a hard ignition. The triggering was damped and the combustion conditions were stable, thanks to the baffles. Up to now there were no problems concerning cooling behavior of the baffles. Fig. 23: Water Flow Check Combustion Chamber 6 CONCLUSION The new steam generators operate within the objectives of the development. Getting more and more experience the reliability is increasing. 7 REFERENCES Fig. 21: Water Flow Check Injection Plate and Baffle Each steam generator needs an individual setting for the hot run concerning supply conditions and sequences. 1. G. Krühsel, K. Schäfer, Design and Development of an Ethanol/LOX injection Head for Rocket Steam Generator (50 kg/s steam) and Experimental Study of Combustion Stability, Green Propellant Space Propulsion June, 2001, Noordwijk. 2. K. Schäfer, G. Krühsel, Advanced grteen propellant steam generator, Green Propellant Space Propulsion June, 2001, Noordwijk.

IAC-15-C4.3.1 JET INDUCER FOR A TURBO PUMP OF A LIQUID ROCKET ENGINE

IAC-15-C4.3.1 JET INDUCER FOR A TURBO PUMP OF A LIQUID ROCKET ENGINE IAC-15-C4.3.1 JET INDUCER FOR A TURBO PUMP OF A LIQUID ROCKET ENGINE Martin Böhle Technical University Kaiserslautern, Germany, martin.boehle@mv.uni-kl.de Wolfgang Kitsche German Aerospace Center (DLR),

More information

Laser ignition of a multi-injector research combustion chamber under high altitude conditions 1

Laser ignition of a multi-injector research combustion chamber under high altitude conditions 1 7 TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE FOR AERONAUTICS AND SPACE SCIENCES (EUCASS) Laser ignition of a multi-injector research combustion chamber under high altitude conditions 1 Michael Börner* and Chiara Manfletti**

More information

Pete Jacobs. Business Development Manager Wartsila North America, Inc. (281)

Pete Jacobs. Business Development Manager Wartsila North America, Inc. (281) Pete Jacobs Business Development Manager Wartsila North America, Inc. (281) 513-9836 Pete.Jacobs@wartsila.com Uniform and Integrated Solution Engines Propulsion Automation Power Distribution Power Drives

More information

The SABRE engine and SKYLON space plane

The SABRE engine and SKYLON space plane The SABRE engine and SKYLON space plane 4 June 2014 Current Access to Space (Expendable launch vehicles) What is wrong with todays launchers? - Cost (>$100M per flight) - Operations (> 3 month preparation)

More information

Combustion characteristics of n-heptane droplets in a horizontal small quartz tube

Combustion characteristics of n-heptane droplets in a horizontal small quartz tube Combustion characteristics of n-heptane droplets in a horizontal small quartz tube Junwei Li*, Rong Yao, Zuozhen Qiu, Ningfei Wang School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology,Beijing

More information

H-IIA Launch Vehicle Upgrade Development

H-IIA Launch Vehicle Upgrade Development 26 H-IIA Launch Vehicle Upgrade Development - Upper Stage Enhancement to Extend the Lifetime of Satellites - MAYUKI NIITSU *1 MASAAKI YASUI *2 KOJI SHIMURA *3 JUN YABANA *4 YOSHICHIKA TANABE *5 KEITARO

More information

ia 451s, 10-y (12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2003/ A1 (19) United States Johnson et al. (43) Pub. Date: Feb.

ia 451s, 10-y (12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2003/ A1 (19) United States Johnson et al. (43) Pub. Date: Feb. (19) United States US 2003OO29160A1 (12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2003/0029160 A1 Johnson et al. (43) Pub. Date: Feb. 13, 2003 (54) COMBINED CYCLE PULSE DETONATION TURBINE ENGINE

More information

Supersonic Combustion Experimental Investigation at T2 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel

Supersonic Combustion Experimental Investigation at T2 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel Supersonic Combustion Experimental Investigation at T2 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel D. Romanelli Pinto, T.V.C. Marcos, R.L.M. Alcaide, A.C. Oliveira, J.B. Chanes Jr., P.G.P. Toro, and M.A.S. Minucci 1 Introduction

More information

Low Cost Propulsion Systems for Launch-, In Space- and SpaceTourism Applications

Low Cost Propulsion Systems for Launch-, In Space- and SpaceTourism Applications Low Cost Propulsion Systems for Launch-, In Space- and SpaceTourism Applications Space Propulsion (Rome, 02 06/05/2016) Dr.-Ing. Peter H. Weuta Dipl.-Ing. Neil Jaschinski WEPA-Technologies GmbH (Germany)

More information

Development of a Low Cost Suborbital Rocket for Small Satellite Testing and In-Space Experiments

Development of a Low Cost Suborbital Rocket for Small Satellite Testing and In-Space Experiments Development of a Low Cost Suborbital Rocket for Small Satellite Testing and In-Space Experiments Würzburg, 2015-09-15 (extended presentation) Dr.-Ing. Peter H. Weuta Dipl.-Ing. Neil Jaschinski WEPA-Technologies

More information

Development Status of H3 Launch Vehicle -To compete and survive in the global commercial market-

Development Status of H3 Launch Vehicle -To compete and survive in the global commercial market- 32 Development Status of H3 Launch Vehicle -To compete and survive in the global commercial market- TOKIO NARA *1 TADAOKI ONGA *2 MAYUKI NIITSU *3 JUNYA TAKIDA *2 AKIHIRO SATO *3 NOBUKI NEGORO *4 The H3

More information

Module7:Advanced Combustion Systems and Alternative Powerplants Lecture 32:Stratified Charge Engines

Module7:Advanced Combustion Systems and Alternative Powerplants Lecture 32:Stratified Charge Engines ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS AND ALTERNATIVE POWERPLANTS The Lecture Contains: DIRECT INJECTION STRATIFIED CHARGE (DISC) ENGINES Historical Overview Potential Advantages of DISC Engines DISC Engine Combustion

More information

Lecture 5. Abnormal Combustion

Lecture 5. Abnormal Combustion Lecture 5 Abnormal Combustion Abnormal Combustion The Abnormal Combustion:- When the combustion gets deviated from the normal behavior resulting loss of performance or damage to the engine. It is happened

More information

AN OPTIMIZED PROPULSION SYSTEM FOR Soyuz/ST

AN OPTIMIZED PROPULSION SYSTEM FOR Soyuz/ST 1 RD-0124 AN OPTIMIZED PROPULSION SYSTEM FOR Soyuz/ST Versailles, May 14,2002 Starsem Organization 2 35% 25% 15% 25% 50-50 European-Russian joint venture providing Soyuz launch services for the commercial

More information

Development of the LE-X Engine

Development of the LE-X Engine 36 Development of the LE-X Engine MASAHIRO ATSUMI *1 KIMITO YOSHIKAWA *2 AKIRA OGAWARA *3 TADAOKI ONGA *3 The expander bleed cycle is an engine cycle that was developed in Japan for practical applications.

More information

Suitability of reusability for a Lunar re-supply system

Suitability of reusability for a Lunar re-supply system www.dlr.de Chart 1 Suitability of reusability for a Lunar re-supply system Etienne Dumont Space Launcher Systems Analysis (SART) Institut of Space Systems, Bremen, Germany Etienne.dumont@dlr.de IAC 2016

More information

The spray characteristic of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector by experiment

The spray characteristic of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector by experiment The spray characteristic of gas-liquid coaxial swirl injector by experiment Chen Chen 1,2, Yan Zhihui 2, Yang Yang 2, Gao Hongli 1, Yang Shunhua 2 and Zhang Lei 2 1 School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest

More information

Comparative Study Of Four Stroke Diesel And Petrol Engine.

Comparative Study Of Four Stroke Diesel And Petrol Engine. Comparative Study Of Four Stroke Diesel And Petrol Engine. Aim: To study the construction and working of 4- stroke petrol / diesel engine. Theory: A machine or device which derives heat from the combustion

More information

Module 5 Propulsion and Power Generation of LNG driven Vessels (23 th November to 27 th November University of Piraeus, Greece)

Module 5 Propulsion and Power Generation of LNG driven Vessels (23 th November to 27 th November University of Piraeus, Greece) Module 5 Propulsion and Power Generation of LNG driven Vessels (23 th November to 27 th November 2015- University of Piraeus, Greece) Presentation Principles of Marine Main Engines running on LNG 23 th

More information

The influence of thermal regime on gasoline direct injection engine performance and emissions

The influence of thermal regime on gasoline direct injection engine performance and emissions IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering PAPER OPEN ACCESS The influence of thermal regime on gasoline direct injection engine performance and emissions To cite this article: C I Leahu

More information

Introduction to Fuel-Air Injection Engine. (A discrete structured IC engine) KansLab

Introduction to Fuel-Air Injection Engine. (A discrete structured IC engine) KansLab Introduction to Fuel-Air Injection Engine (A discrete structured IC engine) KansLab 1 Fig. 1: A Fuel-Air Injection (FAI) Engine is: 1) A two-stroke engine with fuel and air injections. 2) A hybrid engine

More information

Bi-Propellant Rocket Motor

Bi-Propellant Rocket Motor 1 Aviate, Navigate, Communicate Bi-Propellant Rocket Motor Prepared by Zechy and Justin 1 2 Bi-Propellant Rocket Motor Our goal is to build a bi-propellant rocket motor that is scalable and cheap to make.

More information

USA FALCON 1. Fax: (310) Telephone: (310) Fax: (310) Telephone: (310) Fax: (310)

USA FALCON 1. Fax: (310) Telephone: (310) Fax: (310) Telephone: (310) Fax: (310) 1. IDENTIFICATION 1.1 Name FALCON 1 1.2 Classification Family : FALCON Series : FALCON 1 Version : FALCON 1 Category : SPACE LAUNCH VEHICLE Class : Small Launch Vehicle (SLV) Type : Expendable Launch Vehicle

More information

1070 SERIES ULTRA LOW NO X

1070 SERIES ULTRA LOW NO X CAPABILITIES High release rates with moderate air Good turndown with flame characteristics and direction maintained Stable flames can be from highly oxidizing for tempered flame operation to highly reducing

More information

Guidance to Instructors on Subject Delivery PISTON ENGINE PROPULSION. This is a suggested programme for the delivery of this subject.

Guidance to Instructors on Subject Delivery PISTON ENGINE PROPULSION. This is a suggested programme for the delivery of this subject. Programme of learning: Guidance to Instructors on Subject Delivery This is a suggested programme for the delivery of this subject. The main headings are the Learning Outcomes (LO1, LO2, etc), with sub

More information

Beyond 60% - Pioneering H-class Efficiency with World Class Flexibility

Beyond 60% - Pioneering H-class Efficiency with World Class Flexibility SCC5-8000H / Irsching 4 Beyond 60% - Pioneering H-class Efficiency with World Class Flexibility Irsching General Manager for GT Power Plant Solutions Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia Siemens AG 2011.

More information

SAFRAN an international

SAFRAN an international SAFRAN an international Technology Leader Presentation to CSIS forum November 12 th, 2009, Washington DC 0 SAFRAN : a long history in rocket propulsion 1967 HM4 1 st H2/O2 engine test L17-35 t DIAMANT

More information

Fuels, Combustion and Environmental Considerations in Industrial Gas Turbines - Introduction and Overview

Fuels, Combustion and Environmental Considerations in Industrial Gas Turbines - Introduction and Overview Brian M Igoe & Michael J Welch Fuels, Combustion and Environmental Considerations in Industrial Gas Turbines - Introduction and Overview Restricted Siemens AG 20XX All rights reserved. siemens.com/answers

More information

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND OPTIMIZATION OF BREST-OD-300 MCP MODEL PERFORMANCE IN A LEAD COOLANT

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND OPTIMIZATION OF BREST-OD-300 MCP MODEL PERFORMANCE IN A LEAD COOLANT EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND OPTIMIZATION OF BREST-OD-300 MCP MODEL PERFORMANCE IN A LEAD COOLANT A.V. Beznosov, P.A. Bokov, O.I. Buzina, A.D. Zudin, A.V. Lvov, T.M. Semayeva, N.D. Trushkov (NNSTU n.a. R.E.

More information

Lessons in Systems Engineering. The SSME Weight Growth History. Richard Ryan Technical Specialist, MSFC Chief Engineers Office

Lessons in Systems Engineering. The SSME Weight Growth History. Richard Ryan Technical Specialist, MSFC Chief Engineers Office National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lessons in Systems Engineering The SSME Weight Growth History Richard Ryan Technical Specialist, MSFC Chief Engineers Office Liquid Pump-fed Main Engines Pump-fed

More information

Supersonic Combustion of Liquid Hydrogen using Slotted Shaped Pylon Injectors

Supersonic Combustion of Liquid Hydrogen using Slotted Shaped Pylon Injectors Advances in Aerospace Science and Applications. ISSN 2277-3223 Volume 3, Number 3 (2013), pp. 131-136 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/aasa.htm Supersonic Combustion of Liquid Hydrogen

More information

Fuel Injection Systems in Diesel and SI Engines

Fuel Injection Systems in Diesel and SI Engines 1 Fuel Injection Systems in Diesel and SI Engines Kul-14.4700 Transport Biofuels, Combustion, and Emission Control 2015 D.Sc. (Tech) Ossi Kaario 2 Motivation Why learn about fuel injection systems? Fuel

More information

Low NOx Combustion of DME by Exhaust Gas Recirculation under the High Pressure

Low NOx Combustion of DME by Exhaust Gas Recirculation under the High Pressure 35 7 th Asia DME Conference November 16-18, 011 Niigata Toki Messe Convention Center, Niigata, Japan Low Combustion of DME by Exhaust Gas Recirculation under the High Pressure *Hiroaki TAKEUCHI Mamoru

More information

Development of new combustion strategy for internal combustion engine fueled by pure ammonia

Development of new combustion strategy for internal combustion engine fueled by pure ammonia Development of new combustion strategy for internal combustion engine fueled by pure ammonia Dongeun Lee, Hyungeun Min, Hyunho park, Han Ho Song Seoul National University Department of Mechanical Engineering

More information

MIXTURE FORMATION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES. Chapter 5

MIXTURE FORMATION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES. Chapter 5 MIXTURE FORMATION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES Chapter 5 Mixture formation in SI engine Engine induction and fuel system must prepare a fuel-air mixture that satisfiesthe requirements of the engine over its

More information

Particular bi-fuel application of spark ignition engines

Particular bi-fuel application of spark ignition engines IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering PAPER OPEN ACCESS Particular bi-fuel application of spark ignition engines Related content - Bi-fuel System - Gasoline/LPG in A Used 4-Stroke Motorcycle

More information

Internal Combustion Engine. Prepared by- Md Ferdous Alam Lecturer, MEE, SUST

Internal Combustion Engine. Prepared by- Md Ferdous Alam Lecturer, MEE, SUST Internal Combustion Engine Prepared by- Md Ferdous Alam Lecturer, MEE, SUST What is an Engine? -a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy Two types of engines : 1. Internal

More information

Innovative Small Launcher

Innovative Small Launcher Innovative Small Launcher 13 th Reinventing Space Conference 11 November 2015, Oxford, UK Arnaud van Kleef, B.A. Oving (Netherlands Aerospace Centre NLR) C.J. Verberne, B. Haemmerli (Nammo Raufoss AS)

More information

VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM FOR SI ENGINE VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM FOR CI ENGINE

VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM FOR SI ENGINE VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM FOR CI ENGINE VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM FOR SI ENGINE VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM FOR CI ENGINE Page 1 of 13 EFFECT OF VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM ON VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY: Qu. 1:Why Inlet valve is closed after the Bottom Dead Centre

More information

Retrofit von Industriekesseln zur Brennstoffänderung und NOx- Reduzierung. Dr.-Ing. Marco Derksen

Retrofit von Industriekesseln zur Brennstoffänderung und NOx- Reduzierung. Dr.-Ing. Marco Derksen Retrofit von Industriekesseln zur Brennstoffänderung und NOx- Reduzierung Dr.-Ing. Marco Derksen Contents NOx formation In-furnace NOx reducing measures Application of premixed combustion Experiences in

More information

Supersonic Combustion Flow Visualization at Hypersonic Flow

Supersonic Combustion Flow Visualization at Hypersonic Flow Supersonic Combustion Flow Visualization at Hypersonic Flow T.V.C. Marcos, D. Romanelli Pinto, G.S. Moura, A.C. Oliveira, J.B. Chanes Jr., P.G.P. Toro, and M.A.S. Minucci 1 Introduction Currently, a new

More information

SWIRL MEASURING EQUIPMENT FOR DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE

SWIRL MEASURING EQUIPMENT FOR DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE SWIRL MEASURING EQUIPMENT FOR DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE G.S.Gosavi 1, R.B.Solankar 2, A.R.Kori 3, R.B.Chavan 4, S.P.Shinde 5 1,2,3,4,5 Mechanical Engineering Department, Shivaji University, (India)

More information

Steam-condensation from singlesteam-hole

Steam-condensation from singlesteam-hole Steam-condensation from singlesteam-hole as well as from annulargap steam injector Lars Hamberg Tetra Pak Processing System Questions of interest for Tetra Pak concerning Steam Injection What types of

More information

1.2 For the purpose of this UR, the following definitions apply: Low-Speed Engines means diesel engines having a rated speed of less than 300 rpm.

1.2 For the purpose of this UR, the following definitions apply: Low-Speed Engines means diesel engines having a rated speed of less than 300 rpm. (Feb 2015) (Corr.1 June 2016) Type Testing of I.C. Engines 1. General 1.1 Type approval of I.C. engine types consists of drawing approval, specification approval, conformity of production, approval of

More information

How does Common Rail Injection work?

How does Common Rail Injection work? How does Common Rail Injection work? Words: Dr. Johannes Kech Pictures: MTU Tags/Keywords With common rail fuel injection, the combustion process can be optimized to achieve low pollutant levels combined

More information

SIX STROKE ENGINE ARRANGEMENT

SIX STROKE ENGINE ARRANGEMENT 175 Military Technical College Kobry El-Kobbah, Cairo, Egypt. 15 th International Conference on Applied Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering. SIX STROKE ENGINE ARRANGEMENT M. M. Gasim *, L. G. Chui **

More information

Impact of Cold and Hot Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine

Impact of Cold and Hot Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS Impact of Cold and Hot Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine P. Saichaitanya 1, K. Simhadri 2, G.Vamsidurgamohan 3 1, 2, 3 G M R Institute of Engineering and Technology,

More information

Variable Intake Manifold Development trend and technology

Variable Intake Manifold Development trend and technology Variable Intake Manifold Development trend and technology Author Taehwan Kim Managed Programs LLC (tkim@managed-programs.com) Abstract The automotive air intake manifold has been playing a critical role

More information

An Overview of Electric Propulsion Activities in China

An Overview of Electric Propulsion Activities in China An Overview of Electric Propulsion Activities in China Xiaolu Kang Shanghai Spaceflight Power Machinery Institute, Shanghai, P.R. China, 200233 CO-AUTHOR: Zhaoling Wang Nanhao Wang Anjie Li Guofu Wu Gengwang

More information

Cetane ID 510. Customer Presentation. Refining. Petrochemical

Cetane ID 510. Customer Presentation. Refining. Petrochemical Refining Cetane ID 510 Customer Presentation Petrochemical Cetane ID 510 Easy to use One button operation Fully automated Test Fully automated Calibration High pressure injector for better combustion Improved

More information

STUDY OF A NEW COMBUSTION CHAMBER CONCEPT WITH PREMIXING (PREVAPORISING) DELIVERY TUBES

STUDY OF A NEW COMBUSTION CHAMBER CONCEPT WITH PREMIXING (PREVAPORISING) DELIVERY TUBES STUDY OF A NEW COMBUSTION CHAMBER CONCEPT WITH PREMIXING (PREVAPORISING) DELIVERY TUBES Radek Hybl Aeronautical Research and Test Institute VZLU, a.s. CTU in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,

More information

SUPERCHARGER AND TURBOCHARGER

SUPERCHARGER AND TURBOCHARGER SUPERCHARGER AND TURBOCHARGER 1 Turbocharger and supercharger 2 To increase the output of any engine more fuel can be burned and make bigger explosion in every cycle. i. One way to add power is to build

More information

II. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURE

II. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURE Influence of Fuel Pressure Increment in Diesel Common Rail Engine Using External Tuning Box Kitibodee Sethanunt, Dr.Saiprasit Koetniyom Automotive Engineering Department, The Sirindhron International Thai-German

More information

CFD Analysis of Oil Discharge Rate in Rotary Compressor

CFD Analysis of Oil Discharge Rate in Rotary Compressor Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Compressor Engineering Conference School of Mechanical Engineering CFD Analysis of Oil Discharge Rate in Rotary Compressor Liying Deng haitunsai@.com Shebing

More information

Bombardier Challenger Auxiliary Power Unit

Bombardier Challenger Auxiliary Power Unit GENERAL A Honeywell 36 150(CL) constant-speed gas turbine auxiliary power unit (APU) is installed within a fire-resistant compartment in the aft equipment bay. The APU drives a generator, providing AC

More information

Total comfort control

Total comfort control Total comfort control YORK ACTIVE CHILLED BEAM WITH PERFORATED RETURN DIFFUSER Table of contents Concept & Technology Air Distribution & Facade Orientation Product Features Dimensions Performance Data

More information

Implementation of low inductive strip line concept for symmetric switching in a new high power module

Implementation of low inductive strip line concept for symmetric switching in a new high power module Implementation of low inductive strip line concept for symmetric switching in a new high power module Georg Borghoff, Infineon Technologies AG, Germany Abstract The low inductive strip line concept offers

More information

Fundamentals of steam turbine systems

Fundamentals of steam turbine systems Principles of operation Fundamentals of steam turbine systems - The motive power in a steam turbine is obtained by the rate of change in momentum of a high velocity jet of steam impinging on a curved blade

More information

Analysis of Combustion Chambers in Internal Combustion Engine

Analysis of Combustion Chambers in Internal Combustion Engine Global Science and Technology Journal Vol. 2 No.1 March 2014. Pp. 12-21 Analysis of Combustion Chambers in Internal Combustion Engine Ariz Ahmad* Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to study

More information

Ms. Seher Sevim Mülheimer Straße Bergisch Gladbach Phone: +49 (0) Fax: +49 (0)

Ms. Seher Sevim Mülheimer Straße Bergisch Gladbach Phone: +49 (0) Fax: +49 (0) For more than 60 years, Kammerer slide gate valves have been providing reliable shut-off solutions nationally and internationally, whereby reliable technology is combined with top quality. The current

More information

Effect of Reformer Gas on HCCI Combustion- Part II: Low Octane Fuels

Effect of Reformer Gas on HCCI Combustion- Part II: Low Octane Fuels Effect of Reformer Gas on HCCI Combustion- Part II: Low Octane Fuels Vahid Hosseini, and M David Checkel Mechanical Engineering University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada project supported by Auto21 National

More information

Experimental and Numerical Study on the Ignition Process in GOX/CH4 Vortex Thruster

Experimental and Numerical Study on the Ignition Process in GOX/CH4 Vortex Thruster Experimental and Numerical Study on the Ignition Process in GOX/CH4 Vortex Thruster *De-Chuan Sun 1) and Meng-Cheng Cao 2) 1), 2) School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Dalian University of Technology,

More information

Effects of Dilution Flow Balance and Double-wall Liner on NOx Emission in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Combustors

Effects of Dilution Flow Balance and Double-wall Liner on NOx Emission in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Combustors Effects of Dilution Flow Balance and Double-wall Liner on NOx Emission in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Combustors 9 HIDEKI MORIAI *1 Environmental regulations on aircraft, including NOx emissions, have

More information

SGT5-8000H/SCC5-8000H 1S. First experience of Commercial Operation at Irsching 4. Russia Power Moscow, March

SGT5-8000H/SCC5-8000H 1S. First experience of Commercial Operation at Irsching 4. Russia Power Moscow, March SGT5-8000H/SCC5-8000H 1S First experience of Commercial Operation at Irsching 4 Russia Power Moscow, March 5 2012 Armin Städtler R&D Program Manager 8000H 8000H Overview Validation Status Summary Fig.

More information

Heat engine. Heat engine

Heat engine. Heat engine Heat engine Device that transforms heat into work. It requires two energy reservoirs at different temperatures An energy reservoir is a part of the environment so large wrt the system that its temperature

More information

elektronik Designing vehicle power nets A single simulation tool from initial requirements to series production

elektronik Designing vehicle power nets A single simulation tool from initial requirements to series production www.atzonline.de elektronik 04 April 2013 Volume 8 Offprint from ATZelektronik 4/2013 Springer Automotive Media Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH for Bosch Engineering Designing vehicle power nets A single

More information

Shut-off valve as a discharging valve when extracting glycerin from the waste products compound

Shut-off valve as a discharging valve when extracting glycerin from the waste products compound Shut-off valve as a discharging valve when extracting glycerin from the waste products compound Brief profile of Emil Kammerer GmbH For more than 60 years, Kammerer slide gate valves have been providing

More information

INTEGRATED HYDRO-MECHANICAL SIMULATION OF A CAM-ROCKER ARM-UNIT INJECTOR SYSTEM TO ADDRESS NOISE AND VIBRATION ISSUES

INTEGRATED HYDRO-MECHANICAL SIMULATION OF A CAM-ROCKER ARM-UNIT INJECTOR SYSTEM TO ADDRESS NOISE AND VIBRATION ISSUES GT-Suite Users Conference Frankfurt, Germany, October 10 th 2005 INTEGRATED HYDRO-MECHANICAL SIMULATION OF A CAM-ROCKER ARM-UNIT INJECTOR SYSTEM TO ADDRESS NOISE AND VIBRATION ISSUES R. HAM, H. FESSLER

More information

Discussion of Marine Stirling Engine Systems

Discussion of Marine Stirling Engine Systems Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Marine Engineering Tokyo, October 24th to 28th, 2005 Discussion of Marine Stirling Engine Systems Koichi HIRATA* and Masakuni KAWADA** ABSTRACT Many kinds

More information

Wet flame-jet drilling: An alternative technique to access deep heat reservoirs

Wet flame-jet drilling: An alternative technique to access deep heat reservoirs Wet flame-jet drilling: An alternative technique to access deep heat reservoirs ETH Zürich, Institute of Process Engineering, Switzerland Philipp Rudolf von Rohr philippr@ethz.ch Philipp Rudolf von Rohr

More information

PERM injection system Development. PERM injection system Validation

PERM injection system Development. PERM injection system Validation PERM injection system Development AVIO, Antonio Peschiulli KIT, Nikos Zarzalis PERM injection system Validation ENGINSOFT, Lorenzo Bucchieri ONERA, Isabel Da Costa DGA, Vincent Plana Index 1. Introduction

More information

Theoretical Study of the effects of Ignition Delay on the Performance of DI Diesel Engine

Theoretical Study of the effects of Ignition Delay on the Performance of DI Diesel Engine Theoretical Study of the effects of Ignition Delay on the Performance of DI Diesel Engine Vivek Shankhdhar a, Neeraj Kumar b a M.Tech Scholar, Moradabad Institute of Technology, India b Asst. Proff. Mechanical

More information

Preliminary Design Study of Main Rocket Engine for SpaceLiner High-Speed Passenger Transportation Concept

Preliminary Design Study of Main Rocket Engine for SpaceLiner High-Speed Passenger Transportation Concept Preliminary Design Study of Main Rocket Engine for SpaceLiner High-Speed Passenger Transportation Concept By Ryoma Yamashiro 1) and Martin Sippel 2) 1) Space Transportation Mission Directorate, JAXA, Tsukuba,

More information

OPERATING MANUAL LIQUID RING VACUUM PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS

OPERATING MANUAL LIQUID RING VACUUM PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS (Rev. 2.0_10-2010) INTEGRATIVE NOTES to OPERATING MANUAL LIQUID RING VACUUM PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS for Systems type HYDROPACK INTRODUCTION These instructions are for the installers and maintenance personnel

More information

Simulating Gas-Air Mixture Formation for Dual-Fuel Applications

Simulating Gas-Air Mixture Formation for Dual-Fuel Applications Simulating Gas-Air Mixture Formation for Dual-Fuel Applications Karri Keskinen, Ossi Kaario, Mika Nuutinen, Ville Vuorinen, Zaira Künsch and Martti Larmi Thermodynamics and Combustion Technology Research

More information

SUCCESSFUL DIESEL COLD START THROUGH PROPER PILOT INJECTION PARAMETERS SELECTION. Aleksey Marchuk, Georgiy Kuharenok, Aleksandr Petruchenko

SUCCESSFUL DIESEL COLD START THROUGH PROPER PILOT INJECTION PARAMETERS SELECTION. Aleksey Marchuk, Georgiy Kuharenok, Aleksandr Petruchenko SUCCESSFUL DIESEL COLD START THROUGH PROPER PILOT INJECTION PARAMETERS SELECTION Aleksey Marchuk, Georgiy Kuharenok, Aleksandr Petruchenko Robert Bosch Company, Germany Belarussian National Technical Universitry,

More information

Theoretical and Experimental Discourse on Laser Ignition in Liquid Rocket Engines

Theoretical and Experimental Discourse on Laser Ignition in Liquid Rocket Engines Theoretical and Experimental Discourse on Laser Ignition in Liquid Rocket Engines By Chiara Manfletti, Michael Oschwald and Joachim Sender Institute of Space Propulsion, German Aerospace Center (DLR),

More information

Programmable Safety Systems for Burner Management on Gas Turbines.

Programmable Safety Systems for Burner Management on Gas Turbines. Programmable Safety Systems for Burner Management on Gas Turbines. As the demand for energy throughout Australia increases the demand for alternative sources is increasing accordingly. The use of gas turbine

More information

MODULAR USED LUBE OIL RE-REFINING

MODULAR USED LUBE OIL RE-REFINING MODULAR USED LUBE OIL RE-REFINING STP - Studi Tecnologie Progetti Srl Engineering& Contractor P.le Ezio Tarantelli, 97 00144 Rome, Italy stp@stpitaly.eu GENERAL Modular Used Lube Oil Re-refining proposed

More information

Low pressure gas engines The industry standard. CIMAC discussion Athens 22. January 2015 Marcel Ott, General Manager, DF Technology

Low pressure gas engines The industry standard. CIMAC discussion Athens 22. January 2015 Marcel Ott, General Manager, DF Technology Low pressure gas engines The industry standard CIMAC discussion Athens 22. January 2015 Marcel Ott, General Manager, DF Technology Development path for gas powered marine engines 29 km3 LNGC MV Venator

More information

Power Generation Services Solutions for challenging Markets

Power Generation Services Solutions for challenging Markets Power Generation Services Solutions for challenging Markets Philipp Leifeld, GT Service Engineering / Dirk Kampe Marketing GT Modernizations & Upgrades Matthias Migl, Principal Key Expert Overall Plant

More information

Experiments in a Combustion-Driven Shock Tube with an Area Change

Experiments in a Combustion-Driven Shock Tube with an Area Change Accepted for presentation at the 29th International Symposium on Shock Waves. Madison, WI. July 14-19, 2013. Paper #0044 Experiments in a Combustion-Driven Shock Tube with an Area Change B. E. Schmidt

More information

Greater efficiency, more power: The new Series 4000 natural gas engines

Greater efficiency, more power: The new Series 4000 natural gas engines Background Greater efficiency, more power: The new Series 4000 natural gas engines Whether in electricity generating sets or as modules in combined heat and power plants, Series 4000 gas engine systems

More information

Specifications of STICKTITE and PILOTPAK Nozzles

Specifications of STICKTITE and PILOTPAK Nozzles Low Temperature urners - STICKTITE and PILOTPK Nozzles 1-1.1-5 Specifications of STICKTITE and PILOTPK Nozzles This graph indicates the relationship between capacity and applied mixture differential pressure

More information

Validation of Ignition Reliability in SGT-750 Combustor for Diluted Natural Gas at Extremely Low Ambient Temperature

Validation of Ignition Reliability in SGT-750 Combustor for Diluted Natural Gas at Extremely Low Ambient Temperature POWER-GEN Europe, Cologne, Germany, June 27-29, 2017 Validation of Ignition Reliability in SGT-750 Combustor for Diluted Natural Gas at Extremely Low Ambient Temperature Jacek Janczewski - Advisory Combustion

More information

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DIRECT METHANE INJECTION AND COMBUSTION IN SI ENGINE

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DIRECT METHANE INJECTION AND COMBUSTION IN SI ENGINE Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol 13, No 2 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DIRECT METHANE INJECTION AND COMBUSTION IN SI ENGINE Dariusz Klimkiewicz and Andrzej Teodorczyk Warsaw University of Technology,

More information

Finite Element Analysis on Thermal Effect of the Vehicle Engine

Finite Element Analysis on Thermal Effect of the Vehicle Engine Proceedings of MUCEET2009 Malaysian Technical Universities Conference on Engineering and Technology June 20~22, 2009, MS Garden, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia Finite Element Analysis on Thermal Effect of the

More information

Noise Reduction in a Reciprocating Compressor by Optimizing the Suction Muffler

Noise Reduction in a Reciprocating Compressor by Optimizing the Suction Muffler Noise Reduction in a Reciprocating Compressor by Optimizing the Suction Muffler Katakama Nagarjuna ¹ K.Sreenivas² ¹ M.tech student, ²Professor, dept of mechanical engineering kits, markapur, A.P, INDIA

More information

Simulation of the Mixture Preparation for an SI Engine using Multi-Component Fuels

Simulation of the Mixture Preparation for an SI Engine using Multi-Component Fuels ICE Workshop, STAR Global Conference 2012 March 19-21 2012, Amsterdam Simulation of the Mixture Preparation for an SI Engine using Multi-Component Fuels Michael Heiss, Thomas Lauer Content Introduction

More information

Diesel Engine Power Plants

Diesel Engine Power Plants Diesel Engine Power Plants Energy Conversion Engineering Diesel Engine Power Plants Introduction Diesel electric plants are generally available in the range of 2 to 50 MW capacity and they can be used

More information

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 8, August-2016 ISSN

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 8, August-2016 ISSN ISSN 2229-5518 2417 Experimental Investigation of a Two Stroke SI Engine Operated with LPG Induction, Gasoline Manifold Injection and Carburetion V. Gopalakrishnan and M.Loganathan Abstract In this experimental

More information

Siemens SGT6-5000F Gas Turbine Technology Update

Siemens SGT6-5000F Gas Turbine Technology Update Siemens SGT6-5000F Gas Turbine Technology Update POWER-GEN International Abstract This presentation will update the industry on the latest developments of Siemens SGT6-5000F gas turbine. Since its introduction

More information

GTV HVOF K2 Burner OPERATORS MANUAL GTV Verschleißschutz GmbH.

GTV HVOF K2 Burner OPERATORS MANUAL GTV Verschleißschutz GmbH. OPERATORS MANUAL GTV HVOF K2 Burner 780.000 1 Machine: EG - DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY According to EG- Machine Guideline 98/37/EG, Annex II A EG-Guideline Electrical Magnetically Amicability 89/336/EWG

More information

Available online at International Journal of Current Research Vol. 7, Issue, 03, pp , March, 2015

Available online at  International Journal of Current Research Vol. 7, Issue, 03, pp , March, 2015 z Available online at http://www.journalcra.com International Journal of Current Research Vol. 7, Issue, 03, pp.13872-13877, March, 2015 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH ISSN: 0975-833X RESEARCH

More information

INFLUENCE OF THE NUMBER OF NOZZLE HOLES ON THE UNBURNED FUEL IN DIESEL ENGINE

INFLUENCE OF THE NUMBER OF NOZZLE HOLES ON THE UNBURNED FUEL IN DIESEL ENGINE INFLUENCE OF THE NUMBER OF NOZZLE HOLES ON THE UNBURNED FUEL IN DIESEL ENGINE 1. UNIVERSITY OF RUSE, 8, STUDENTSKA STR., 7017 RUSE, BULGARIA 1. Simeon ILIEV ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to

More information

Investigation of Fuel Flow Velocity on CNG Engine using New Injector

Investigation of Fuel Flow Velocity on CNG Engine using New Injector Investigation of Fuel Flow Velocity on CNG Engine using New Injector Hari Prastowo 1, Semin 1*, M. Badrus Zaman 1, Amiadji 1, T. Bambang Musrijadi 1, Agoes Santoso 1, Dwi Priyanta 1, Sardono Sarwito 1,

More information

DLR s Electric Propulsion Test Facility the First Three Years of Thruster Operation

DLR s Electric Propulsion Test Facility the First Three Years of Thruster Operation DLR s Electric Propulsion Test Facility the First Three Years of Thruster Operation IEPC-2015-b/IEPC-388 Presented at Joint Conference of 30th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science 34th

More information

Performance Evaluation of an IC Engine in the Presence of a C-D Nozzle in the Air Intake Manifold

Performance Evaluation of an IC Engine in the Presence of a C-D Nozzle in the Air Intake Manifold Research Article International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology ISSN 2277-4106 2013 INPRESSCO. All Rights Reserved. Available at http://inpressco.com/category/ijcet Performance Evaluation

More information

Generators for the age of variable power generation

Generators for the age of variable power generation 6 ABB REVIEW SERVICE AND RELIABILITY SERVICE AND RELIABILITY Generators for the age of variable power generation Grid-support plants are subject to frequent starts and stops, and rapid load cycling. Improving

More information

The Internal combustion engine (Otto Cycle)

The Internal combustion engine (Otto Cycle) The Internal combustion engine (Otto Cycle) The Otto cycle is a set of processes used by spark ignition internal combustion engines (2-stroke or 4-stroke cycles). These engines a) ingest a mixture of fuel

More information