UL ALTERNATIVE FUELS & STANDARDS UPDATE

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "UL ALTERNATIVE FUELS & STANDARDS UPDATE"

Transcription

1 UL ALTERNATIVE FUELS & STANDARDS UPDATE Presented at the 2008 EPA UST Annual Tank Conference ROLAND RIEGEL - PRIMARY DESIGNATED ENGINEER Flammable Liquids Containment Products

2 REVIEW of PREVIOUS UL FUELS INFORMATION New bio fuels continue to increase in use globally so why can t current requirements simply include them along with traditional petroleum fuels? Any why are existing test fuels not suitable? 1. The fundamental property and characteristic differences between biomass and petroleum based fuels have created new challenges for both materials and products with respect to compatibility and overall safety performance. 2. All fuels can change after biomass processing or petroleum refining and blending due to contaminants entering the fuel distribution chain and storage tanks at various points. Most existing test fuels do not address these real world conditions. 3. There are no mandatory requirements to verify the quality of fuels delivered to local stations, and no mandatory requirements to inspect or maintain fueling system components to mitigate local fuel contamination problems (water +?, microbes, etc.). These principals are the primary drivers behind UL revisions to test fuels used in our research, standards and certifications that address both bio fuels and fuel contaminants.

3 REVIEW of PREVIOUS UL FUELS INFORMATITON Critical Properties and Characteristics of Bio Fuels and Petroleum Fuels are Different, where Bio Fuels Have 1. Higher Electrical Conductivity >>> Accelerates Metal Corrosion Mechanisms 2. Higher Hygroscopic Attraction >>> Increases Fuel/Water Phase Separation Potential 3. Smaller Size & More Polar Molecules >>> Increases Permeation, Solvency and Extraction 4. Decreased Molecular Stability >>> Increases Oxidation and Fuel Decay 5. Different Fire Characteristics >>> Misunderstanding of Fuel Properties, Storage & Use Factors Conclusion - None of these fundamental differences between bio and petroleum fuels properties and characteristics have changed, or are ever expected to. Blends of biomass and petroleum fuels are expected to exhibit variable properties, depending upon the type(s) and concentration(s) of the final fuel blend.

4 REVIEW of PREVIOUS UL FUELS INFORMATION UL has been leading efforts to develop new test fuels that more accurately represent real world commercially available flammable and combustible fuel blends for evaluating compatibility of all materials. To Achieve This Goal - New UL Test Fuels Include Strategic Blends Of: 1. Major Fuel Components Necessary to evaluate different effects on material components. A. Alkanes (such as, aliphatics, paraffins, etc.) B. Aromatics (such as toluene, xylene, benzene, etc.) C. Oxygenates (such as alcohols, ethers, esters, etc.) 2. Major Fuel Contaminants Necessary to evaluate expected fuel contaminants & by-products. A. Water (suspended solution or phase separated) B. Salts (various organic or inorganic types) C. Acids (various organic or inorganic types) The final type and mixture of aggressive test fuel(s) will depend upon the product application (containment, dispensing, consuming, component etc.), product usage factors and development process type.

5 NEW UL TEST FUELS FUEL CONTAINMENT PRODUCT New UL aggressive test fuels developed for material compatibility evaluations of storage and containment products for use with the widest range of both flam & comb bio/petro fuel blends in commercial production, blending and motor vehicle fueling applications are: CM15a, CE85a, ULB100 & Random Gas = Motor Vehicle Fuels Rating 1. Developed by 971 STP with External Technical Expert Input Proposed in UL971 Ballot Comments on R&R of Random Gas Future Revision? - FB20a & FB80a Replaces ULB100 Future Revision? - Additive Gas Replaces Random Gas Urgent Need for UL STPs to Successfully Ballot New Test Fuels 2. Future Proposals? - Other UL Containment Product Requirements Tanks/Liners - UL1316, UL1746, SU1854, SU1856, UL2085, UL2085 Pipes/Sumps UL971, UL971A, SU2039, SU2447, SU2248, SU Future Proposals? - 0ther UL Requirements for All Fuels Multi-Fuel Containers Specialty & Portable Types Multi-Fuel Components Gaskets, Seals, Labels, Wire

6 NEW UL TEST FUELS FUEL DISPENSING PRODUCTS New UL aggressive test fuels developed for material compatibility evaluations of dispensing products for use with specific ranges of either flam or comb bio/petro fuel blends in commercial motor vehicle fueling applications are: CE25a & CE85a = Gasoline/Ethanol Fuel Blend Rating 1. Developed by UL with External Technical Expert Input (E85 Forum) Published Oct 07 in SU87A Dispenser Testing Underway! Can Cover Dial-a-Blend Dispensers for Rated Fuels Does Not Cover Any Gasoline/Methanol Fuel Blends Future Revision? Add FB20a & FB80a Diesel/Biodiesel Rating Future Revision? Add CM15a Option Gasoline/Alcohol Rating Future Revision? Add Random or Additive Gas and Diesel 2. Future Proposals? - Other UL Dispenser Component Requirements UL79 Pumps, UL25 Meters, UL330 Hose, UL429 Valves 3. Future Proposals? - Other Consumer Fuel Container Requirements ASTM F852, ASTM F976, ASTM F2234, ASTM F2517, UL1314

7 NEW UL TEST FUELS COMBUSTIBLE LIQ PRODUCTS New UL aggressive test fuels developed for material compatibility evaluations of combustible liquid only products for use with specific bio/petro fuel blends in commercial or consumer motor vehicle and heating appliance applications are: FB20a & FB80a = Diesel Fuel/Biodiesel Blend Ratings and/or FB20a & FB80a = Heating Fuel/Biodiesel Blend Ratings 1. Developed by UL with Combined External Technical Expert Input Published Feb 08 in SU2258 Plastic Oil Tank Testing Underway! Proposed for Next UL180 Ballot Replaces K25/F25/B50a Future Revisions? - Replace ULB100 in Containment Product Stds. Future Revisions? Replace #2 Fuels in End Use Product Stds. Future Revisions? Add or Replace Test Oils in Component Stds. 2. Future Proposals? - Other UL Comb Liq Only Motor Vehicle Req. UL87A Dispensers, UL79 Pumps, UL25 Meters, UL330 Hose 3. Future Proposals? - Other UL Comb Liq Only Heating Appliance Req. UL296 Burners, UL731 Heaters, UL343 Pumps, UL331 Filters

8 NEW UL TEST FUELS FUEL CONSUMING PRODUCTS New UL aggressive test fuels developed for material compatibility evaluations of fuel consuming end use products for use with specific ranges of either flam or comb bio/petro fuel blends in either commercial or consumer applications are yet to be determined: Potential Flammable Liquid Test Fuel(s) and Fuel Blend Ratings May Be: CM15a or CE25a & CE85a = All Gasoline/(Alcohol or Ethanol) Blends CE85a or CM85a = High Blend Gasoline/(Methanol or Ethanol) Blends CM15a or CE25a = Low Blend Gasoline/(Alcohol or Ethanol) Blends Potential Combustible Liquid Test Fuels and Fuel Blend Ratings May Be: FB20a & FB80a = All (Diesel Fuel or Heating Fuel)/Biodiesel Blends FB80a = High Blend (Diesel Fuel or Heating Fuel)/Biodiesel Blends FB20a = Low Blend (Diesel Fuel or Heating Fuel)/Biodiesel Blends Future Proposals? Potentially all UL Fuel Consuming End Products: Generators & Turbines, Washers & Cleaners, Heating Appliances, Lift Trucks, Automotive Equipment, Marine Equipment, Portable Tools, Hand Pumps, Specialty Containers and their Components.

9 NEW UL TEST FUELS FINAL CONSIDERATIONS Although UL had developed these new test fuels through collaborative efforts that address material compatibility of traditional petroleum fuels, new biomass fuels, blends thereof and real world fuel changes, the final decisions will need to be made through individual standard or outline processes. A few key development options, driver dynamics & technical issues to consider are: Development Options - Standards (STP consensus or IAG non-consensus), or Outline development of requirements greatly depend upon balance of time needs vs consensus needs vs user acceptance factors. Driver Dynamics - Changing Global/Fed/State legislative requirements, fuel producer needs, product manufacturer needs, regulatory needs and consumer market needs for bio fuels types, blend % and availability. Technical Issues Marked rating range from high and low test points, individual product use and misuse factors, potential hazards, and issues of consistency vs special needs in each standard.

10 NEW UL TEST FUELS DISPENSER RESEARCH UL in partnership with DOE has been conducting static & dynamic research testing on gasoline dispensers designed for high blend ethanol fuels since mid Although the research testing and data analysis are still continuing, the general results on identification of inorganic elements (metals) and organic compounds (polymers) suspended in the test fuels have confirmed earlier theories on bio fuels properties & characteristics. The weekly GC/MS fuel analysis of CE25a & CE85a test fuels used in a typical E85 dispenser in both static & dynamic systems shows: 1. Extracted Metals (High-Low) - Zn, Cu, Fe, Ni, Ti, Al, Ba, Pb Low/No traces of other alloy metals - Be, Cd, Cr, Mg, Mb, Vn. Weekly quantity trends varied (increase/decrease/stable) Some higher values for CE85a than CE25a (Fe, Ni) Some unexpected results (Ni & Fe higher, Al lower) 2. Extracted Polymers Plasticizers, Stabilizers & Additives Identification of many individual compounds is difficult Quantitative & source analysis of data is ongoing

11 NEW UL TEST FUELS CONTINUING RESEARCH Additional fundamental bio fuels research at UL is expected to continue in order to provide independent scientific data to support development of proper bio fuels requirements and product certifications. Areas of bio fuels research likely to continue or start in the near future are: 1. Dispensers Static & Dynamic testing with Biodiesel Blends (FB20a & FB80a) for system failure mode analysis with orgainic and inorganic qualitative/qualitative fuels analysis. 2. General Material Compatibility Long term compatibility of basic metallic, polymer and elastomer materials with variable blends of gasoline & alcohols, diesel & biodiesel and w/wo aggressive components and specific additives. 3. Consumer Fuel Container Research Evaluation of portable container liquid/vapor leakage/permeation resistance, physical abuse resistance and CRC effectiveness comparison between current ASTM test fuels and new UL test fuels.

12 - Thank You - Questions? Contact Information Roland Riegel PDE Flammable Liquids Containment Products Underwriters Laboratories 1285 Walt Whitman Road Melville, NY (631) x 22421

Article: The Formation & Testing of Sludge in Bunker Fuels By Dr Sunil Kumar Laboratory Manager VPS Fujairah 15th January 2018

Article: The Formation & Testing of Sludge in Bunker Fuels By Dr Sunil Kumar Laboratory Manager VPS Fujairah 15th January 2018 Article: The Formation & Testing of Sludge in Bunker Fuels By Dr Sunil Kumar Laboratory Manager VPS Fujairah 15th January 2018 Introduction Sludge formation in bunker fuel is the source of major operational

More information

Piston Seals Wipers O-Rings & Kits Custom Parts Specialty Parts Services Wear Guides Rod Seals UL Compounds QUALITY VALUE SERVICE.

Piston Seals Wipers O-Rings & Kits Custom Parts Specialty Parts Services Wear Guides Rod Seals UL Compounds QUALITY VALUE SERVICE. Piston Seals Wipers O-Rings & Kits Custom Parts Specialty Parts Services Wear Guides Rod Seals UL Compounds QUALITY VALUE SERVICE UL Compounds RT DYGERT S UL LINEUP Certifiably perfect solutions. RT Dygert

More information

Ryan Haerer, EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks

Ryan Haerer, EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks Corrosion in Underground Storage Tanks Storing Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD): An Update on 2014 Research Efforts Attempting to Determine the Causes of Severe and Rapid Corrosion Ryan Haerer, EPA Office

More information

DIESEL FUEL STORAGE CORROSION - DECAY

DIESEL FUEL STORAGE CORROSION - DECAY DIESEL FUEL STORAGE CORROSION - DECAY The unexpected problem the new bio-blended diesel fuel absorbs water: much more water this water stays suspended or emulsified traditional filters are ineffective

More information

SCOPE OF ACCREDITATION TO ISO/IEC 17043:2010. ASTM INTERNATIONAL 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken, PA Amy Meacock

SCOPE OF ACCREDITATION TO ISO/IEC 17043:2010. ASTM INTERNATIONAL 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken, PA Amy Meacock SCOPE OF ACCREDITATION TO ISO/IEC 17043:2010 ASTM INTERNATIONAL 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken, PA 19428 Amy Meacock 610 832 9688 PROFICIENCY TESTING PROVIDER Valid To: May 31, 2021 Certificate

More information

lubricants analysis. complete solutions for your lab. Lubricants Analysis

lubricants analysis. complete solutions for your lab. Lubricants Analysis Lubricants Analysis lubricants analysis. complete solutions for your lab. PerkinElmer capabilities for lubricants analysis. The analysis of lubricants for conformity and process control has always been

More information

EI HMC Report Spring API Committee on Petroleum Measurement Standards Meeting

EI HMC Report Spring API Committee on Petroleum Measurement Standards Meeting EI HMC Report 2017 Spring API Committee on Petroleum Measurement Standards Meeting STAC EI Technical Committee Structure STAC Health Technical Committee Environmental Management Group Safety Management

More information

Distillation process of Crude oil

Distillation process of Crude oil Distillation process of Crude oil Abdullah Al Ashraf; Abdullah Al Aftab 2012 Crude oil is a fossil fuel, it was made naturally from decaying plants and animals living in ancient seas millions of years

More information

EXPERIENCE IN TECHNICAL COOPERATION BETWEEN INDUSTRIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTES. Carlos Alexandre Martins

EXPERIENCE IN TECHNICAL COOPERATION BETWEEN INDUSTRIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTES. Carlos Alexandre Martins EXPERIENCE IN TECHNICAL COOPERATION BETWEEN INDUSTRIES AND RESEARCH INSTITUTES Carlos Alexandre Martins c.alexandre@petrobras.com.br March, 2011 Petrobras experience with the Institute for Research and

More information

Tests conducted under the following industry standards for PermaFrost API ASHRAE ARI ASTM EPA ANSI UL. SINCE 1985 Quality Controlled Through Analysis

Tests conducted under the following industry standards for PermaFrost API ASHRAE ARI ASTM EPA ANSI UL. SINCE 1985 Quality Controlled Through Analysis Tests conducted under the following industry standards for PermaFrost API ASHRAE ARI ASTM EPA ANSI UL SINCE 1985 Client: Powertron LLC Requested By: Mr. Tony Sgarbi Sample: 10% PermaFrost + 90% Report

More information

White Paper.

White Paper. The Advantage of Real Atmospheric Distillation Complying with the ASTM D7345 Test Method in the Distillation Process Introduction / Background In the past, refiners enjoyed a constant supply of the same

More information

Joint Oil Analysis Program Spectrometer Standards SCP Science (Conostan) Qualification Report For D19-0, D3-100, and D12-XXX Series Standards

Joint Oil Analysis Program Spectrometer Standards SCP Science (Conostan) Qualification Report For D19-0, D3-100, and D12-XXX Series Standards Joint Oil Analysis Program Spectrometer Standards SCP Science (Conostan) Qualification Report For D19-0, D3-100, and D12-XXX Series Standards NF&LCFT REPORT 441/15-008 Prepared By: MICHAEL PERETICH, PHD

More information

VHG Labs, Inc. Standards and Supplies for Spectrochemical Oil Analysis

VHG Labs, Inc. Standards and Supplies for Spectrochemical Oil Analysis VHG Labs, Inc. Standards and Supplies for Spectrochemical Oil Analysis Metallo-Organic Standards from VHG Labs VHG Labs has been a provider of quality analytical products and services for over 25 years.

More information

May Feedstock Disruptions in Chemicals chains necessitate business model innovation

May Feedstock Disruptions in Chemicals chains necessitate business model innovation May 2014 Feedstock Disruptions in Chemicals chains necessitate business model innovation Strategy& has based findings on its proprietary feedstock model Strategy& global feedstock model Feedstock developments

More information

CUSTOMS TARIFF - SCHEDULE. Chapter 27 MINERAL FUELS, MINERAL OILS AND PRODUCTS OF THEIR DISTILLATION; BITUMINOUS SUBSTANCES; MINERAL WAXES

CUSTOMS TARIFF - SCHEDULE. Chapter 27 MINERAL FUELS, MINERAL OILS AND PRODUCTS OF THEIR DISTILLATION; BITUMINOUS SUBSTANCES; MINERAL WAXES CUSTOMS TARIFF - SCHEDULE 27 - i Chapter 27 MINERAL FUELS, MINERAL OILS AND PRODUCTS OF THEIR DISTILLATION; BITUMINOUS SUBSTANCES; MINERAL WAXES Notes. 1. This Chapter does not cover: (a) Separate chemically

More information

CHAPTER 5 FUEL CHARACTERISTICS

CHAPTER 5 FUEL CHARACTERISTICS 66 CHAPTER 5 FUEL CHARACTERISTICS 5.1 EVALUATION OF PROPERTIES OF FUELS TESTED The important properties of biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel blends, biodiesel-ethanol blends, biodiesel-methanol blends and biodiesel-ethanoldiesel

More information

Joint Oil Analysis Program Spectrometer Standards VHG Labs Inc. Qualification Report For D19-0, D3-100 and D12-XXX Series Standards

Joint Oil Analysis Program Spectrometer Standards VHG Labs Inc. Qualification Report For D19-0, D3-100 and D12-XXX Series Standards Joint Oil Analysis Program Spectrometer Standards VHG Labs Inc. Qualification Report For D19-0, D3-100 and D12-XXX Series Standards NF&LCFT REPORT 441/13-010 Prepared By: MICHAEL PERETICH, PhD Oil Analysis

More information

Rubber Assembly Lubricants

Rubber Assembly Lubricants Rubber Assembly Lubricants What are they? How to improve your assembly operations, increase quality and reduce injuries. 201 Connec*cut Drive, Burlington, NJ 08016 USA Ph (609) 386-8770 Fax (609) 386-8438

More information

Author: Vincenzo Piemonte, Associate Professor, University UCBM Rome (Italy)

Author: Vincenzo Piemonte, Associate Professor, University UCBM Rome (Italy) Green Diesel Author: Vincenzo Piemonte, Associate Professor, University UCBM Rome (Italy) 1. Theme description Around 50% of the produced crude petroleum in the world is refined into transportation fuels

More information

Certificate of Accreditation

Certificate of Accreditation PERRY JOHNSON LABORATORY ACCREDITATION, INC. Certificate of Accreditation Perry Johnson Laboratory Accreditation, Inc. has assessed the Laboratory of: (Hereinafter called the Organization) and hereby declares

More information

Oxidative Desulfurization. IAEE Houston Chapter June 11, 2009

Oxidative Desulfurization. IAEE Houston Chapter June 11, 2009 Oxidative Desulfurization IAEE ouston Chapter June 11, 2009 Forward-Looking Statements This presentation contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933,

More information

Direct Injection Ethanol Boosted Gasoline Engines: Biofuel Leveraging For Cost Effective Reduction of Oil Dependence and CO 2 Emissions

Direct Injection Ethanol Boosted Gasoline Engines: Biofuel Leveraging For Cost Effective Reduction of Oil Dependence and CO 2 Emissions Direct Injection Ethanol Boosted Gasoline Engines: Biofuel Leveraging For Cost Effective Reduction of Oil Dependence and CO 2 Emissions D.R. Cohn* L. Bromberg* J.B. Heywood Massachusetts Institute of Technology

More information

Biofine Technology, LLC

Biofine Technology, LLC Biofine Technology, LLC Cellulosic Biodiesel www.biofinetechnology.com 1 CELLULOSE AND STARCH THE BIOFINE PROCESS CELLULOSIC BIODIESEL BIOFINE PRESENTATION OUTLINE THE BIOFINE BIO-REFINING PROCESS LEVULINIC

More information

INTERPRETATION OF USED COOLANT ANALYSIS

INTERPRETATION OF USED COOLANT ANALYSIS RECO-COOL TECHNICAL BULLETIN 0006/12 INTERPRETATION OF USED COOLANT ANALYSIS Testing of coolants in use (whilst still within service) can give a vital indication on the health of the cooling system of

More information

Upgrading Biomass Pyrolysis Vapors to Fungible Hydrocarbon Intermediates

Upgrading Biomass Pyrolysis Vapors to Fungible Hydrocarbon Intermediates Upgrading Biomass Pyrolysis Vapors to Fungible Hydrocarbon Intermediates tcbiomass 2017 K. Magrini, J. Olstad, M. Jarvis, Y. Parent, B. Peterson, S. Deutch, K. Iisa, M. Sprague, G. Powell September 20,

More information

AALTO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY KE Introduction to biorefineries and biofuels

AALTO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY KE Introduction to biorefineries and biofuels AALTO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY KE-40.4120 Introduction to biorefineries and biofuels Assignment 11: Comparison of biofuels vs. fossil fuels Aino Siirala 309141 Assignment submitted 8.12.2013

More information

DoD Fuel Specification Review. Jill M Bramer, US ARMY Presenting on behalf of TRIPOL 11 April 2017

DoD Fuel Specification Review. Jill M Bramer, US ARMY Presenting on behalf of TRIPOL 11 April 2017 DoD Fuel Specification Review Jill M Bramer, US ARMY Presenting on behalf of TRIPOL 11 April 2017 TRIPOL TRIPOL informally began in March 2003 at the recommendation of AFPET Technical Division Official

More information

Biodiesel Technical Issues related to Biodiesel Production, Handling, Storage, and Use in Diesel Engines

Biodiesel Technical Issues related to Biodiesel Production, Handling, Storage, and Use in Diesel Engines Biodiesel Technical Issues related to Biodiesel Production, Handling, Storage, and Use in Diesel Engines Richard G. Nelson National Biodiesel Board rnelson@ksu.edu Biodiesel Defined Biodiesel, n. -- a

More information

Products Standardization in Oil & Gas Sector in India. Dr (Smt) Vijay Malik, Scientist E & Head (PCD) Bureau of Indian Standards New Delhi, India.

Products Standardization in Oil & Gas Sector in India. Dr (Smt) Vijay Malik, Scientist E & Head (PCD) Bureau of Indian Standards New Delhi, India. Products Standardization in Oil & Gas Sector in India Dr (Smt) Vijay Malik, Scientist E & Head (PCD) Bureau of Indian Standards New Delhi, India. Introduction Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), works under

More information

By the Book: How to Offer E15

By the Book: How to Offer E15 By the Book: How to Offer E15 In 2012, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved the use of E15 fuels in 2001 and later model year vehicles and all flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs). EPA has specifically

More information

Emissions Characterization of Three High Efficiency Wood Boilers

Emissions Characterization of Three High Efficiency Wood Boilers Emissions Characterization of Three High Efficiency Wood Boilers James Laing, Sriraam Ramanathan Chandrasekaran, Suresh Raja, Thomas Holsen, Philip K. Hopke Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science,

More information

Various tests and analysis will be carried out at testing laboratory on the received samples such as:

Various tests and analysis will be carried out at testing laboratory on the received samples such as: 2 Testing Various tests and analysis will be carried out at testing laboratory on the received samples such as: - General Quality Control Test - Special Analysis Tests as requested 2.1 General Quality

More information

Sustainable Biofuel Systems for Undeveloped Regions. Tyler Backman and Nikhil Prem OSU Biodiesel Initiative

Sustainable Biofuel Systems for Undeveloped Regions. Tyler Backman and Nikhil Prem OSU Biodiesel Initiative Sustainable Biofuel Systems for Undeveloped Regions Tyler Backman and Nikhil Prem OSU Biodiesel Initiative Challenge Definition The lack of sustainable alternatives to petroleum fuels is a critical global

More information

Christian Quijano Rounds and Associates. John Albert Department of Agriculture. Heather Peters Department of Natural Resources

Christian Quijano Rounds and Associates. John Albert Department of Agriculture. Heather Peters Department of Natural Resources Christian Quijano Rounds and Associates John Albert Department of Agriculture Heather Peters Department of Natural Resources Compressed Natural Gas Liquefied Propane (LP) Electric/Solar (battery)

More information

New Small Spectrometer Concepts Covering the Ultraviolet to the Mid-Infrared

New Small Spectrometer Concepts Covering the Ultraviolet to the Mid-Infrared New Small Spectrometer Concepts Covering the Ultraviolet to the Mid-Infrared John Coates Coates Consulting Process Spectroscopy IFPAC-2014 Thursday PM VIII New Approaches in Spectroscopic Measurements:

More information

Overview & Perspectives for Internal Combustion Engine using STAR-CD. Marc ZELLAT

Overview & Perspectives for Internal Combustion Engine using STAR-CD. Marc ZELLAT Overview & Perspectives for Internal Combustion Engine using STAR-CD Marc ZELLAT TOPICS Quick overview of ECFM family models Examples of validation for Diesel and SI-GDI engines Introduction to multi-component

More information

Fraction Distillation of Crude Oil

Fraction Distillation of Crude Oil Fraction Distillation of Crude Oil Question Paper 2 Level A Level Subject Chemistry Exam Board AQA Module 3.3 Organic Chemistry Topic 3.3.2 Alkanes Sub-Topic 3.3.2.1 Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil

More information

ASTM International Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants February NBC, Orlando, FL

ASTM International Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants February NBC, Orlando, FL ASTM International Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants February 2008 NBC, Orlando, FL 1 Presentation Provide an overview of ASTM International and ASTM s standardization concepts Introduce

More information

ASTM Methods that are feasible with Metrohm instruments

ASTM Methods that are feasible with Metrohm instruments ASTM Methods that are feasible with Metrohm instruments Automotive ASTM D5827-09 Standard test method for analysis of engine coolant for chloride and other anions by ion Biofuels a) Biodiesel ASTM D664-09

More information

Trends in Iowa Ethanol Blends Sales: E10, E15, E20, and E85 and the Biofuel Distribution Percentage

Trends in Iowa Ethanol Blends Sales: E10, E15, E20, and E85 and the Biofuel Distribution Percentage Trends in Iowa Ethanol Blends Sales: E10, E15, E20, and E85 and the Biofuel Distribution Percentage By IFBF Research and Commodity Services- By Patricia Batres-Marquez, Decision Innovation Solutions (DIS).

More information

Fuel Rating Rule Review, 16 CFR Part 306, Project No. R811005

Fuel Rating Rule Review, 16 CFR Part 306, Project No. R811005 July 2, 2014 Miriam Lederer Federal Trade Commission Office of the Secretary Room H-113 (Annex N) 600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW Washington DC 20580 RE: Fuel Rating Rule Review, 16 CFR Part 306, Project No.

More information

Detailed Mid-FTIR Analysis Of Gasoline, Diesel & Jet Fuel With A Single Portable Analyzer In Seconds

Detailed Mid-FTIR Analysis Of Gasoline, Diesel & Jet Fuel With A Single Portable Analyzer In Seconds Detailed Mid-FTIR Analysis Of Gasoline, Diesel & Jet Fuel With A Single Portable Analyzer In Seconds Philipp Jordan eralytics TM GmbH www.eralytics.com Welcome to a new era of petroleum testing PERFORMANCE

More information

Alcohols to Hydrocarbons (ATH)

Alcohols to Hydrocarbons (ATH) Alcohols to Hydrocarbons (ATH) Advanced Bioeconomy Leadership Conference 6 th Annual Aviation & Military Biofuels Summit Washington, D.C. Friday March 13th 2015 Forward-Looking Statements Certain statements

More information

CERTIFICATE OF ACCREDITATION

CERTIFICATE OF ACCREDITATION CERTIFICATE OF ACCREDITATION ANSI-ASQ National Accreditation Board 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 625, Alexandria, VA 22314, 877-344-3044 This is to certify that EPA National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory

More information

3.2 The alkanes. Isomerism: Alkanes with 4 or more carbons show a type of structural isomerism called chain isomerism

3.2 The alkanes. Isomerism: Alkanes with 4 or more carbons show a type of structural isomerism called chain isomerism 3.2 The alkanes Prior knowledge: Types of formula general, empirical, molecular, structural, displayed and skeletal. Nomenclature Structural isomers chain and position isomers Free radicals Aliphatic Alkanes

More information

Model Differences and Variability CRC E-102. Don O Connor 2013 CRC Life Cycle Analysis of Transportation Fuels Workshop October 16, 2013

Model Differences and Variability CRC E-102. Don O Connor 2013 CRC Life Cycle Analysis of Transportation Fuels Workshop October 16, 2013 Model Differences and Variability CRC E-102 Don O Connor 2013 CRC Life Cycle Analysis of Transportation Fuels Workshop October 16, 2013 Introduction The goal of CRC Project E-102 was to better quantify

More information

Ethanol, E10, E15. The Facts, The Myths, and The Politics

Ethanol, E10, E15. The Facts, The Myths, and The Politics Ethanol, E10, E15 The Facts, The Myths, and The Politics Mark Riechers Director, Regulatory Development Mercury Marine November 2016 Contributors Frank Kelley Fuels & Lubricants Technical Specialist BS

More information

Effects of Fuel Weathering on RVP, Distillation and Oxygen Content of Ethanol and iso-butanol Blends

Effects of Fuel Weathering on RVP, Distillation and Oxygen Content of Ethanol and iso-butanol Blends Effects of Fuel Weathering on RVP, Distillation and Oxygen Content of Ethanol and iso-butanol Blends Thomas Wallner Argonne National Laboratory Jeff Wasil Bombardier Recreational Products Engine Manufacturers

More information

X-ray Analysis in Petrochemical and Polymer Industries: Challenges and Solutions

X-ray Analysis in Petrochemical and Polymer Industries: Challenges and Solutions Gulf Coast Conference 2014 X-ray Analysis in Petrochemical and Polymer Industries: Challenges and Solutions Al Martin Thermo Fisher Scientific, West Palm Beach, USA XRF Petro and Poly Challenges Physical

More information

Guidance on Changes to ASTM D1655 and Def Stan to Increase Allowable FAME Limits to 50 mg/kg

Guidance on Changes to ASTM D1655 and Def Stan to Increase Allowable FAME Limits to 50 mg/kg Guidance on Changes to ASTM D1655 and Def Stan 91-91 to Increase Allowable FAME Limits to 50 mg/kg The latest revisions to the two major western jet fuel specifications, ASTM D1655-15 (primarily used in

More information

Unit 7 Part 2 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Crude Oil: Sources and Uses of Alkanes UNIT 7 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Unit 7 Part 2 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Crude Oil: Sources and Uses of Alkanes UNIT 7 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Unit 7 Part 2 Introduction to Organic hemistry rude Oil: Sources and Uses of Alkanes UNIT 7 INTRODUTION TO ORGANI EMISTRY PART 2 RUDE OIL: SOURES AND USES OF ALKANES ontents 1. rude Oil 2. ombustion of

More information

Avon Products, Inc. Particulars. RSPO Annual Communications of Progress Particulars Form. About Your Organisation. 1.1 Name of your organization

Avon Products, Inc. Particulars. RSPO Annual Communications of Progress Particulars Form. About Your Organisation. 1.1 Name of your organization Particulars About Your Organisation 1.1 Name of your organization Avon Products, Inc. 1.2 What is/are the primary activity(ies) or product(s) of your organization? Oil Palm Growers Palm Oil Processors

More information

NT2014_120: The lubricity of ethers and alcohol-water blends

NT2014_120: The lubricity of ethers and alcohol-water blends NT2014_120: The lubricity of ethers and alcohol-water blends I.M. Sivebaek*, J. Jakobsen Technical University of Denmark, Mechanical Engineering, Produktionstorvet B427A, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark Abstract

More information

Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Ethanol and Hydrocarbon Fuels

Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Ethanol and Hydrocarbon Fuels Participant Guide Module 3 Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Ethanol and Hydrocarbon Fuels Module Objective Upon the completion of this module, participants should be able to describe the chemical

More information

Refining/Petrochemical Integration-A New Paradigm

Refining/Petrochemical Integration-A New Paradigm Refining/Petrochemical Integration-A New Paradigm Introduction The global trend in motor fuel consumption favors diesel over gasoline. There is a simultaneous increase in demand for various petrochemicals

More information

Passengers Capacity USA LCV - Class 1 - LCV - Class LCV - Type 1 - LCV - Type Load Adjusted Mass (kg) MV - Class 1 - -

Passengers Capacity USA LCV - Class 1 - LCV - Class LCV - Type 1 - LCV - Type Load Adjusted Mass (kg) MV - Class 1 - - CHILE CHILE 1. Introduction: American and European emissions limits, with respective test cycles, are applied. For light vehicles, homologation tests are performed in CCCV (Vehicle Certification and Control

More information

SENECA COMPANIES TANK CLEANING & FUEL POLISHING OVERVIEW

SENECA COMPANIES TANK CLEANING & FUEL POLISHING OVERVIEW SENECA COMPANIES TANK CLEANING & FUEL POLISHING OVERVIEW Tank cleaning and fuel polishing Table of contents Intro and background Fuel quality now vs. then Causes and effects Corrosion Issues Process description

More information

What is Biodiesel? Biodiesel consists of alkyl-esters derived from a biological source

What is Biodiesel? Biodiesel consists of alkyl-esters derived from a biological source Biodiesel What is Biodiesel? Biodiesel consists of alkyl-esters derived from a biological source Biodiesel can be used as a fuel in compression ignition engines (i.e. diesels) Can be blended with petroleum

More information

PRACTICE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS FOR 1.6 ALKANES (includes some questions from 1.5 Introduction to Organic Chemistry)

PRACTICE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS FOR 1.6 ALKANES (includes some questions from 1.5 Introduction to Organic Chemistry) PRACTICE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS FOR 1.6 ALKANES (includes some questions from 1.5 Introduction to Organic Chemistry) 1. (a) Name the process used to separate petroleum into fractions....... Give the molecular

More information

SOLVENT MARKET. Global Trends & Forecast To MarketsandMarkets

SOLVENT MARKET. Global Trends & Forecast To MarketsandMarkets SOLVENT MARKET BY TYPE (Alcohols, Glycols, Glycol Ethers, Ketones, Esters, Aromatics, Chlorinated), APPLICATION (Paints & Coatings, Pharmaceuticals, Adhesives, Printing Inks, Personal Care) & SOURCE MarketsandMarkets

More information

Fundamentals of Oil Analysis

Fundamentals of Oil Analysis IRC RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY FORUM Wednesday May 6, 2015 Thursday May 7, 2015 Madison, WI 53706 University of Wisconsin-Madison Pyle Center 702 Langdon St. University of Wisconsin-Madison Fundamentals of

More information

Influence of power to liquid fuels on the emissions of modern passenger cars

Influence of power to liquid fuels on the emissions of modern passenger cars Influence of power to liquid fuels on the emissions of modern passenger cars T. Garbe, M. Hönig, W. Kaszás, J. Klose, H. Bröker, E. Pott Volkswagen AG Motivation for e-fuels climate protection CO 2 -neutral

More information

Chemical Protective Clothing Standards Update. Ulf Nyström

Chemical Protective Clothing Standards Update. Ulf Nyström Chemical Protective Clothing Standards Update Ulf Nyström 2017-01-23 CPC = Chemical Protective Clothing 2 Ansell / Ulf Nyström International: ISO TC94 SC13 WG3 - CPC International: ISO TC94 SC14 WG4 -

More information

ASTM International 1

ASTM International 1 1 ASTM International ASTM INTERNATIONAL Organized in 1898 Independent, private sector, not-for-profit Provides a global forum for the development of voluntary, consensus standards and promotion of related

More information

Compatibility of elastomers with test fuels of gasoline blended with ethanol

Compatibility of elastomers with test fuels of gasoline blended with ethanol Compatibility of elastomers with test fuels of gasoline blended with ethanol Michael Kass, Timothy Theiss, Chris Janke and Steve Pawel, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA; and J.

More information

2311FA. Pressure Tester USER INSTRUCTION MANUAL BARFIELD M/N 2311FA Revision C April 12, 2011 BARFIELD, INC. Corporate Headquarters

2311FA. Pressure Tester USER INSTRUCTION MANUAL BARFIELD M/N 2311FA Revision C April 12, 2011 BARFIELD, INC. Corporate Headquarters 2311FA Pressure Tester USER INSTRUCTION MANUAL BARFIELD M/N 2311FA 56-101-00212 Revision C April 12, 2011 BARFIELD, INC. Corporate Headquarters 4101 Northwest 29th Street Miami, Florida 33142 www.barfieldinc.com

More information

Stationary Battery Safety An Overview of the Process of Verifying the Safety of Battery Systems

Stationary Battery Safety An Overview of the Process of Verifying the Safety of Battery Systems Stationary Battery Safety An Overview of the Process of Verifying the Safety of Battery Systems Laurie Florence Principal Engineer Batteries, Fuel Cells & Capacitors Laurie.b.florence@us.ul.com 1-847-664-3782

More information

MONITORING SOLUTION FOR MARINE MAIN ENGINE CYLINDERS PROTECTION

MONITORING SOLUTION FOR MARINE MAIN ENGINE CYLINDERS PROTECTION COLD CORROSION MONITORING SOLUTION FOR MARINE MAIN ENGINE CYLINDERS PROTECTION UNIMARINE MARINE ENGINES CYLINDERS SCRAPE-DOWN OIL ANALYSIS (CSDOA) FOCUS ON PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE UniMarine provides high

More information

DGINT/2. Flammability Reduction. Fuel tank safety. Purpose of the meeting. Review of conclusions from June 2004 workshop. Flammability Reduction

DGINT/2. Flammability Reduction. Fuel tank safety. Purpose of the meeting. Review of conclusions from June 2004 workshop. Flammability Reduction Flammability Reduction Fuel tank safety Flammability Reduction Purpose of the meeting Review of conclusions from June 2004 workshop Background Rulemaking framework for FTS Rulemaking task for FRS Ignition

More information

Harmonization of Fuel Quality Standards in ASEAN

Harmonization of Fuel Quality Standards in ASEAN Harmonization of Fuel Quality Standards in ASEAN Source: hutchinsontransmission.com Dr Ruengsak Thitiratsakul Petroleum Institute of Thailand February 23, 2016 Petroleum Institute of Thailand 11 th Floor,

More information

Transport Canada s ecotechnology for Vehicles (etv) Program

Transport Canada s ecotechnology for Vehicles (etv) Program Transport Canada s ecotechnology for Vehicles (etv) Program Task Force on Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Policy November 20, 2013 RDIMS # 8902239 PURPOSE The objective of this presentation is to provide

More information

Forensic Identification of Gasoline Samples D.A. Birkholz 1, Michael Langdeau 1, Preston Kulmatycki, 1 and Tammy Henderson. Abstract.

Forensic Identification of Gasoline Samples D.A. Birkholz 1, Michael Langdeau 1, Preston Kulmatycki, 1 and Tammy Henderson. Abstract. Forensic Identification of Gasoline Samples D.A. Birkholz 1, Michael Langdeau 1, Preston Kulmatycki, 1 and Tammy Henderson 1. Enviro-Test Laboratories, Edmonton, AB. Abstract Gasoline samples (premium

More information

Bio-Renewable Fuels: Green Diesel

Bio-Renewable Fuels: Green Diesel Bio-Renewable Fuels: Green California Biomass Collaborative 4th Annual Forum Amar Anumakonda, PhD Renewable Energy and Chemicals Business Unit UOP LLC, A Honeywell Company Des Plaines, IL 2007 UOP LLC.

More information

Aviation Alternative Fuels Towards sustainable air travel

Aviation Alternative Fuels Towards sustainable air travel June 3rd, 2009 Presented by Philippe FONTA Head of Sustainable Development Airbus Vice-chairman of the Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions Committee - ICCAIA Aviation Alternative Fuels Towards sustainable

More information

Advanced Biolubricants and Used Oil Re-refining

Advanced Biolubricants and Used Oil Re-refining P a g e 1 Advanced Biolubricants and Used Oil Re-refining Introduction The lubricants industry has been active in developing processes and technologies that meet regulatory and societal demands for sustainability

More information

TurbWay SE GT TurbWay SE GT LV A new generation turbine fluids

TurbWay SE GT TurbWay SE GT LV A new generation turbine fluids TurbWay SE GT TurbWay SE GT LV A new generation turbine fluids ENERGY EFFICIENT ECC (ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSIDERATE CHOISE) FOR POWER INDUSTRY 2 TurbWay SE GT/LV TurbWay SE GT/LV 3 Content Product introduction

More information

Results... Survey on Mechanical Issues Related to Biodiesel Blending

Results... Survey on Mechanical Issues Related to Biodiesel Blending Results... Survey on Mechanical Issues Related to Biodiesel Blending Fall 2016 Prepared by: Dr. Thomas Butcher National Oilheat Research Alliance March 2017 NORA Report 17-1 National Oilheat Research Alliance

More information

Biodiesel Analysis Utilizing Mini-Scan - Handheld Analyzer V.C. Gordon PhD, Bonanza Labs

Biodiesel Analysis Utilizing Mini-Scan - Handheld Analyzer V.C. Gordon PhD, Bonanza Labs Biodiesel Analysis Utilizing Mini-Scan - Handheld Analyzer V.C. Gordon PhD, Bonanza Labs Overview According to the National Biodiesel Board, biodiesel production in the United States reached 450 million

More information

Course Syllabus and Information

Course Syllabus and Information Energy Storage Systems for Electric-based Transportations Course Syllabus and Information College of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Course No. ECE-5995 Selected topics Winter

More information

Innovations in Polyalkylene Glycol Based Lubricants STLE National Meeting

Innovations in Polyalkylene Glycol Based Lubricants STLE National Meeting Innovations in Polyalkylene Glycol Based Lubricants STLE National Meeting May 2011 Richard Butler & Dr. Govindlal Khemchandani Chemtool, Inc. Dow Chemical PAG New Technology Polyalkylene glycols (PAG)

More information

Vapor Recovery Developments in Emission Standards and Applications

Vapor Recovery Developments in Emission Standards and Applications Vapor Recovery Developments in Emission Standards and Applications Simon Shipley 2 nd June 2015 Zeeco Company Profile Privately held by a family who has been involved in Process Engineering and Combustion

More information

NIST Handbook 130 And Transmission Fluids. Jeffrey Harmening, American Petroleum Institute (API)

NIST Handbook 130 And Transmission Fluids. Jeffrey Harmening, American Petroleum Institute (API) NIST Handbook 130 And Transmission Fluids Jeffrey Harmening, American Petroleum Institute (API) API American Petroleum Institute (API) 600+ member non-profit trade association that represents all aspects

More information

Oil Soluble Polyalkylene Glycol Hydraulic Fluid: Equipment Performance Testing and Case Study

Oil Soluble Polyalkylene Glycol Hydraulic Fluid: Equipment Performance Testing and Case Study Oil Soluble Polyalkylene Glycol Hydraulic Fluid: Equipment Performance Testing and Case Study Authors Andrew Larson, The Dow Chemical Company Dr. Martin Greaves, The Dow Chemical Company The Dow Chemical

More information

The Renewable Fuels Standard Deja Vu

The Renewable Fuels Standard Deja Vu The Renewable Fuels Standard Deja Vu + + = National Biodiesel Board Conference February 5, 2008 Paul Machiele,, Director Fuels Center EPA s s Office of Transportation and Air Quality 1 RFS1 Presentation

More information

Softening point by Ring & Ball. Density and relative density of liquids by Hubbart pycnometer

Softening point by Ring & Ball. Density and relative density of liquids by Hubbart pycnometer Softening point by Ring & Ball Density and relative density of liquids by Hubbart pycnometer Distillation of petroleum Melting point of petroleum wax Precipitation number of lubricating oils Saponification

More information

The VST Enviro-Loc Vapor Recovery System

The VST Enviro-Loc Vapor Recovery System The VST Enviro-Loc Vapor Recovery System The Most Efficient, Lowest Cost Vapor Recovery System Available in the World Vapor Systems Technologies, Inc. 1 Why Enhanced Vapor Recovery (EVR) World Wide Now?

More information

Rules Respecting Key Trains and Key Routes

Rules Respecting Key Trains and Key Routes Rules Respecting Key Trains and Key Routes February 12, 2016 version CONTENTS 1. SHORT TITLE 2. APPLICATION 3. DEFINITIONS 4. KEY TRAINS 5. KEY ROUTES 6. KEY ROUTE RISK ASSESSMENTS 7. CONSULTATIONS WITH

More information

Pima Association of Governments Energy Programs Clean Cities

Pima Association of Governments Energy Programs Clean Cities 20,000,000 Oil Consumption per day 2009 (in billion gallons) Pima Association of Governments Energy Programs Clean Cities 16,000,000 12,000,000 8,000,000 4,000,000 Colleen Crowninshield, Program Manager

More information

Chapter 2. Alkanes. Table of Contents

Chapter 2. Alkanes. Table of Contents hapter 2 Table of ontents Introduction 1. Alkanes 2. Alkyl Groups 3. Nomenclature of Alkanes 4. Isomerism in Alkanes 5. Physical Properties of Alkanes 6. hemical Properties of Alkanes 7. Preparation of

More information

Biofuel Potential for Transport Sector in Sudan

Biofuel Potential for Transport Sector in Sudan UNCTAD 17th Africa OILGASMINE, Khartoum, 23-26 November 2015 Extractive Industries and Sustainable Job Creation Biofuel Potential for Transport Sector in Sudan By Abdel Azim Wida a General Directorate

More information

Determination of Free and Total Glycerin in B100 Biodiesel

Determination of Free and Total Glycerin in B100 Biodiesel Page 1 of 5 Page 1 of 5 Return to Web Version Determination of Free and Total Glycerin in B100 Biodiesel By: Michael D. Buchanan, Katherine K. Stenerson, and Vicki Yearick, Reporter US Vol 27.1 techservice@sial.com

More information

Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations (MSAPR) May 2017

Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations (MSAPR) May 2017 Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations (MSAPR) May 2017 Purpose The Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations (MSAPR) came into force on June 17, 2016 This presentation will provide an overview of: MSAPR

More information

Crude & Petroleum Products Specification & Analysis

Crude & Petroleum Products Specification & Analysis Training Title Crude & Petroleum Products Specification & Analysis Training Duration 5 days Training Venue and Dates Crude & Petroleum Products Specification & Analysis 5 04-08 November $3,750 Abu Dhabi

More information

Comparing Conventional PAGs to Oil Soluble Polyalkylene Glycols

Comparing Conventional PAGs to Oil Soluble Polyalkylene Glycols Comparing Conventional PAGs to Oil Soluble Polyalkylene Glycols L. W. Budd Lee The Dow Chemical Company Midland MI USA STLE, Detroit May 9 th 2013 Contents Background of Conventional PAGs Chemistry & physical

More information

Reproduced by Sabinet Online in terms of Government Printer s Copyright Authority No dated 02 February 1998

Reproduced by Sabinet Online in terms of Government Printer s Copyright Authority No dated 02 February 1998 STAATSKOERANT, 1 JUNIE 2012 No. 35410 3 CORRECTION NOTICE Government Gazette (Extra-Ordinary) No. 34393 of 30 May 2012, is hereby withdrawn and replaced with the following: GOVERNMENT NOTICE DEPARTMENT

More information

November 1st, Internal Ford Fusion Fleet Test

November 1st, Internal Ford Fusion Fleet Test November 1st, 2016 Internal Ford Fusion Fleet Test As part of the development work for the Prestone Cor-Guard Extended Life formulation which uses OAT technology, the service life of the new formulation

More information

ASTM International: Proficiency Test Programs and Technical and Professional Training Courses

ASTM International: Proficiency Test Programs and Technical and Professional Training Courses ASTM International: Proficiency Test Programs and Technical and Professional Training Courses ASTM Proficiency Testing Programs Designed to provide participating laboratories with a statistical quality

More information

Thermal Exploitation of Wastes in Lignite Combustion Facilities

Thermal Exploitation of Wastes in Lignite Combustion Facilities 43 rd INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY - FLUIDIZED BED CONVERSION MEETING 22-23 NOVEMBER 2001, LISBON, PORTUGAL Thermal Exploitation of Wastes in Lignite Combustion Facilities P. Grammelis, G. Skodras, Em.

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF LOW SULPHUR FUELS. Alinafe Mkavea Director Fuels and Gas Malawi Energy Regulatory Authority

ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF LOW SULPHUR FUELS. Alinafe Mkavea Director Fuels and Gas Malawi Energy Regulatory Authority ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF LOW SULPHUR FUELS Alinafe Mkavea Director Fuels and Gas Malawi Energy Regulatory Authority Presentation outline Introduction Environmental and health impacts of vehicular

More information

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION LUBRICATING OIL, JET ENGINE

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION LUBRICATING OIL, JET ENGINE INCH-POUND 12 December 2014 SUPERSEDING MIL-PRF-6081D w/amendment 1 30 January 2009 PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION LUBRICATING OIL, JET ENGINE This specification is approved for use by all Departments and Agencies

More information