Vehicle Emissions Standards, Fuel Quality, Air Pollution and Health

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1 Vehicle Emissions Standards, Fuel Quality, Air Pollution and Health Bert Fabian Programme Officer UNEP Energy, Climate, and Technology Branch Division of Technology, Industry and Economics

2 Conclusion Cost of delay in implementation will be very high especially with skyrocketing new vehicle sales every year Philippines and other Southeast Asian countries have discussed fuel quality and vehicle emissions roadmaps since early 2000 In 2009/ 2010, Philippines adopted plan to move to Euro 4/IV by 2016 Because the transport sector substantially contributes to air pollution in many cities and have huge economic costs (deaths and illness) Implementation of emission standards and corresponding fuel quality is one of the most significant measures Low-sulfur fuels maximize impacts of emissions control devices and vehicle emission standards are important to make sure new vehicles are cleaner and more efficient

3 Air Pollution 7 million people killed in 2012 from air pollution; Small particulates (PM10 or PM2.5) estimated to cause over 3.2 million premature deaths each year worldwide; In 2012, diesel PM was officially classified as carcinogenic (WHO); The smaller part of PM is black carbon (BC), now believed the second most important climate pollutant; Vehicular emissions, esp diesel vehicles, are responsible for 50-80% of the PM pollution in cities Nairobi, 2015

4 A Variety Of Air Pollution Concerns Vehicles Involved in All Greenhouse Gases - CO2, methane, Black Carbon, Ozone, F-Gases Haze Acid Rain Ozone (ROG + NOx) Particles (PM10/PM2.5) (NOx, SOx, ROG, ammonia) Lead Carbon monoxide (CO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Toxics - Diesel particles - Benzene - Chromium - Asbestos Source: Michael Walsh

5 CO 2 Contribution of Transport

6 Costs of Air Pollution: Health Impacts of Road Transport OECD ~ $1.7 Trillion (~ Half From Road Transport) China ~ $1.4 Trillion India ~ $0.5 Trillion SSA ~ $43 Billion (over $1.3 billion in Kenya) Philippines ~ 2.5 Billion Source: OECD Secretary General Gurria,, May 21, 2014

7 Progress towards cleaner fuels

8 Progress in Lowering Sulphur in Diesel in Africa 2015

9

10 Fuels & vehicles: a systems approach SOLVING THE DIESEL POLLUTION PROBLEM REQUIRES A SYSTEMS APPROACH BETTER COMBUSTION TAILPIPE EMISSION CONTROLS CLEANER FUEL

11 Need systems approach Systems approach links fuel and vehicles as a matched unit Fuels and vehicles not matching potential emissions reductions not achieved In some cases cleaner fuels are introduced but vehicles emissions standards lagging behind And in other cases cleaner vehicles available but not the fuels (example East Africa)

12 Source: IFQC, 2010

13 Technology Now Exists To Dramatically Clean Up Vehicles But Low Sulfur Fuel Is Critical!! from

14 Diesel emission standards are extremely effective and require low sulfur diesel fuel Diesel: 2,000 ppm 500 ppm 350 ppm 50 ppm 10 ppm Average lifetime emission factor (grams PM2.5/VKT) % -65% -40% -20% -20% -30% -75% Fuel Sulfur Level HHDT diesel LDV diesel -90% -99% -99% % Conventional Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6 Diesel particle filters required by Euro VI reduce diesel PM to near zero. Euro IV is a good intermediate goal.

15 Low Sulphur Fuels reduce PM directly, open door to emission controls and advanced technology Diesel oxidation catalyst Diesel particle filter 500 ppm, 50 ppm critical vehicle technology breakpoints for catalysts and filters

16 The Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV) Was set up at the WSSD in Johannesburg, Sept 2002 and relaunched in Oct 2012 in London Main objective is to address urban air quality in developing & transition countries by promoting clean fuels and vehicles standards/technologies Comprises over 73 partners from governments, oil and vehicle industry (including PIEA), international organizations and civil society Secretariat based in UNEP Headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya

17 PCFV Regulatory Toolkit Will assist countries to develop and introduce a systems approach to reduce vehicle emissions. The toolkit will: Provide a menu of regulatory options to lower sulphur levels in fuel, and to establish corresponding vehicle emissions and fuel economy standards Establish criteria for good regulatory practices, minimum legislation, and how to enforce fuel and vehicle standards Provide specific case examples from developed and developing countries Outcome: a coordinated and clear long term roadmap for developing and transitioning countries on to reduce vehicle emissions

18 Key Issue - Used Vehicle Flows Worldwide Used Imports

19 Moving To Low Sulfur Fuels and Clean Vehicles Examples of Actions Mandatory Standards Import Restrictions Economic Incentives/Disincentives Vehicle Use Restrictions Special Exemptions Advanced Technologies Voluntary Incentive Programs Mandatory/Voluntary Scrappage Court Actions Inspection and Maintenance

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