# Pascal s Law & Surface Area of a Piston. Lessons 2 and 3

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1 Pascal s Law & Surface Area of a Piston Lessons 2 and 3 Remember: Pretty Please My Dear Aunt Sally (rom left to right; Parentheses; Power; Multiply; Divide; Add, Subtract) We have learned how to measure a brake drum to determine if we can resurface it, there charging only a labor fee, or, if the drum is worn or scored beyond it s discard limit. Today, we re going to discuss how a 100-pound person can stop a 4000-pound car. Or how a 1 servo piston inside an automatic transmission can increase fluid pressure enough to stop an input drum connected to the torque converter from spinning. By using the brake system s ability to multiply force, we can use a math formula to calculate the applied force on the brake pad pressing on the rotor. You can also calculate the surface area of a piston using the formula for finding the area of a circle. Some of the math and math terms we ll be using to today are: Algebraic Expressions - variables and numbers that can be combined with the operations of arithmetic. ormulas - Equations with several variables. Variables - letters or symbols that can represent real numbers Piston - container that transfers pressure into motion. Pascal - scientist who worked with atmospheric pressure. Pressure decreases with height and a vacuum existed above the atmosphere. The formula we ll be using to determine Pressure, orce and Area: P A = = A = P * A P Area = r 2 (r = radius) Diameter = 2r Pressure - (pounds per square inch [psi]) A = area (square inches) = force (pounds) Surface area - the area of the face of the object. In this instance, surface area would be the face of the top of the piston, (Pi) = 3.14 X r X r = area of a circle 1

2 (Pi) approx. Radius - the distance from the center of the circle to any point on the circle. (Half of the diameter) Diameter - the line that passes through the center point and ends at two points on the circumference. Center - point in a circle that is equidistant from the all points around the circumference of the circle. Define Pascal s Law. Use the formulas to calculate pressures. Use the formula to calculate surface area. Area = r2 (r = radius), Diameter = 2r Example: 1. If a force of 100 pounds is applied to a piston in a hydraulic cylinder of 4 square inches in area, what is the pressure? P = A 100 pounds P = 2 4in pounds P = 25psi( ) 2 in 2. If 80 pounds per square inch of pressure is applied to a 2 square inch area. What is the total force? 3. If total force is 120 pounds per square inch and pressure is 30 pounds per square inch, what is the area? 4. If we have 50 pounds of force applied to an area of.5 square inches, what would be the pressure? 2

3 5. A master cylinder piston has 100 pounds per square inch of force applied to a 1.5 square inch piston. What is the pressure? 5A. If the force stays the same, but the diameter of the piston is increased to 4.50 inches, what is the pressure? 5B. What is the surface area of the 4.50 diameter piston in square inches? 5C. How much how force is being applied to the 4.50 piston if the pressure is 1000 psi? 6. If the diameter of a wheel cylinder cup is 23/32 inches, determine the force applied to the piston if 1700psi is produced. Remember to convert! 7. ind the area of a piston with a 7-inch diameter. 8. ind the area of a circle with a 20 mm (millimeters) diameter. 9. ind the diameter of a piston with an area of square inches. 10. ind the radius of a circle with an area of 25 square centimeters. 3

4 Larry s Truck Worksheet Name: AM-1: PM Date: This can be a team project. You ve just seen that Larry put a 6 lift kit on his ord -150 and a set of 33 s Super Swamper Thornbird Tires. The Suspension System has been modified to handle the oversized tires, however, Larry cheaped out and didn t modify the Brake System. Larry now has a problem stopping his Big oot whannabe. Congratulations! You ve just been promoted to head braking system engineer. Based on our lessons on Pascal s Law and your knowledge of automotive braking systems, you ve been assigned the task of developing a plan to fix Larry s truck. Remember: Larry doubled the size of the original tires. The truck s stock brake system parts sizes are: 1/4 in brake lines; 1/2 in bore master cylinder; 7/8 in bore wheel cylinders and 2 in caliper pistons. Your task: Now, you must: 1. Determine what parts should be replaced on Larry s truck that will make it stop better. 2. We know it is possible to replace all the parts that could affect the trucks stopping ability, but is it physically possible to bolt them to the truck? or example, can we purchase a replacement master cylinder that has a different size bore and is the same physical size as the stock master cylinder that came standard on the truck, and still be bolted to the truck without modifications? 3. List the parts you would replace, and why. You must show all calculations and justify your solution in a word essay. NOTE: There is no one right answer. The written paper will account for one of your required marking period essays. If this was a team effort, each team member must turn in a separate essay on his or her portion of the project. Good luck and have fun! 4

5 North Montco Technical Career Center Math-In-CTE Lessons 2 and 3 Worksheet Pascal s Law Name: AM-1: PM Date: Work through traditional math examples. 1. ind the time traveled for a distance of 150 miles at a rate of 55miles per hour. Remember: T = d/r 2. ind the diameter of a circle that has a circumference of 36 in. Remember: C =πd 3. If a force of 120 pounds is applied to a piston in a hydraulic cylinder of 8 square inches in area, what is the pressure? 4. If 95 pounds per square-inch of pressure is applied to a 3 square in area, what is the total force? 5. Solve for the value of x. 15 =x /3 6. ind the value of r when 3 =57/r 7. ind the value of R in terms of E and I from the formula, E =IR 5

6 North Montco Technical Career Center Math-In-CTE Lessons 2 and 3 Homework Pascal s Law Name: AM-1: PM Date: 1. If we have 50 pounds of force applied to an area of.75 square inches, what would be the pressure? 2. If total force is 110 pounds per square inch and pressure is 45 pounds per square inch, what is the area? 3. A master cylinder has 200 pounds per square inch of force applied to a 2 square inch piston. If the diameter of the caliper piston is 4 inches, find the area of the caliper piston in square inches. Determine the force of the caliper piston. 4. ind the area of a piston with a 5-inch diameter. 5. ind the radius of a circle with an area of 18 square centimeters. 6. ind the diameter of a circle with an area of 25 square centimeters. 7. ind the average rate traveled when the distance from point A to point B was 92 miles and the time of travel was 2 hours and 15 minutes. 8. ind the value of x when 36 =4 /x 2 6

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Teacher Assessment Blueprint Automotive Technician Test Code: 5262 / Version: 01 Copyright 2010 NOCTI. All Rights Reserved. Automotive Technician General Assessment Information Blueprint Contents General

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Name: Two Stroke Engines Snowmobile Engines Disassembly Objectives: The Student Will Be Able To: 1. Appreciate teaching methods and safety practices used in the small engine disassembly/assembly; 2. Properly

### ASE Practice Test A5 Brakes

ASE Practice Test A5 Brakes Hydraulic System Diagnosis and Repair 1) A spongy brake pedal may be caused by: a. ABS Diagnostic Trouble Code set b. Frozen caliper piston c. Defective metering valve d. Air