# 7.9.1 Circuits. 123 minutes. 170 marks. Page 1 of 56

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1 7.9.1 Circuits 123 minutes 170 marks Page 1 of 56

2 ## The diagram shows a motor, connected to a 240 V supply, driving a water pump. The ammeter reads 5.0 A. (a) How much charge flows through the motor in one minute? Give the unit (b) (i) What is the resistance of the motor? Give the unit (ii) What is the power of the motor? Give the unit (c) (i) The motor and pump together have an efficiency of 50% (0.5). How much energy is given to the water every second? Give the unit.... (ii) The pump has to raise the water up to a vertical height of 12 m. What mass of water will the pump raise each second? Give the unit. The value of g is 10 N/kg Maximum 5 marks Page 2 of 56

3 Q2. The diagram below shows apparatus used for the electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid. (a) Hydrogen molecules are formed at the cathode from hydrogen ions. Give a balanced ionic equation for this reaction. State symbols are not required. Use the symbol H + for a hydrogen ion and e for an electron marks (b) The ammeter shows that there is a current. (i) State in terms of electrons what is happening in the wires.... (ii) Explain how the battery causes the electrons to behave in this way (c) The carbon anode is replaced by a piece of copper foil. A reaction takes place which may be described by the following equation. Cu (s) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e Describe one change you would see as a result of this reaction Maximum 5 marks Page 3 of 56

4 Q3. John connects up the circuit shown below. The bulb is not bright enough. His friend suggests four circuits which could be used to make the bulb brighter. (a) Which is the correct circuit to use: A, B, C or D?... Next John sets up circuit E and notes the reading on the ammeter. He then places another bulb in the circuit, to make circuit F. He notes the ammeter reading in circuit F. Page 4 of 56

5 (b) How will the ammeter reading in circuit F compare with that in circuit E? The reading in F is... Explain you answer (c) Draw a circuit diagram in which two bulbs are lit as brightly as the bulb in circuit E, and the ammeter reading is the same as in circuit E. Maximum 4 marks ## Pressure pads can be used to set off burglar alarms. The alarm is set off when someone steps on the pad. The alarm works by sounding a buzzer or switching on a lamp or both. The symbols for a pressure pad, a two way switch, a buzzer and a lamp are shown below. Page 5 of 56

6 Here are five circuit diagrams. Look carefully at the five circuit diagrams. Tick the correct box to show what is happening in each circuit. 5 marks Q5. In the circuit above, both the bulbs light up. Suddenly they both go out. Page 6 of 56

7 The two bulbs are tested. Bulb A works but bulb B is broken. (a) Bulb A was not broken but it went out. Why did it go out? In the circuit below, only bulb B is broken. (b) (i) Does bulb A light up? Tick the correct box. Yes No (ii) Does bulb C light up? Tick the correct box. Yes No Maximum 3 marks Page 7 of 56

8 ## (a) An electrical current is a flow of charge. The diagram shows a circuit containing six identical bulbs. In which part of the circuit, A, B, C, D or E, is there: (i) the greatest flow of charge?... (ii) the least flow of charge?... 2 marks (b) Sulphur is an electrical insulator, but it can be made to conduct electricity if a very bright light shines on it. (i) A slab of sulphur is rubbed with a piece of woollen cloth. Explain how this gives the sulphur a negative electrical charge (ii) A very bright light shines onto a small circular area in the centre of the charged slab of sulphur. The pattern of charge on the sulphur alters. The simplified diagram represents the new pattern of charge. Explain why the pattern alters in this way Maximum 4 marks Page 8 of 56

9 Q7. A pupil makes some electrical circuits. Each circuit contains a motor and a buzzer. The motor and the buzzer can be switched on or off by three switches, A, B and C. Symbols for an open switch and a closed switch are shown below. By each circuit diagram, state whether: the motor is on or off; the buzzer is on or off. (i) The motor is... The buzzer is... (ii) The motor is... The buzzer is... Page 9 of 56

10 (iii) The motor is... The buzzer is... (iv) The motor is... The buzzer is... (v) The motor is... The buzzer is... Maximum 5 marks Page 10 of 56

11 Q8. A circuit is shown below. (a) The switch is open. Steven connects point A to point B with a piece of copper wire. Which bulbs, if any, light up?... (b) Steven removes the copper wire and uses it to connect point C to point D. The switch is still open. Which bulbs, if any, light up?... (c) Steven removes the copper wire and closes the switch. Both bulbs light up, but not very brightly. He then uses the copper wire to connect point B to point C. Choose from the following words to answer the questions below. gets brighter stays the same goes out (i) What happens to bulb X?.. (ii) What happens to bulb Y?.. Page 11 of 56

12 (d) Steven removes the copper wire. The switch is still closed. Both bulbs light up, but not very brightly. He then uses the copper wire to connect point A to point B. Choose from the following words to answer the questions below. gets brighter stays the same gets dimmer goes out (i) What happens to bulb X? (ii) What happens to bulb Y? Maximum 6 marks Q9. The diagram shows a circuit for controlling an electric motor. This circuit can make the motor turn forwards or backwards. Page 12 of 56

13 Complete the table to show which lamp, if any, is lit and in which direction, if any, the motor turns. The first row has been done for you. 4 marks Q10. Alice connects four light bulbs for her model house, as shown. She puts the bulbs into the holes in the back wall. (a) When Alice turns the switch on, the bulbs do not light up. The batteries are not flat. None of the bulbs is broken. Why do the bulbs not light up?... (b) Alice makes the circuit work. When she turns the switch on, the bulbs are not very bright. What must Alice add to the circuit to make the bulbs brighter?... Page 13 of 56

14 (c) The four bulbs in the circuit are the same. Which statement is correct? Tick the correct box. Each bulb is the same brightness. The bulbs at the top are brighter. Each bulb is a different brightness. The bulbs at the bottom are brighter. The diagrams show two ways to write the model house. circuit 1 circuit 2 (d) (i) In circuit 1, bulb B breaks and goes out. What happens to the other bulbs in this circuit? (ii) In circuit 2, bulb C breaks and goes out. What happens to the other bulbs in this circuit? (e) In circuit 2, Alice adds another switch so that she can turn bulb A off while the other bulbs stay on. Write the letter S on circuit 2 to show where Alice should add the switch. Maximum 6 marks Page 14 of 56

15 ## The flow of water through tubes can be used as a model to explain some of the rules about electrical circuits. The diagram shows a junction in a water pipe. The rate of flow in the pipes is measured in cm 3 /s. (a) What is the relationship between the rate of flow in the three pipes, X, Y and Z?... (b) The diagram below shows a water circuit, in which water is forced round by a pump. The rates of flow at two places are written on the diagram. (i) At what rate is water flowing: into the pump?. cm 3 /s out of the pump?.. cm 3 /s (ii) The water circuit can be used as a model of an electrical circuit. Each part of the water circuit is equivalent to a part of an electrical circuit. What is the electrical equivalent of the water?... Page 15 of 56

16 A family, who did not understand electricity very well, always made sure there was a bulb in each of the light fittings in their house. They were afraid that electricity would escape from an empty light socket when the switch was turned on. (c) Explain why electricity does not escape from an empty light socket Maximum 4 marks ## (a) Diagram 1 shows a light bulb X, a piece of card and a white screen. Two light rays have been drawn from the bulb to the screen. diagram 1 Five points, A, B, C, D and E, have been labelled on the screen. Give the letter of one point which is in shadow.... Page 16 of 56

17 (b) Bulb Y is added. Diagram 2 shows two light rays from each bulb. diagram 2 Look at diagram 2. (i) Which point on the screen will be in the darkest shadow? Give the letter.... (ii) Give the letter of one point on the screen which will be lit up by both bulbs.... (iii) Which point on the screen will be lit up by bulb X only? Give the letter.... Page 17 of 56

18 (c) Bulb Y is connected in parallel with bulb X. Draw a circuit diagram below to show how the two bulbs and the battery are connected. Maximum 5 marks Q13. Jo uses a battery, a switch and a bulb to make a series circuit. (a) The diagrams show symbols for a battery, a bulb and a switch. Connect the symbols to make Jo s circuit. (b) Jo closes the switch and the bulb lights up. Then she connects the battery the other way round. What happens to the bulb when Jo closes the switch again? Tick the correct box. It is brighter. It is dimmer. It is the same brightness. It does not light up. Page 18 of 56

19 (c) A corridor has a switch at each end and one light bulb in the middle. The circuit diagram below shows how they are connected. In the diagram above, the switches are shown in positions B and D and the bulb is on. Complete the table below to show whether the light bulb is on or off. Write on or off. (d) The circuit is changed so that there is a bulb at each end of the corridor. They are connected as shown below. Page 19 of 56

20 (i) In the diagram above, the switches are shown in positions B and C. Which bulbs, if any, are on?... (ii) The switches are arranged so that both bulbs are on. Bulb X breaks. What, if anything, happens to bulb Y?... Maximum 5 marks Q14. Gary uses the following circuit to operate the electric motor of his model crane. Look carefully at the way Gary has connected the two cells. When he closes switch A the motor runs and the crane lifts a load. (a) Gary opens switch A and closes switch B. Describe what happens to the motor (b) Gary closes both switches, A and B. Describe what happens to the motor.... (c) Both switches should not be closed at the same time. Explain why Page 20 of 56

21 (d) Gary puts a resistor into his circuit as shown. What difference does the resistor make to the motor: (i) when switch A is closed and switch B is open? (ii) when switch A is open and switch B is closed? Maximum 5 marks Q15. Daniel connected up the following circuit, using a battery, three bulbs and a switch. (a) The switch is shown in position A. Which bulb is lit up?... Page 21 of 56

22 (b) Daniel moves the switch from position A to position B. What, if anything, happens to bulbs J, K and L? bulb J:... bulb K:... bulb L:... 2 marks (c) Daniel uses a piece of copper wire to connect points P and Q. Which of the bulbs, if any, are lit up?... Maximum 4 marks Q16. The drawing shows a hairdryer. Page 22 of 56

23 Ben drew the diagram below to show the circuit of the hairdryer. (a) Which of the switches must be closed for the heater to work? Tick the correct box. switch switch switches neither switch 1 only 2 only 1 and 2 1 nor 2 (b) With this circuit, is it possible to have the heater on when the motor is switched off? Explain your answer (c) The motor and the heater are both on. The motor blows air through the hairdryer. If the motor breaks, what would happen to the temperature of the hairdryer?..... (d) The motor and the heater are both on. Suddenly the wire in the heater breaks. What effect, if any, will this have on the motor?..... Maximum 4 marks Page 23 of 56

24 Q17. The diagram shows two dodgem cars at a fairground. The circuit symbols for the motor and pedal for each dodgem car are shown on the diagram. (a) Complete the following sentence. Each dodgem car is connected to the power supply through the... which is in contact with the wire mesh, and through the... which is in contact with the metal floor. (b) Dodgem cars are connected using parallel circuits. Complete the circuit diagram below for the two dodgem cars. Use two motor symbols,, and two switch symbols,. The power supply for the circuit has been drawn for you. 2 marks Page 24 of 56

25 (c) Even when the power supply is switched on, the dodgem car will not move until the pedal is pressed. Give the reason for this (d) A man looks after the dodgem cars during the rides. Why does the man not get an electric shock as he walks across the metal floor? (e) During one ride, the two dodgem cars are running. The pick-up wire on one car snaps off. Describe how this affects: (i) the dodgem car with the broken pick-up wire;... (ii) the other dodgem car.... Maximum 7 marks Q18. Nikki tries to set up four electric circuits. diagram 1 (a) In diagram 1 the ammeter reading is zero. What is wrong with this circuit? Page 25 of 56

26 diagram 2 (b) In diagram 2 the ammeter reading is zero. What is wrong with this circuit? diagram 3 (c) In diagram 3 the ammeter reading is zero. Why is this not a complete circuit? Page 26 of 56

27 diagram 4 (d) In diagram 4, why is there a reading on the ammeter? Maximum 4 marks Q19. Peter measured the current through each of three similar bulbs in a parallel circuit. He had only one ammeter and he placed it first at A1, then A2, then A3, in order to measure the currents. The table shows his results. position of ammeter current, in amps A A A Page 27 of 56

28 (a) He expected the current readings to be the same for each bulb but found they were different. Suggest two reasons why the readings were different marks (b) Peter then measured the current at A4 and recorded it as 0.45 A. He concluded that the current at A4 could be calculated by adding together the currents through each of the bulbs at positions A1, A2 and A3. He added two more similar bulbs to his circuit, in parallel. The current through each bulb was 0.15 A. Use Peter's conclusion to predict the current at A4 with the 5 bulbs in the circuit.... A Page 28 of 56

29 (c) Peter left the circuit connected overnight. He used a datalogger to measure the current at position A4 at regular intervals of time. The next morning the bulbs were dim. Using the axes below, sketch (do not plot) how the current at position A4 might change with time. Indicate on the graph: (i) (ii) The correct labels for each axis, including the correct units. The shape of the graph you would expect to obtain. 2 marks Maximum 5 marks Q20. The back window of this car contains a heating element. The heating element is part of an electrical circuit connected to the battery of the car. Page 29 of 56

30 The diagrams below show two ways of connecting the circuit of a heating element. (a) Give the name of each type of circuit: circuit A... circuit B... (b) A wire gets broken at point X on circuit A and at point Y on circuit B. When the switch is closed, how does the broken wire affect the heating element in: (i) circuit A? (ii) circuit B? Page 30 of 56

31 (c) In very cold weather, ice may form on the back window of the car. When the heating element is switched on, the ice will disappear and the surface of the window will become clear and dry. (i) Fill the gap below to show the energy transfer that takes place. When the heater is switched on,... energy is transferred from the wires to the ice. (ii) As the window becomes clear and dry, physical changes take place in the ice. Fill the gaps below to show the physical changes which take place. from... to... to... Maximum 5 marks Q21. (a) Ahmed bought two sets of lights to put on a tree in his garden. Circuit diagrams for the two sets of lights are shown below. Page 31 of 56

32 Choose words from the list below to fill the gaps in the sentences. all none some parallel series short (i) Circuit A is a... circuit. If one of the bulbs breaks in circuit A... of the other bulbs will go out. (ii) Circuit B is a... circuit. If one of the bulbs breaks in circuit B... of the other bulbs will go out. (b) Light rays from the bulbs hit the mirror of Ahmed s car. What happened to the light rays when they hit the mirror?... (c) The tree has root hairs. What are the functions of root hairs? Tick the two correct boxes. They absorb water from the soil. They produce seeds. They absorb sunlight. They absorb minerals from the soil. They attract bees for pollination. 2 marks maximum 5 marks Page 32 of 56

33 Q22. Imran built a puzzle circuit with three identical bulbs and a 3V battery. He covered the connections to the bulbs with a piece of card as shown below. The bulbs could be seen through holes in the card. All the bulbs were on but their brightness was different. Lucy removed bulbs A, B and C in turn. Before connecting each bulb back into the circuit she observed the effect on the other two bulbs. She recorded her observations in the table below. bulb removed A B C observations B and C stayed on C went off A stayed on B went off A stayed on Page 33 of 56

34 (a) Complete the circuit diagram below to show how the three bulbs could be connected. Use your knowledge of series and parallel circuits, and the observations in the table to help you. 2 marks (b) Imran used three identical bulbs but their brightness was different. Which bulb was the brightest? Give the letter.... Give the reason for your choice (c) Imran added a switch to the circuit so that he could turn all three bulbs on and off at the same time. Place a letter S on your circuit diagram where this switch could be placed. maximum 4 marks Page 34 of 56

35 Q23. (a) The drawing below shows the parts of a torch. (i) Paul closed the switch. Why did this turn on the torch? (ii) The diagrams below show symbols for a battery, a bulb and a switch. Connect the symbols to make a series circuit for the torch. Page 35 of 56

36 (b) The drawings below show two other torches. In both torches, the bulbs will not light even when Paul closes the switches. Look carefully at the drawings. (i) Why is the circuit of torch A not complete?... (ii) What could you do to torch B to get the bulb to light?... Page 36 of 56

37 (c) When Paul bought his torch there was a paper strip between the contacts of the switch as shown below. Paul had to remove the paper strip before he could turn the torch on. Give the reason for this maximum 5 marks Q24. Lorna built the circuit drawn below. All the bulbs are identical. Page 37 of 56

38 (a) Complete the table below by writing on or off for each bulb. switch bulb S 1 S 2 A B open open off off open closed closed closed open closed 3 marks (b) Lorna then built a different circuit as shown below. How could Lorna get both bulbs to light at the same time in this circuit? maximum 4 marks Page 38 of 56

39 Q25. Jenny dropped her torch down a drain. The torch was still switched on but Jenny could not see it. not to scale (a) (i) Jenny lowered a mirror into the drain and placed it at position P. At which angle should Jenny put the mirror to see the torch? Tick the correct box. (ii) What happens to the light from the torch when it hits the mirror?... Page 39 of 56

40 (b) The diagrams below show the symbols for three parts of the torch circuit. (i) On the line below each diagram, give the name of the part. (ii) In the space below, draw a circuit diagram to show how these three parts are connected in a torch. 3 marks maximum 6 marks Q26. (a) The diagram below shows a circuit with a two-way switch, S. Rosie puts the switch in the position shown below. Complete the table below to show if the bulbs are on or off. Write on or off for each bulb. bulb on or off P Q R (b) Give the name of the part that provides energy for the circuit.... Page 40 of 56

41 (c) The diagrams below show a light-bulb over a staircase of a model house. There is a two-way switch at the bottom of the stairs and another two-way switch at the top. Under each diagram, tick one box to show if the bulb is on or off. The first one has been done for you. 2 marks maximum 4 marks Page 41 of 56

42 Q27. Gabby arranged a torch, two cards and a screen as shown below. Light from the torch passed through holes in the cards and onto the screen. (a) Why did a spot of light appear on the screen? Tick the correct box. (b) Gabby moved card B to one side as shown below. The ray of light passed through the hole in card A and onto card B. Continue the ray of light from the torch to show where it would hit card B. Use a ruler. Page 42 of 56

43 (c) Gabby used a torch to shine a ray of light towards a mirror. Continue the ray of light to show how it reflects off the mirror. Add an arrow to show the direction of the reflected ray. Use a ruler. 3 marks (d) Gabby built a circuit like the circuit in her torch. What could she do to the circuit to make this bulb brighter? Tick the correct box. maximum 6 marks Page 43 of 56

44 Q28. Some pupils made an electric cell using two different metals and a lemon. They put strips of copper and zinc into a lemon and connected them to the terminals of an electric clock. (a) Look at the photograph. What evidence is there that they have made an electric cell?... (b) The pupils had pieces of copper, zinc, iron and magnesium and some lemons. They wanted to find out which pair of metals made the cell with the biggest voltage. What equipment should they use to measure the voltage of their cells?... (c) In their investigation they used different pairs of metals. Give one factor that they should keep the same.... Page 44 of 56

45 (d) The pupils measured the voltage produced by different pairs of metals. Their results are recorded below. Which pair of metals made the cell with the biggest voltage?... and... (e) Look at the results in the table above. Why should the pupils not use pairs of the same type of metal for the clock? maximum 5 marks Q29. (a) Max built circuit 1 as shown below. circuit 1 He closed the switch, S, and all the bulbs came on. One of the bulbs then broke and all the bulbs went off. Which bulb must have broken? Give the letter.... Page 45 of 56

46 (b) Max built circuit 2 as shown below. He connected a plastic comb and a metal key in different parts of the circuit. circuit 2 Look carefully at circuit 2. Complete the table below to show which bulbs in circuit 2 will be on or off when different switches are open or closed. Write on or off in the boxes below. switch 1 switch 2 bulb P bulb Q bulb R open open off off off open closed closed open 2 marks (c) Max built circuit 3 using a battery, two bulbs and three ammeters. circuit 3 Page 46 of 56

47 The current reading on ammeter A 1 was 0.8 amps. What would be the reading on ammeters A 2 and A 3? Place one tick in the table by the correct pair of readings. readingon ammeter A 2 (amps) reading on ammeter A 3 (amps) correct pair of readings maximum 4 marks Q30. Susan has a small fan to keep herself cool. When she switches it on, a motor turns the blades to blow air. Page 47 of 56

48 (a) The diagrams below show the symbols for a battery, a motor and a switch. In the space below, draw a series circuit diagram for the fan using these symbols. (b) (i) Which part provides energy for the circuit?... (ii) Some of this energy is used to turn the blades. The rest of the energy is wasted. Complete the sentence below. Choose words from the list. chemical heat light sound When the blades are turning, energy is wasted as... energy and... energy. (c) Susan built a circuit using a battery, a motor and a switch. She closed the switch to turn the motor on. (i) Susan added a bulb to the circuit. The current in the circuit decreased. How did this affect the motor?... Page 48 of 56

49 (ii) Susan removed the motor from the circuit. The current in the circuit increased. How did this affect the bulb?... maximum 6 marks Q31. (a) Draw a line from each electrical circuit to the correct circuit diagram. Draw only four lines. electrical circuit circuit diagram 2 marks Page 49 of 56

50 (b) In each circuit below, bulb 1 breaks and goes off. Under each circuit diagram below, tick the correct boxes to show if bulb 2 and bulb 3 are on or off. circuit A circuit B 2 marks (c) Give the name of the part that provides energy for each circuit.... (d) Why is copper used for wires in a circuit? Tick the correct box. maximum 6 marks Page 50 of 56

51 Q32. Nina s bicycle has a front lamp and a rear lamp. Both lamps are connected to the same battery. (a) The circuit diagram for the lamps is drawn below. (i) (ii) On the circuit diagram above, place a letter A to show the position of a switch to turn only the front lamp on and off. On the circuit diagram above, place a letter B to show the position of a switch to turn both lamps on and off at the same time. (b) The bulb in the rear lamp gives out white light. White light is a mixture of all the colours of light. The plastic cover acts as a red filter. Red light passes through the filter. What happens to the other colours that do not pass through?... Page 51 of 56

52 (c) Nina replaces the battery with a generator called a dynamo. When Nina pedals her bicycle, the back wheel turns the generator. Complete the sentences below using words from the box. chemical electrical gravitational kinetic light sound thermal As Nina pedals,... energy in her muscles is changed to kinetic energy. When the generator turns, kinetic energy is changed to useful... energy in the wires. This energy in the wires is changed to useful... energy in the bulb. When the lamps are on, some of the energy in the bulb is wasted as... energy. 4 marks maximum 7 marks Q33. (a) Draw a line from each circuit symbol below to the correct name. Draw only four lines. circuit symbol name 3 marks Page 52 of 56

53 (b) Fred made circuit 1 as shown below. Give the name of the part that is the energy source for the circuit.... (c) Fred then made circuit 2 as shown below. In the table below, tick a box to show whether circuit 1 and circuit 2 are series or parallel circuits. Tick only two boxes. series parallel circuit 1 circuit 2 (d) What metal is usually used for wires in electric circuits?... maximum 6 marks Page 53 of 56

54 Q34. Ben makes a series circuit using two identical cells, a bulb and a switch to turn the bulb on and off. (a) Draw a circuit diagram of Ben s circuit. Use the correct symbols. The cells have been drawn for you. 3 marks (b) Which part of the circuit supplies the energy?... (c) Ben adds another identical bulb to the circuit in series. How does the brightness of the first bulb change?... Page 54 of 56

55 (d) How will the brightness of the bulbs change when the cells shown below are placed into Ben s circuit? (i)... (ii)... maximum 7 marks Page 55 of 56

56 Page 56 of 56

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