# Chapter 15. Inertia Forces in Reciprocating Parts

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Chapter 15 Inertia Forces in Reciprocating Parts

2 2 Approximate Analytical Method for Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston n = Ratio of length of ConRod to radius of crank = l/r

3 3 Approximate Analytical Method for Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston Velocity of the piston

4 4 Approximate Analytical Method for Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston Velocity of the piston

5 5 Approximate Analytical Method for Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston Velocity of the piston

6 6 Approximate Analytical Method for Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston Acceleration of the piston

7 7 Approximate Analytical Method for Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston Acceleration of the piston At the inner dead center (IDC), q = 0

8 8 Approximate Analytical Method for Velocity and Acceleration of the Piston Acceleration of the piston At outer dead center (ODC), q = 180 Direction of motion is reversed at ODC therefore changing sign of above expression,

9 9 Angular Velocity and Acceleration of the Connecting Rod

10 10 Angular Velocity and Acceleration of the Connecting Rod

11 11 Angular Velocity and Acceleration of the Connecting Rod

12 12 Angular Velocity and Acceleration of the Connecting Rod

13 13 Angular Velocity and Acceleration of the Connecting Rod Since sin 2 q is small as compared to n 2, and 1.0 is small compared to n 2 therefore:

14 14 Example 15.3 If the crank and the connecting rod are 300 mm and 1000 mm long respectively and the crank rotates at a constant speed of 200 rpm, determine: 1. The crank angle at which the maximum velocity occurs 2. Maximum velocity of the piston

15 15 Example 15.4 The crank & ConRod of a steam engine are 0.3 m and 1.5 m in length. The crank rotates at 180 rpm cw. Determine the velocity & acceleration of the piston when the crank is at 40 from the IDC center position. Also determine the position of the crank for zero acceleration of the piston.

16 16 Example 15.5 In a slider crank mechanism, the length of the crank & ConRod are 150 mm & 600 mm respectively. The crank position is 60 from IDC. The crank shaft speed is 450 rpm cw. Using analytical method, determine: 1. Velocity & acceleration of the slider 2. Angular velocity & angular acceleration of the ConRod

17 17 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod

18 18 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod Piston effort, F P : net force acting on the piston or crosshead pin, along the line of stroke m R = Mass of reciprocating parts, piston, crosshead pin or gudgeon pin W R = m R.g

19 19 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod

20 20 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod In a horizontal engine, reciprocating parts are accelerated from rest when piston moves from IDC to ODC It is, then, retarded during the latter half of the stroke when piston moves from ODC to IDC

21 21 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod Inertia force due to acceleration of reciprocating parts, opposes the force on the piston due to difference of pressures in the cylinder on the two sides of the piston Inertia force due to retardation of reciprocating parts, helps the force on the piston.

22 22 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod ve sign is used when piston is accelerated +ve sign is used when piston is retarded

23 23 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod In a double acting reciprocating steam engine, net load on the piston, F L = p 1 A 1 p 2 A 2 = p 1 A 1 p 2 (A 1 a) p 1, A 1 = Pressure & cross-sectional area on back end side of piston p 2, A 2 = Pressure & cross-sectional area on crank end side of piston a = Cross-sectional area of piston rod

24 24 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod In case of a vertical engine, weight of reciprocating parts assists piston effort during the downward stroke (piston moves from IDC to ODC) and opposes during upward stroke of piston (piston moves from ODC to IDC). Piston effort,

25 25 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod Force acting along the ConRod

26 26 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod Crank-pin effort, F T : component of F Q perpendicular to crank

27 27 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod Thrust on crank shaft bearings, F B : component of F Q along crank produces a thrust on crank shaft bearings

28 28 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod Crank effort or turning moment on crank shaft

29 29 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod Crank effort or turning moment on crank shaft

30 30 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod Crank effort or turning moment on crank shaft

31 31 Forces on Reciprocating Parts of an Engine, Neglecting Weight of ConRod Crank effort or turning moment on crank shaft

32 32 Example 15.6 Find the inertia force for the following data of an IC engine: Bore = 175 mm Stroke = 200 mm Engine speed = 500 rpm Length of ConRod = 400 mm Crank angle = 60 from IDC Mass of reciprocating parts = 180 kg

33 33 Example 15.7 Crank-pin circle radius of a horizontal engine is 300 mm. The mass of reciprocating parts is 250 kg. When the crank has travelled 60 from IDC, the difference between driving & back pressures is 0.35 N/mm 2. The ConRod length between centers is 1.2 m & the cylinder bore is 0.5 m. If engine runs at 250 rpm & if the effect of piston rod diameter is neglected, calculate : 1. Piston effort 2. Thrust in ConRod 3. Tangential force on the crank-pin 4. Turning moment on the crank shaft

34 34 Example 15.8 A vertical double acting steam engine has a cylinder 300 mm diameter & 450 mm stroke and runs at 200 rpm. The reciprocating parts has a mass of 225 kg & piston rod is 50 mm diameter. The ConRod is 1.2 m long. When the crank has turned through 125 from IDC, steam pressure above piston is 30 kn/m 2 & below piston is 1.5 kn/m 2. Calculate effective turning moment on the crank shaft.

35 35 Example 15.9 Crank & ConRod of a petrol engine, running at 1800 rpm are 50 mm & 200 mm respectively. The diameter of piston is 80 mm & mass of reciprocating parts is 1 kg. At a point during the power stroke, pressure on piston is 0.7 N/mm 2, when it has moved 10 mm from IDC. Determine : 1. Net load on gudgeon pin 2. Thrust in ConRod 3. Reaction between piston & cylinder 4. Engine speed at which the above values become zero

36 36 Example During a trial on steam engine, it is found that the acceleration of piston is 36 m/s 2 when the crank has moved 30 from IDC. The net effective steam pressure on piston is 0.5 N/mm 2 and frictional resistance is equivalent to a force of 600 N. The diameter of piston is 300 mm & mass of reciprocating parts is 180 kg. If the length of crank is 300 mm & ratio of ConRod length to crank length is 4.5, find: 1. Reaction on guide bars 2. Thrust on crank shaft bearings 3. Turning moment on crank shaft

37 37 Example A vertical petrol engine 100 mm diameter & 120 mm stroke has a ConRod 250 mm long. The mass of piston is 1.1 kg. The speed is 2000 rpm. On the expansion stroke with a crank 20 from IDC, the gas pressure is 700 kn/m 2. Determine: 1. Net force on piston 2. Resultant load on gudgeon pin 3. Thrust on cylinder walls 4. Speed above which, other things remaining same, the gudgeon pin load would be reversed in direction

38 Example A horizontal steam engine running at 120 rpm has a bore of 250 mm & a stroke of 400 mm. The ConRod is 0.6 m & mass of reciprocating parts is 60 kg. When the crank has turned through an angle of 45 from IDC, the steam pressure on cover end side is 550 kn/m 2 & that on crank end side is 70 kn/m 2. Considering the diameter of piston rod equal to 50 mm, determine: 1. Turning moment on crank shaft 2. Thrust on bearings 3. Acceleration of flywheel, if the power of engine is 20 kw, mass of flywheel 60 kg & radius of gyration 0.6 m 38

39 4.8. Compound Pendulum When a RB is suspended vertically, and it oscillates with a small amplitude under the action of force of gravity, body is known as compound pendulum m = Mass of pendulum W = m g k G = Radius of gyration about G 39

40 4.8. Compound Pendulum If pendulum is given a small angular displacement q, then couple tending to restore pendulum to equilibrium position OA, 40

41 Compound Pendulum Angular acceleration of pendulum

42 Compound Pendulum Compare this equation with equation of simple pendulum Equivalent length of a simple pendulum, which gives the same frequency as compound pendulum, is

43 43 Equivalent Dynamical System To determine motion of a rigid body (RB), it is usually convenient to replace RB by two masses placed at a fixed distance apart, in such a way that: 1. Sum of their masses = total mass of RB 2. Center of gravity (CG) of the two masses coincides with that of the RB 3. Sum of mass moment of inertia of the masses about their CG = mass moment of inertia of the body

44 44 Equivalent Dynamical System k G = Radius of gyration about G

45 45 Equivalent Dynamical System

46 46 Equivalent Dynamical System When k G is not known, then position of 2 nd mass may be obtained by considering the body as a compound pendulum Length of simple pendulum which gives same frequency as RB (compound pendulum) is

47 47 Equivalent Dynamical System 1 st mass is situated at center of oscillation of body

48 48 Determination of Equivalent Dynamical System of Two Masses by Graphical Method

49 49 Example The ConRod of a gasoline engine is 300 mm long between its centers. It has a mass of 15 kg & mass moment of inertia of 7000 kg.mm 2. Its CG is at 200 mm from its small end center. Determine the dynamical equivalent twomass system of the ConRod if one of the masses is located at the small end center.

50 50 Example A ConRod is suspended from a point 25 mm above the center of small end, and 650 mm above its center of gravity, its mass being 37.5 kg. When permitted to oscillate, time period is found to be 1.87 seconds. Find dynamical equivalent system constituted of two masses, one of which is located at the small end center.

51 Example The following data relate to a connecting rod of a reciprocating engine: Mass = 55 kg; Distance between bearing centers = 850 mm; Diameter of small end bearing = 75 mm; Diameter of big end bearing = 100 mm; Time of oscillation when the connecting rod is suspended from small end = 1.83 s; Time of oscillation when the connecting rod is suspended from big end = 1.68 s. 51

52 Example Determine: 1. Radius of gyration of the rod about an axis passing through center of gravity and perpendicular to plane of oscillation 2. Moment of inertia of the rod about the same axis 3. Dynamically equivalent system for the connecting rod, constituted of two masses, one of which is situated at the small end center.

53 53 Correction Couple to be Applied to Make Two Mass System Dynamically Equivalent When two masses are placed arbitrarily, then the following conditions will only be satisfied: The Moment of inertia condition is not possible to satisfy.

54 54 Correction Couple to be Applied to Make Two Mass System Dynamically Equivalent Consider two masses, one at A and the other at D be placed arbitrarily

55 55 Correction Couple to be Applied to Make Two Mass System Dynamically Equivalent I 1 = New mass moment of inertia of the two masses k 1 = New radius of gyration k G = Radius of gyration of a dynamically equivalent system

56 56 Correction Couple to be Applied to Make Two Mass System Dynamically Equivalent Torque required to accelerate the body, Torque required to accelerate the twomass system placed arbitrarily,

57 57 Correction Couple to be Applied to Make Two Mass System Dynamically Equivalent Correction couple: difference of torques T This couple must be applied, when the masses are placed arbitrarily to make the system dynamical equivalent.

58 58 Correction Couple to be Applied to Make Two Mass System Dynamically Equivalent

59 Example A ConRod has a mass of 2 kg and the distance between the center of gudgeon pin & center of crank pin is 250 mm. The CG falls at a point 100 mm from the gudgeon pin along the line of centers. The radius of gyration about an axis through the CG perpendicular to the plane of rotation is 110 mm. 59

60 Example Find the equivalent dynamical system if only one of the masses is located at gudgeon pin. 2. If the ConRod is replaced by two masses, one at the gudgeon pin and the other at the crank pin and the angular acceleration of the rod is rad/s 2 cw, determine the correction couple applied to the system to reduce it to a dynamically equivalent system.

61 61 Analytical Method for Inertia Torque Mass of ConRod (m C ) is divided into two masses. One at crosshead pin P and the other at crankpin C CG of the two masses coincides with CG of rod G.

62 62 Analytical Method for Inertia Torque Inertia force due to mass at C acts radially outwards along crank OC mass at C has no effect on crankshaft torque

63 63 Analytical Method for Inertia Torque Mass of ConRod at P Mass of reciprocating parts (m R ) is also acting at P Total equivalent mass of reciprocating parts acting at P

64 64 Analytical Method for Inertia Torque Total inertia force of equivalent mass acting at P,

65 65 Analytical Method for Inertia Torque Corresponding torque exerted on crank shaft,

66 66 Analytical Method for Inertia Torque In deriving the above equation of the torque exerted on the crankshaft, it is assumed that one of the two masses is placed at C and the other at P. This assumption does not satisfy the condition for kinetically equivalent system of a rigid bar.

67 67 Analytical Method for Inertia Torque To compensate for it, a correcting torque is necessary whose value is given by

68 68 Analytical Method for Inertia Torque Correcting torque T' may be applied to the system by two equal & opposite forces F Y acting through P & C

69 69 Analytical Method for Inertia Torque

70 70 Analytical Method for Inertia Torque The equivalent mass of rod acting at C, Torque exerted on crank shaft due to mass m 2,

71 71 Analytical Method for Inertia Torque Total torque exerted on the crankshaft due to the inertia of the moving parts = T I + T C + T W

72 72 Example The following data refer to a steam engine: Diameter of piston = 240 mm Stroke = 600 mm length of ConRod = 1.5 m mass of reciprocating parts = 300 kg mass of ConRod = 250 kg speed = 125 rpm center of gravity of ConRod from crank pin = 500 mm radius of gyration of ConRod about an axis through the center of gravity = 650 mm Determine magnitude and direction of torque exerted on the crankshaft when the crank has turned through 30 from IDC.

73 73 Example A vertical engine running at 1200 rpm with a stroke of 110 mm, has a ConRod 250 mm between centers and mass 1.25 kg. The mass center of the ConRod is 75 mm from the big end center and when suspended as a pendulum from the gudgeon pin axis makes 21 complete oscillations in 20 seconds.

74 Example For the position shown When the crank is at 40 from TDC & the piston is moving downwards, 1. Calculate the radius of gyration of ConRod about an axis through its mass center. 2. find the acceleration of the piston and the angular acceleration of the ConRod 3. Find the inertia torque exerted on the crankshaft.

### Analytical method of finding velocity and acceleration in slider crank mechanism

Analytical method of finding velocity and acceleration in slider crank mechanism Formulae for Analytical method of finding velocity and acceleration in slider crank mechanism Ratio n = connecting rod length

### Analysis of Parametric Studies on the Impact of Piston Velocity Profile On the Performance of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-issn: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 12, Issue 2 Ver. II (Mar - Apr. 2015), PP 81-85 www.iosrjournals.org Analysis of Parametric Studies

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ME6401- KINEMATICS OF MACHINERY QUESTION BANK Part-A Unit 1-BASICS OF MECHANISMS 1. Define degrees of freedom. 2. What is meant by spatial mechanism? 3. Classify the

### Introduction. Types of Governors. The governors may, broadly, be classified as. 1. Centrifugal governors, and 2. Inertia governors.

TOM Governor Assi. Professor Mechanical Engineering Department Introduction The function of a governor is to regulate the mean speed of an engine, when there are variations in the load e.g. when the load

### Steam Engine Valves and Reversing Gears

612 l Theory of Machines 17 Features 1. Introduction. 2. D-slide Valve. 3. Piston Slide Valve. 4. Relative Positions of Crank and Eccentric Centre Lines. 5. Crank Positions for Admission, Cut off, Release

### Comparative Study Of Four Stroke Diesel And Petrol Engine.

Comparative Study Of Four Stroke Diesel And Petrol Engine. Aim: To study the construction and working of 4- stroke petrol / diesel engine. Theory: A machine or device which derives heat from the combustion

### SNS COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY (An Autonomous Institution) Department of Automobile Engineering

SNS COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY (An Autonomous Institution) Department of Automobile Engineering ACADEMIC YEAR 2015-16 FIFTH SEMESTER AU 302 AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE COMPONENTS DESIGN UNIT 2 CYLINDER, PISTON & CONNECTING

### LM Guide Actuator KR. For details, visit THK at CATALOG No E. Product information is updated regularly on the THK website.

LM Guide Actuator KR For details, visit THK at www.thk.com Product information is updated regularly on the THK website. CATALOG No.209-10E Integrated LM Guide and all Screw High-rigidity / High-precision

### I.C ENGINES. CLASSIFICATION I.C Engines are classified according to:

I.C ENGINES An internal combustion engine is most popularly known as I.C. engine, is a heat engine which converts the heat energy released by the combustion of the fuel taking place inside the engine cylinder

### Reduction of Self Induced Vibration in Rotary Stirling Cycle Coolers

Reduction of Self Induced Vibration in Rotary Stirling Cycle Coolers U. Bin-Nun FLIR Systems Inc. Boston, MA 01862 ABSTRACT Cryocooler self induced vibration is a major consideration in the design of IR

### Some science of balance Tony Foale 2007.

Some science of balance Tony Foale 2007. Readers who started riding before the 1970s, will easily remember the incredible vibration that we used to have to suffer, particularly with British single and

### L34: Internal Combustion Engine Cycles: Otto, Diesel, and Dual or Gas Power Cycles Introduction to Gas Cycles Definitions

Page L: Internal Combustion Engine Cycles: Otto, Diesel, and Dual or Gas Power Cycles Review of Carnot Power Cycle (gas version) Air-Standard Cycles Internal Combustion (IC) Engines - Otto and Diesel Cycles

### Civil Engineering Hydraulics. Radial Flow Devices

Civil Engineering Hydraulics 2 3 Many rotary-flow devices such as centrifugal pumps and fans involve flow in the radial direction normal to the axis of rotation and are called radial- flow devices. 4 In

### Mechanisms and Structures. Mechanical Systems. Levers. Basic Forces

Mechanisms and Structures Mechanical Systems Levers Basic Forces Pupil Name Teacher Class Page 1 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS Our every day lives are made much easier by a variety of mechanical systems that help

### Multi Body Dynamic Analysis of Slider Crank Mechanism to Study the effect of Cylinder Offset

Multi Body Dynamic Analysis of Slider Crank Mechanism to Study the effect of Cylinder Offset Vikas Kumar Agarwal Deputy Manager Mahindra Two Wheelers Ltd. MIDC Chinchwad Pune 411019 India Abbreviations:

### GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GODHRA

Practical No. - 1 To understand construction and working of various types of Steam boilers. 1) What is the function of Steam boiler? And what are factors should be considered while selecting a boiler?

### Bill the Cat, tied to a rope, is twirled around in a vertical circle. Draw the free-body diagram for Bill in the positions shown. Then sum the X and

Assignment (a) No assigned WH. (b)read motion in the presence of resistive forces (finish the chapter). Go over problems covered in classes. (c)read: System and Environments, Work done by a constant force,

### INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY (IJDMT) CONSTANT SPEED ENGINE CONROD SOFT VALIDATION & OPTIMIZATION

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY (IJDMT) International Journal of Design and Manufacturing Technology (IJDMT), ISSN 0976 6995(Print), ISSN 0976 6995 (Print) ISSN 0976 7002 (Online)

### Internal Combustion Engine. Prepared by- Md Ferdous Alam Lecturer, MEE, SUST

Internal Combustion Engine Prepared by- Md Ferdous Alam Lecturer, MEE, SUST What is an Engine? -a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy Two types of engines : 1. Internal

Purpose Theory Faraday's Law of Induction a. To investigate the emf induced in a coil that is swinging through a magnetic field; b. To investigate the energy conversion from mechanical energy to electrical

### Vibration Analysis of an All-Terrain Vehicle

Vibration Analysis of an All-Terrain Vehicle Neeraj Patel, Tarun Gupta B.Tech, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India. Abstract - Good NVH is

### High Efficiency Heavy Duty Truck Engine

High Efficiency Heavy Duty Truck Engine Master s Thesis in Solid and Fluid Mechanics PAYAM BIGHAL Department of Applied Mechanics Division of Dynamics CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Göteborg, Sweden

### Inner block. Grease nipple. Fig.1 Structure of LM Guide Actuator Model KR

LM Guide ctuator Model LM Guide + all Screw = Integral-structure ctuator Stopper Housing all screw Inner block Grease nipple Outer rail earing (supported side) Housing Stopper Double-row ball circuit earing

### 2 Technical Background

2 Technical Background Vibration In order to understand some of the most difficult R- 2800 development issues, we must first briefly digress for a quick vibration tutorial. The literature concerning engine

### Design, Analysis & Balancing of 5 Cylinder Engine Crankshaft

International OPEN ACCESS Journal Of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Design, Analysis & Balancing of 5 Cylinder Engine Crankshaft Yogesh S. Khaladkar 1, Lalit H. Dorik 2, Gaurav M. Mahajan 3, Anil

### Module 2 : Dynamics of Rotating Bodies; Unbalance Effects and Balancing of Inertia Forces

Module 2 : Dynamics of Rotating Bodies; Unbalance Effects and Balancing of Inertia Forces Lecture 3 : Concept of unbalance; effect of unbalance Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Unbalance

### CHAP: MACHINES Q: 1. Q: 1(Numerical) Answer Total length of crowbar =120 cm Load arm =20 cm Effort arm = =100 cm Q: 2

CHAP: MACHINES Ex: 3A Q: 1 A machine is a device by which we can either overcome a large resistive force at some point by applying a small force at a convenient point and in a desired direction or by which

### Update. This week A. B. Kaye, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Physics. Michael Faraday

10/26/17 Update Last week Completed Sources of Magnetic Fields (Chapter 30) This week A. B. Kaye, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Physics (Chapter 31) Next week 30 October 3 November 2017 Chapter 32 Induction

### Ball. Ball cage. Fig.1 Structure of Caged Ball LM Guide Actuator Model SKR

Caged all LM Guide Actuator Model Inner block all screw shaft Grease nipple Outer rail all cage all Structure and Features Fig.1 Structure of Caged all LM Guide Actuator Model Caged all LM Guide Actuator

### Introduction to Vibration & Pulsation in Reciprocating Compressors

Introduction to Vibration & Pulsation in Reciprocating Compressors Shelley D. Greenfield, P.Eng. Vice President, Design Services sgreenfield@betamachinery.com Luis de la Roche Operations Manager ldelaroche@betamachinery.com

### Caged Ball LM Guide Actuator SKR

Caged Ball LM Guide Actuator SKR For details, visit THK at www.thk.com Product information is updated regularly on the THK website. CATALOG No.309-11E Integrated LM Guide and Ball Screw High-rigidity /

### Design and Stress Analysis of Crankshaft for Single Cylinder 4-Stroke Diesel Engine

Design and Stress Analysis of Crankshaft for Single Cylinder 4-Stroke Diesel Engine Amit Solanki #1, Jaydeepsinh Dodiya #2, # Mechanical Engg.Deptt, C.U.Shah University, Wadhwan city, Gujarat, INDIA Abstract

### MECA0492 : Vehicle dynamics

MECA0492 : Vehicle dynamics Pierre Duysinx Research Center in Sustainable Automotive Technologies of University of Liege Academic Year 2017-2018 1 Bibliography T. Gillespie. «Fundamentals of vehicle Dynamics»,

### Inkoturn couplings. INKOMA - GROUP Couplings. Product description. Inkoturn couplings IKT. FRANCIS AND FRANCIS Ltd.

Product description The INKOM Inkoturn coupling (IKT) is a flexible coupling with high torsional rigidity, which has been developed for applications requiring high speed and where shaft is present. INKOM

### ENGINE & WORKING PRINCIPLES

ENGINE & WORKING PRINCIPLES A heat engine is a machine, which converts heat energy into mechanical energy. The combustion of fuel such as coal, petrol, diesel generates heat. This heat is supplied to a

### Technical Math 2 Lab 3: Garage Door Spring 2018

Name: Name: Name: Name: As you may have determined the problem is a broken spring (clearly shown on the left in the picture below) which needs to be replaced. I. Garage Door Basics: Common residential

### Dynamic Analysis of Bajaj Pulsar 150cc Connecting Rod Using ANSYS 14.0

Asian Journal of Engineering and Applied Technology ISSN: 2249-068X Vol. 3 No. 2, 2014, pp.19-24 The Research Publication, www.trp.org.in Dynamic Analysis of Bajaj Pulsar 150cc Connecting Rod Using ANSYS

### CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL SHOCK TESTS ON DIP-PCB ASSEMBLY

135 CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL SHOCK TESTS ON DIP-PCB ASSEMBLY 6.1 INTRODUCTION Shock is often defined as a rapid transfer of energy to a mechanical system, which results in a significant increase in the stress,

### MECHANISM: TRANSMISSION THE TYPE OF INPUT MOVEMENT IS THE SAME AS THE OUTPUT TRANSFORMATION THE MECHANISM TRANSFORMS THE TYPE OF MOVEMENT

MECHANISM: The mechanisms are elements intended to transmit and transform forces and movements from an INPUT element (motor) to an OUTPUT element. Types of movements: Rotary Motion -this is motion in a

### PREDICTION OF PISTON SLAP OF IC ENGINE USING FEA BY VARYING GAS PRESSURE

PREDICTION OF PISTON SLAP OF IC ENGINE USING FEA BY VARYING GAS PRESSURE V. S. Konnur Department of Mechanical Engineering, BLDEA s Engineering College, Bijapur, Karnataka, (India) ABSTRACT The automotive

The trunk piston arrangement cannot be made double-acting as the connecting rod is in the way of the centre line of the piston. In order to obtain a double-acting engine, MacLagan arranged to extend the

### Unsteady Piston Skirts EHL at a Small and a Large Radial Clearances in the Initial Engine Start Up

Unsteady Piston Skirts EHL at a Small and a Large Radial Clearances in the Initial Engine Start Up Muhammad Shoaib Ansari, S. Adnan Qasim, Abdul Ghafoor, Riaz A. Mufti, M. Afzaal Malik Abstract In the

### Unit V HYDROSTATIC DRIVE AND ELECTRIC DRIVE

Unit V HYDROSTATIC DRIVE AND ELECTRIC DRIVE HYDROSTATIC DRIVE In this type of drives a hydrostatic pump and a motor is used. The engine drives the pump and it generates hydrostatic pressure on the fluid.

### ACTUATORS GENERAL CATALOG

CAD drawing data catalog is available. ACTUATORS GENERAL CATALOG ROTARY ACTUATORS PISTON TYPE SERIES CONTENTS Features 1233 Handling Instructions and Precautions 1235 Selection 1239 Specifications 1247

### BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF CONNECTING ROD

BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF CONNECTING ROD Rukhsar Parveen Mo. Yusuf 1, prof.a.v.karmankar2, Prof.S.D.Khamankar 3 1 Student of M.Tech (CAD/CAM), Rajiv Gandhi College Of Engineering, Research and Technology, Chandrapur(M.S.)

### Marine Gyro Compasses for Ships' Officers

Marine Gyro Compasses for Ships' Officers BY A. FROST, B.Sc., MASTERMARINER,M.R.I.N. GLASGOW BROWN, SON & FERGUSON LTD. NAUTICALPUBLISHERS 4-10 DARNLEYSTREET Copyright in all countries signatory to the

### Chapter 23 Magnetic Flux and Faraday s Law of Induction

Chapter 23 Magnetic Flux and Faraday s Law of Induction Units of Chapter 23 Induced Electromotive Force Magnetic Flux Faraday s Law of Induction Lenz s Law Mechanical Work and Electrical Energy Generators

### Unit 1: Energy and Motion

5 5 Table of Contents Unit 1: Energy and Motion Chapter 5: Work and Machines 5.1: Work 5.2: Using Machines 5.3: Simple Machines 5.1 Work What is work? To many people, the word work means something they

### LABORATORY MANUAL I. C. ENGINES & GAS TURBINES (ME-317-E)

LABORATORY MANUAL I. C. ENGINES & GAS TURBINES (ME-317-E) LIST OF EXPERIMENTS S.No. Name of the Experiment 1. To study the constructional details & working principles of two-stroke petrol/ four-stroke

### 2. Motion relationships and torques

2. Motion relationships and torques 2.1 Rotation angle of a single joint as a function of defl ection angle ß 1 Input rotation angle 2 Output rotation angle If a single joint is deflected by angle ß and

### Lightweight. Geislinger Gesilco

Lightweight Geislinger Gesilco The Geislinger Gesilco product range is based on more than 20 years of experience in developing fibre composite couplings and shafts. The maintenance-free composite membranes

### Autonomous Mobile Robot Design

Autonomous Mobile Robot Design Topic: Propulsion Systems for Robotics Dr. Kostas Alexis (CSE) Propulsion Systems for Robotics How do I move? Understanding propulsion systems is about knowing how a mobile

### Basic Instruments Introduction Classification of instruments Operating principles Essential features of measuring

Basic Instruments www.worldwebsites8.blogspot.com Introduction Classification of instruments Operating principles Essential features of measuring instruments PMMC Instruments Moving Iron instruments Introduction

### The characteristics of each type of service are given in table 1 given below:

Types of Railway Services There are three types of passenger services which traction system has to cater for namely Urban, Sub-urban and Main line services. 1. Urban or city service In this type of service

### Describe the function of a hydraulic power unit

Chapter 7 Source of Hydraulic Power Power Units and Pumps 1 Objectives Describe the function of a hydraulic power unit and identify its primary components. Explain the purpose of a pump in a hydraulic

### Introduction. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines. Involute profile. 7. Gears

Introduction The kinematic function of gears is to transfer rotational motion from one shaft to another Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines 7. Gears Since these shafts may be parallel, perpendicular, or

### Bevel Gears n A Textbook of Machine Design

080 n A Textbook of Machine Design C H A P T E R 30 Bevel Gears. Introduction.. Classification of Bevel Gears. 3. Terms used in Bevel Gears. 4. Determination of Pitch Angle for Bevel Gears. 5. Proportions

### The engine architecture of V8

newsroom Technology Sep 5, 2017 The engine architecture of V8 The V8 success story and its basics. Luxury sedans and sports cars, SUVs and pickup trucks in each of these vehicle categories, the eight-cylinder

### A Space Cam Mechanism for Power Transmission of an Opposite-cylinder

MATEC Web of Conferences 22, 03003 ( 2015) DOI: 10.1051/ matecconf/ 20152203003 C Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2015 A Space Cam Mechanism for Power Transmission of an Opposite-cylinder

### Chapter 20. Induced Voltages and Inductance

Chapter 20 Induced Voltages and Inductance Michael Faraday 1791 1867 Great experimental scientist Invented electric motor, generator and transformers Discovered electromagnetic induction Discovered laws

### INTRODUCTION Principle

DC Generators INTRODUCTION A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by using the principle of magnetic induction. Principle Whenever a conductor is moved within a

### Compact Modules. with ball screw drive and toothed belt drive R310EN 2602 ( ) The Drive & Control Company

with ball screw drive and toothed belt drive R310EN 2602 (2007.02) The Drive & Control Company Bosch Rexroth AG Linear Motion and Assembly Technologies Ball Rail Systems Roller Rail Systems Linear Bushings

### APPLICATION OF A NEW TYPE OF AERODYNAMIC TILTING PAD JOURNAL BEARING IN POWER GYROSCOPE

Engineering MECHANICS, Vol. 19, 2012, No. 5, p. 359 368 359 APPLICATION OF A NEW TYPE OF AERODYNAMIC TILTING PAD JOURNAL BEARING IN POWER GYROSCOPE Jiří Šimek* New type of aerodynamic tilting pad journal

### Can Physics Teaching be improved by Explanation of Tricks with

August- October 2010 ArXiv.org Matthias Risch Hochschule Augsburg, Germany, University of Applied Sciences Can Physics Teaching be improved by Explanation of Tricks with a Motorcycle? Abstract A priority

### High Rigidity/ High Precision Guide Type ø50, ø63. The use of two linear guides allows a maximum load of 320kg. (ø63) Rodless cylinder MY1BH SMC

MYHT Series High Rigidity/ High Precision Guide Type ø, ø6 The use of two linear guides allows a maximum load of kg. (ø6) Rodless cylinder MYBH SMC 2 linear guides Easy maintenance is stressed by a revolutionary

### INSTRUCTION MANUAL ELECTRO-SEIS MODEL 113 SHAKER. Serial Number. Systems for Generating Controlled Vibration

APS INSTRUCTION MANUAL ELECTRO-SEIS MODEL 113 SHAKER Serial Number Systems for Generating Controlled Vibration 5731 Palmer Way, Suite A, Carlsbad, CA 92008 USA (760) 438-4848 FAX (760) 438-8845 apsdynamics@att.net

### ENGINE SPECS COMMON SPECIFICATIONS & PROCEDURES LEGACY & OUTBACK COMMON SPECIFICATIONS & PROCEDURES

1Search Print Date: 17/01/017 ENGINE SPECS COMMON SPECIFICATIONS & PROCEDURES LEGACY & OUTBACK COMMON SPECIFICATIONS & PROCEDURES 015 Subaru Legacy 3.6L Eng 3.6R Limited System Specification/Procedure

### CHAPTER 4 - OIL SYSTEM

CHAPTER 4 - OIL SYSTEM CONTENTS PAGE Typical Oil System Wet Sump 02 Typical Oil System Dry Sump 04 Oil Distribution 06 Main Bearings Locations 08 Main Bearing Lubrication 10 Oil Pump 12 Oil System Wet

### All levers are one of three types, usually called classes. The class of a lever depends on the relative position of the load, effort and fulcrum:

Página 66 de 232 Mechanisms A mechanism is simply a device which takes an input motion and force, and outputs a different motion and force. The point of a mechanism is to make the job easier to do. The

### INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

1 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DIVISON OF THERMAL AND ENERGY CONVERSION By Desta Lemma (BSc, MSc) Introduction

### Heat Engines Lab 12 SAFETY

HB 1-05-09 Heat Engines 1 Lab 12 1 i Heat Engines Lab 12 Equipment SWS, 600 ml pyrex beaker with handle for ice water, 350 ml pyrex beaker with handle for boiling water, 11x14x3 in tray, pressure sensor,

### 10 million cycles. Improved durability. Shock Absorber/Soft type. RJ Series. Maximum operating cycles M6, M8, M10, M14, M20, M27

Shock Absorber/Soft type Series M, M, M, M, M, M Improved durability RoS Long-term continuous operation has been realized by employing the pre-load mechanism, newly-developed oil seals. Maximum operating

### FINAL EXAM. 1. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate word from the list. (30 p.) A. two points operates injecting stroke

Merchant Marine Academy of Macedonia School of Engineers English Language Academic Year: 2011-2012 September 2012 Semester: B (Retakes) Instructor s name: NAME: A.Γ.Μ.: DATE: FINAL EXAM 1. Fill in the

### SHS. Caged Ball LM Guide Global Standard Size Model SHS. Point of Selection. Point of Design. Options. Model No. Precautions on Use

Caged Ball LM Guide Global Standard Size Model LM block LM rail Endplate End seal 45 Ball Ball cage Cross section 45 * For the Ball Cage, see. Point of Selection Point of Design Options Model No. Precautions

### Bistable Rotary Solenoid

Bistable Rotary Solenoid The bistable rotary solenoid changes state with the application of a momentary pulse of electricity, and then remains in the changed state without power applied until a further

### BRAKE SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS KARAN BHARDIYA ASSISTANT MANAGER -R&D ENDURANCE TECHNOLOGIES PVT.LTD. DISC BRAKES

BRAKE SYSTEM FUNDAMENTALS KARAN BHARDIYA ASSISTANT MANAGER -R&D ENDURANCE TECHNOLOGIES PVT.LTD. DISC BRAKES AUTOMOTIVE BRAKING SYSTEMS How brakes manufacturing industry is different then rest of the automotive

### WDS INDUSTRIAL SHOCK ABSORBERS. & : * 1-a. Deceleration technologies: WDS

Benefits of using Industrial Shock Absorbers: Increased productivity through raised machine speeds, smoother operation and operator comfort. Smooth deceleration of moving parts leading to reduced wear,

### The 4 Stroke Diesel Cycle

The 4 Stroke Diesel Cycle Nickolaus Otto invented the 4 stroke cycle in 1862. More details of how the four stroke spark ignition cycle works, together with pictures of Otto's first engines can be found

### FEASIBILITY STYDY OF CHAIN DRIVE IN WATER HYDRAULIC ROTARY JOINT

FEASIBILITY STYDY OF CHAIN DRIVE IN WATER HYDRAULIC ROTARY JOINT Antti MAKELA, Jouni MATTILA, Mikko SIUKO, Matti VILENIUS Institute of Hydraulics and Automation, Tampere University of Technology P.O.Box

### INSTRUCTION MANUAL HFN.15. Slipping Friction Apparatus

INSTRUCTION MANUAL HFN.15 Slipping Friction Apparatus INTRODUCTION The study of friction has to take account of two different circumstances, namely the static case and the sliding or slipping situation.

### Development of a New Steer-by-wire System

NTN TECHNICAL REVIEW No.79 2 Technical Paper Development of a New Steer-by-wire System Katsutoshi MOGI Tomohiro SUGAI Ryo SAKURAI Nobuyuki SUZUKI NTN has been developing a new steer-by-wire system. In

### Hydraulic Pumps Classification of Pumps

Fluidsys Training Centre, Bangalore offers an extensive range of skill-based and industry-relevant courses in the field of Pneumatics and Hydraulics. For more details, please visit the website: https://fluidsys.org

### What does pressure refer to in relation to hydrostatics and what is it dependent on?

Question 1 [3 Marks] What does pressure refer to in relation to hydrostatics and what is it dependent on? Question 2 [14 Marks] Make a circuit diagram of a regular hydraulic plant that is used to control

### Fundamentals of Steering Systems ME5670

Fundamentals of Steering Systems ME5670 Class timing Monday: 14:30 Hrs 16:00 Hrs Thursday: 16:30 Hrs 17:30 Hrs Lecture 3 Thomas Gillespie, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, SAE, 1992. http://www.me.utexas.edu/~longoria/vsdc/clog.html

### TITLE: EVALUATING SHEAR FORCES ALONG HIGHWAY BRIDGES DUE TO TRUCKS, USING INFLUENCE LINES

EGS 2310 Engineering Analysis Statics Mock Term Project Report TITLE: EVALUATING SHEAR FORCES ALONG HIGHWAY RIDGES DUE TO TRUCKS, USING INFLUENCE LINES y Kwabena Ofosu Introduction The impact of trucks

### Series CRB2. Rotary Actuator Vane Style. Size: 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 CRB2 CRBU2 CRB1 MSU CRJ CRA1 CRQ2 MSQ MRQ D- 20- Series Variations.

Rotary Actuator Vane Style Series :,,,, 4 1 Series Variations Standard Vane type Port location Rotating angle Shaft type Fluid (S) ouble vane () Side ported (Nil) Axial ported (E) 9 18 27 ouble shaft W

### Part VII: Gear Systems: Analysis

Part VII: Gear Systems: Analysis This section will review standard gear systems and will provide the basic tools to perform analysis on these systems. The areas covered in this section are: 1) Gears 101:

### ELEN 236 DC Motors 1 DC Motors

ELEN 236 DC Motors 1 DC Motors Pictures source: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/mothow.html#c1 1 2 3 Some DC Motor Terms: 1. rotor: The movable part of the DC motor 2. armature: The

### CHAPTER 10. WEIGHT AND BALANCE

9/27/01 AC 43.13-1B CHG 1 CHAPTER 10. WEIGHT AND BALANCE SECTION 1 TERMINOLOGY 10-1. GENERAL. The removal or addition of equipment results in changes to the center of gravity (c.g.). The empty weight of

### TECHNICAL INFORMATION

General Nomenclature Spherical Roller Bearings The spherical roller bearing is a combination radial and thrust bearing designed for taking misalignment under load When loads are heavy, alignment of housings

### Features of the LM Guide

Features of the Functions Required for Linear Guide Surface Large permissible load Highly rigid in all directions High positioning repeatability Running accuracy can be obtained easily High accuracy can

### a) Calculate the overall aerodynamic coefficient for the same temperature at altitude of 1000 m.

Problem 3.1 The rolling resistance force is reduced on a slope by a cosine factor ( cos ). On the other hand, on a slope the gravitational force is added to the resistive forces. Assume a constant rolling

### BRAKE SYSTEM DESIGN AND THEORY

RAKE SYSTEM DESIGN AND THEORY Aircraft brake systems perform multiple functions. They must be able to hold the aircraft back at full static engine run-up, provide adequate control during ground taxi operations,

### UNIT -I. Ans: They are specified by the no. of strands & the no. of wires in each strand.

VETRI VINAYAHA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, THOTTIAM, NAMAKKAL-621215. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SIXTH SEMESTER / III YEAR ME6601 DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (Regulation-2013) UNIT

### SIMRET makes Heavy Vehicle Brake Testing easy!

SIMRET makes Heavy Vehicle Brake Testing easy! The traditional way to measure brake performance of a vehicle has been to its measure stopping distance. In other words, the distance travelled between applying

### Speed Limit on Railway Curves. (Use of SuperElevation on Railways)

Speed Limit on Railway Curves (Use of SuperElevation on Railways) Introduction When a train rounds a curve, it has a tendency to want to travel in a straight direction and the track must resist this movement,

### Institutionen för systemteknik

Institutionen för systemteknik Department of Electrical Engineering Examensarbete Crank Angle Based Virtual Cylinder Pressure Sensor in Heavy-Duty Engine Application Master s thesis performed in Vehicular