# THE STUDY ON EFFECT OF TORQUE ON PISTON LATERAL MOTION

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2 Compression ratio 16.5:1 Test condition/type 2. MODELLING AND ANALYSIS Water cooled direct injection diesel single cylinder engine Solid modeling is important because it is the key to obtaining productivity promises that computers offer designers.many tools are also used to create solid model in part design work bench in CATIA modeling software. Fig -2: FE model of piston Fig -1: Solid model of piston 2.1 Assembly Modelling In most engineering design the product of interest is a composition of parts formed into an assembly. Modeling and representing assemblies as well as analyzing assemblies are all relevant issues to geometric modeling and the CAD/CAM technology. 2.2 Finite Element Modelling and Analysis The Steps in Finite Element (FE) modeling include; specify material properties, apply loads, identify boundary conditions, discretize the geometry to produce a finite element mesh, solve the system of linear equations, post processing and verifying results. The accuracy of the model and explains the simplifications that were made to obtain an efficient FE model. Using proper boundary conditions and type of loading are important since they strongly affect the results of the FE analysis. FE models are used for dynamic analysis considering the boundary conditions according to the specifications of the engine. The required geometric information for the mesh generation is collected by importing the IGES file of the model in Hypermesh-9. All the meshed components are tested for the quality of the mesh. After proving the quality of the mesh, the components are assembled to represent the IC engine system. Each component is meshed independently as shown in subsequent Fig-2 through Fig-6. The type and number of elements are shown in Table-2. Fig -3: FE model of pin, compression and oil rings Fig -4: FE model of cylinder and bearing Volume: 2 Issue: 8 Aug-213, 292

3 between moving components of the engine. The details of the different joints defined are given in the Table-3. Table -3: Types of Joint Fig -5: FE model of connecting rod Type of Pair Piston - Cylinder Piston - Piston rings Piston - Gudgeon pin Connecting rod- Gudgeon pin Connecting rod - Crank shaft Crank shaft - Bearing Bearing - Ground Type of joint Translational Translational/cylindrical Fixed Fig -6: FE model of Crank Shaft Table -2: Type and number of elements Component Connecting rod Element type Hexahedral, Penta-element Number element Crank Shaft Tetrahedral Piston Tetrahedral 132 Piston rings Hexahedral 96 Oil Rings Hexahedral 2412 Gudgeon pin Hexahedral 96 Cylinder Hexahedral 32 Bearing Hexahedral 32 Total Elements of Fig -7: Assembled meshed model in Hypermesh with quality check 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The analysis is carried out for stress induced in the engine components and MBD analysis is carried out to understand the motions of the engine components relative to each other. The stress and displacement graphs have been considered to study the effect of gas pressure on the piston deformation at different crank angle position. The experiments are conducted for the given pressure of the engine. The variations of the pressure for different crank angles are noted. The Multi Body Dynamic (MBD) analysis is carried out to 6 understand the dynamic behaviour of the machine parts in an 5 assembly in its running condition. The pressure on the piston 4 varies with the crank angles when moving from TDC to BDC 3 and the cycle repeats. This pressure data is considered for the force on the piston in the analysis. This in turn carried to the 2 connecting rod and then to the crankshaft. Hence the engine 1 components experience the gas force exerted on the piston. Here it is obvious to study the stress regions and displacements in different engine parts to predict the behaviour of the parts. This will reveal the lateral motion of Crank Angle in degrees the piston for different crank angle positions and is used to predict the piston slap. The different joints have to be defined Chart -1: Pressure v/s Crank Angle Volume: 2 Issue: 8 Aug-213, Pressure in Bar

4 The Chart-1 shows the variation of the pressure for different crank angle rotation. The data is taken for the torque reading of N-m (75% loading). The engine speed is noted for the different values of the torque and is shown in the Table 4. These parameters are use to draw to understand the effect of pressure on the engine components for different crank rotation. Table -4: Speed of engine for different torque Torque (N-m) Torque N-m Speed rpm Speed (rpm) engine is has the maximum corresponding to the higher value of torque. BP & IP (kw) Table -1: Engine test data Torque BP kw IP kw BP kw IP Kw Chart -2: Torque V/S Speed The torque of the engine gradually increases corresponding to the engine speed and then the speed becomes stable for higher torques (Chart-3). At this point the torque also becomes constant for constant value of the engine speed. It is observed from the engine data that the pressure increases at the TDC region and this trend of the pressure rise continues for the remaining values of the torque of the engine. After attaining constant speed (1487 rpm to 1464 rpm) the torque also almost becomes constant. Hence for high engine speed torque is low and the torque becomes constant (around 19 N-m) for remaining period of the experiment with almost constant velocity. The peak combustion pressure region neat TDC witnessed the higher torque value also. Now it is desired to find out the piston x-displacement and the piston high stress regions for lateral motion which induces lateral forces on the side walls of the cylinder (piston slap). For this study the indicated horse power (IP) and break horse power (BP) are noted to understand the variation of the IP and BP with engine torque. From the Chart-4 it is observed that as the brake horse power increase as the torque increases and it becomes constant for the remaining period. This indicates that the brake horse power is proportional to the engine speed. The gas pressure in this region has a maximum value and also the power of the Torque (kw) Chart -3: BP & IP v/s Toque Fig -8: deformation zone in piston at TDC Volume: 2 Issue: 8 Aug-213, 294

5 Fig -1: Piston Deformation along X-axis Fig -9: Distribution of stresses in piston-cylinder assembly at TDC von -Mises stress ((MPa) Chart -4: Variation of von Mises stress for different crank angles From the finite element analysis, the stress and displacement values have been found out corresponding to the gas pressure taken from the engine readings and are tabulated. The 36 crank angle corresponds to the TDC of the piston position in the cylinder. From Chart-1, the pressure v/s crank angle, it is evident that the maximum pressure of 56 bars is observed near TDC. Hence the structural analysis of the piston is taken from TDC to BDC travel during power stroke i.e. after combustion of fuel in the chamber. From the Chart-4 it is observed that the stress in the piston is maximum near the 56 bars pressure regions and causes the piston to deform more at this region. For cylinder also the high stress region is observed near TDC (Fig-1). The displacement curves are plotted to study the piston lateral motion (perpendicular to the axis of the piston reciprocating motion) which is observed from piston displacement in x-direction(fig-1) Piston Cylinder Gap Crank angles (degrees) Gap (microns) Crank angles (degrees) Chart -5: Variation of piston-cylinder gap for different crank angles Hence the gap between piston and cylinder reduces in the high stress region which corresponds to the higher torque values compared to the other region. This behavior of the piston lateral motion repeats for regular interval of the crank angle between to 72 of the complete cycle. The results obtained from the multi-body dynamic analysis (MBD) are discussed as follows. The stress distribution in the engine components is shown in the Fig It is observed from the MBD analysis that the combined effect of the various forces acting on the engine components viz., connecting rod, crankshaft and piston, is inducing stress in each component. The maximum stress level in the piston is observed as 3.584x12 N/mm2. The maximum displacement observed as 1.71 mm. Fig -11: von Mises stress distribution of MBD analysis of engine Volume: 2 Issue: 8 Aug-213, 295

6 From the MBD analysis it is evident that the maximum stress region is observed near TDC, where the engine pressure and torques are maximum. The pressure variation from TDC to BDC plays an important role in delivering the output power of the engine. For maximum torque the piston experiences maximum pressure and this corresponds to the high stress region. The maximum displacement is also observed in this region. Hence piston experiences maximum displacement and contributes to the lateral motion of the piston. This causes the piston to slap/tilt to develop the engine vibration. CONCLUSIONS The structural analysis of the piston for the various pressure on the piston for different position of the piston in the cylinder moving between TDC to BDC have been studied and the following conclusions are made. The piston experiences maximum stress in the region where the combustion of the fuel takes place and the torque of the engine is maximum for initial speed. This high stress region in the piston deforms more than the other region of the piston. This deformation is proportional to the engine torque and pressure. The maximum x-displacement of the piston for structural analysis resembles the maximum displacement of the piston in MBD analysis. Hence the piston experiences maximum displacement in this region. The deformation in the piston causes it to displace more in this region and this cycle repeats even for the reduction in combustion pressure. The MBD analysis confirms the relative motion between the parts and reveals that the engine noise is associated with the maximum stress developed in the engine parts. The future scope of this work includes carrying out MBD analysis, to incorporate the forces in motion for prediction of piston slap and optimization of the geometry of the piston to reduce engine noise and vibration (NVH). REFERENCES [1] S.N.Kurbet and R.Krishnakumar A Finite Element study of Piston Tilt effects on Piston Ring Dynamics in IC Engines Proc Instn Mech Engrs (IMECHE) Part K.24, pp [2] Vinay.V.Kuppast and Dr. S.N.Kurbet, Review of Finite Element Analysis of the IC engine noise and its experimental validation. International Conference on Total Engineering Analysis,IISC,Bangalore.28. [3] Toshiyaki Kobayashi, Yukitaka Takahashi and David J. Bell, How to predict the piston slap-noise using 3D piston motion simulation, SAE International, , 27. [4] R.R.Malagi and S.N.Kurbet A Comprehensive Model to Study Dynamic Motion of Piston and Friction and Lubrication in IC Engines Journal of Tribology Trans ASME Tribo [5] Nagaraj Nayak, P.V. Reddy, Yogesh Aghav, Navtej Singh Sohi and A.D.Dani, Study of engine vibration due to piston slap on single cylinder, high powered engine, SAE Iternational, ,25. [6] R.R.Malagi and S.N.Kurbet, 973 Stress analysis of Piston Ring FE approach,, 2nd International Conference on recent Advances in Manufacturing held at Kovilpetti TN from Feb 9. [7] Robert L. Nortan, Design of machinery, TATA Mc Graw Hill Publishers, Delhi. [8] Ibrahim Zeid, CAD/CAM Theory and Practice Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishers, Delhi. BIOGRAPHIES Mr. Vinay V. Kuppast is presently working as an Associate Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering, BEC, Bagalkot of Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum. His field of research interests is MBD, NVH and PLM. Dr. S. N. Kurbet is presently working as a Professor and Head, Department of Mechanicl Engineering, BEC,Bagalkot of Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum. His field of interest is CAE, FEA and HRD in engineering. He is presently guiding 5 Ph.D students and 3Ph.D students have been awarded. Dr. Aravind M. Yadawad is presently working as an Associate Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIE, Mysore of Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum. His field of research interests is CAE, Energy Engineering and Management. Mr. G. K. Patil is presently working as an Associate Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering, BEC, Bagalkot of Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum. His field of research interests is Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery, Energy Engineering and Management. Volume: 2 Issue: 8 Aug-213, 296

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