# HYBRID LINEAR ACTUATORS BASICS

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1 HYBRID LINEAR ACTUATORS BASICS TECHNICAL OVERVIEW Converting the rotary motion of a stepping motor into linear motion can be accomplished by several mechanical means, including rack and pinion, belts and pulleys and other mechanical linkages. All of these designs require various mechanical components. The most effective way to accomplish this conversion is within the linear actuator itself. Description The basic stepper motor creates rotary motion of a magnet rotor core through the uses of pulses and electromagnetic field passing around the core. Linear actuators convert this rotational motion into a linear motion, with the precise dependent of the step angle of the rotor and the method chosen to accomplish the conversion. The linear stepping motor, or linear actuator, first came into being in 1968 under patent number 3,402,308, issued to William Henschke. Since this time, the linear actuator has found its way into many critical applications. Some uses include manufacturing applications, precision alignment and precision fluid metering to name a few. Linear actuators that use a screw would also have its precision be dependent of the thread pitch. Inside the rotor of a linear actuator, a nut is located in the center of the rotor. Also, a corresponding screw is engaged in the nut. In order for the screw to move axially, the screw must be constrained from rotating with the nut and rotor assembly by some means. With anti-rotation of the screw, linear motion is achieved as the rotor turns. Anti-rotation is typically accomplished either internally with captivation of a shaft screw assembly or externally with a nut on the screw shaft that is some way prevented from rotation, yet free along its axis. For obvious design simplicity, it makes sense to accomplish the rotary to linear conversion right inside the motor. This approach greatly simplifies the design of many applications by allowing a drop in motor capable of precise linear motion without the need to install external mechanical linkages. The first linear actuator used a ball nut and screw combination. The ball screw typically offers efficiency greater than 90%, while Acme threads typically offer efficiencies between 20% and 70% depending on thread conditions. Although ball screws are a highly efficient means to convert rotary motion to linear travel, the ball nut is sensitive to alignment, bulky, and expensive. Therefore, the ball nut is not a practical solution for most applications.

4 linear actuator is a lubricated thermoplastic material. This is because with new engineered plastics, the screw threads may now travel with a lower coefficient of friction. Figure 3 contrasts the rotor thread materials frictional properties. Based on this, it would seem obvious; why not use a plastic drive nut? Unfortunately, as good as the plastic is for the threads, it is not a stable enough material for the rotor journals of a hybrid motor. With the possible motor temperature rise of 135 F during motor operation, the plastic in this case could expand as much as.004. Where brass, for instance, may only expand.001 under the same thermal conditions. See Figure 4.

5 The bearing journals are critical in the hybrid motor design. The hybrid rotor design must maintain an airgap of only a few thousandths of an inch for optimal performance. The airgap is defined as the space between the outer diameter of the rotor magnet and the inner diameter of the stator. If the rotor assembly lost concentricity it would rub against the stator wall. Through material selection, a designer would desire having material benefits of both long thread life and bearing journal stability. By injection molding plastic threads within a metallic rotor assembly, this mutual benefit of properties is achieved (Figure 5). The result is an extremely improved product with quiet operation, higher efficiencies and life expectancies. The life expectancies can be orders of magnitude greater than a bronze nut under identical operating conditions (Figure 6).

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