SNS COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY (An Autonomous Institution) Department of Automobile Engineering

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1 SNS COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY (An Autonomous Institution) Department of Automobile Engineering ACADEMIC YEAR FIFTH SEMESTER AU 302 AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE COMPONENTS DESIGN UNIT 2 CYLINDER, PISTON & CONNECTING ROD STUDY MATERIAL TWO MARKS: What is the effect of number of cylinders on the performance of an I.C. Engines? For smoother torsional moment on crank shaft, lower engine weight and higher efficiency, it is better to use a greater number of cylinders instead of less number of large cylinders. For this, the small cylinders must run at high engine speed. Large cylinders are used in low crankshaft speeds are needed, as in marine propulsion. Therefore, the desirable crankshaft is an important factor in the selection of size and number of cylinders. What are the advantages and disadvantages of wet liner and dry liner? Dry Liner: The advantages of dry liner are, 1. It is simple to replace a dry liner. 2. There is no danger of water leakage either into the crankcase or the combustion chamber. 3. Due to absence of a heavy flange at the top of the liner, cylinder centers can be reduced. 4. There is better cooling of the upper part of the liner. The disadvantages of dry liner are, 1. Complicated casting 2. Decreased heat flow through the composite wall Wet Liner: The advantages of wet liner are, 1. The foundry problem is considerably eased, since the large internal cores of the cylinder block can be properly supported. 2. The cylinder block is relieved of the stresses due to longitudinal expansion of the liner. The disadvantages of wet liner are, 1. Difficult replacement 2. Danger of water leakage into the crankcase and the combustion space if the casting is defective

2 Enumerate the qualities of a good cylinder liner. 1. Strength to resist the gas pressure 2. Sufficiently hard to resist wear 3. Strength to resist the thermal stresses due to the heat flow through the liner wall 4. Corrosion resisting List the various liner materials. 1. Grey cast iron 2. Nickel cast iron and Nickel chromium cast iron 3. Nickel chromium cast steel with molybdenum What are the functions trunk pistons? The main function of the piston is to receive the impulse from the expanding gas and transmit the energy to the crank shaft through the connecting rod. At the same time, the piston must also disperse a large of amount of heat from the combustion chamber to the cylinder walls. List the various parts of trunk piston. 1. Head 2. Skirt 3. Piston pin 4. Piston rings List the various materials used for pistons. 1. Cast Aluminium 2. Forged Aluminium 3. Cast steel 4. Forged steel 5. Cast Iron Explain the piston seizure, piston slap. A piston seizure can only occur when something burns or scrapes away the oil film that exists between the piston and the cylinder wall. Piston seizure occurs when there is no lubrication between the cylinder wall and the rings. This can be caused by insufficient oil in the fuel mixture or by excessive heat breaking down the oil. Piston slap is the secondary movement of a piston against the side of the cylinder bore. This perpendicular moving piston comes into contact with the vertical movement of the cylinder bore, causing the audible noise associated with this phenomenon. What is the use of piston ribs? Side thrust from the connecting rod is transmitted to the skirt through the piston pin boss. Therefore, to distribute this load properly to avoid the distortion of the skirt, a stiffening rib should be provided at the center line of the boss and extending around the skirt.

3 What are the functions of piston rings? The main function of the piston rings is to impart the necessary radial pressure to maintain the seal between the piston and the cylinder bore. What is the function of oil scraper rings? The function of oil scraper rings is to scrape the lubricating oil from the surface of the liner, so as to minimize the flow oil in to the combustion chamber. Also during the upward stroke, these should allow sufficient oil to go upward for the proper lubrication of the liner. What is the material of piston rings? 1. Cast iron 2. Alloy cast iron 3. High carbon cast iron with nickel, chromium and molybdenum. Explain the term blow by. In case of horizontal engines, the rings must be located by pins, so that all gaps do not come in one line due to the rotation of the rings. If this thing happens, then the gases might leak from the combustion chamber to the crankcase and the phenomenon is called blow by. How is oil pumping prevented? 1. The upper edges of the piston rings are rounded off. 2. For the last piston ring, the lower groove edge is beveled off and small holes are drilled towards the inside of the piston to assist in removal of excess oil. 3. A more effective scraper ring with an under cut, for the cases where oil consumption is excessive. What is the function of piston skirt? The portion of the piston barrel below the ring section up to the open end is known as skirt. It is to take the side thrust of the connecting rod. Its length should be such that the side thrust pressure should not exceed 0.21 to 0.28 N/mm 2 for low speed engines and 0.49 N/mm 2 for high speed engines. When the cooling of the pistons is necessary? As to cope with the heat transfer to the piston head, the piston should be cooled. The usual medium is oil. In small engines, the oil of the piston crown or head is led through a hole in connecting rod. The oil will travel from the crank shaft bearings to the big end bearing of the connecting rod and then to the piston pin through the hole in the connecting rod. What is the function of piston pin/ Piston pin is the only one most important link between the connecting rod and piston. Whole of the load developed in the cylinder passes through the piston pin, gudgeon pin called wrist pin. What are the materials used for piston pin? Nitrogen hardened or case hardened steel alloy containing nickel, chromium, molybdenum or vandadium.

4 Why the piston clearances are necessary? What its usual value? The expansion due to the presence of high temperatures can be counteracted by making the piston more or less taper. If excessive clearance is provided it will lead to an objectionable and damaging phenomenon known as piston slap. If the clearance is too less piston seizure may occur. Automobiles Clearance value: to 0.15 mm Enumerate the various piston troubles. 1. Seizure of piston 2. Cracking of piston crowns and side wall 3. Burning of piston crown 4. Excessive lubricating oil consumption 5. Sticking of piston rings 6. Breaking of piston rings 7. Scuffing of piston rings and cylinder liners What is the function of connecting rod of an I.C. Engine? The main function of the connecting rod is to transmit the push and pull from the piston pin to the crank pin. In many cases, its secondary function is to convey the lubricating oil from the bottom end to the top and that s from the crank pin to the piston pin and then for splash of jet. Enumerate materials for the connecting rods 1. Alloy steel 2. Carbon steel 3. Nickel chrome steel Why I section chosen for high speed IC engines? In high speed engines lightness of the connecting rod is a major factor. Therefore Tubular, I section or H sections are used, the last two being most common. Enumerate the various stresses induced in the connecting rod. 1. The combined effect of gas pressure on the piston and the inertia of the reciprocating parts 2. Friction of the piston rings and of the piston 3. Inertia of the connecting rod 4. The friction of the two end bearings What is the effect of the angularity of the connecting rod upon the side pressure on the piston on the cylinder liner? The length of the connecting rod depends upon the ratio of connecting rod length and stroke. On L/R ratio depends the angularity of the connecting rod with respect to the cylinder center line. The shorter the length of the connecting rod l in respect to the crank radius of the piston

5 against the liner. The side thrust and the resulting wear of the liner decreases with a decrease in the angularity. What are the materials of the piston pin bearing and the crank pin bearing? Crank pin bearing materials: Tin or lead base babbit, Copper lead, Cadmium, Silver. Piston pin Bearing materials: High quality Bronze and Al alloy. What is Crush? Good seating of the bearings in their housings is accomplished by making each half of the bearing shell slightly lower than the semicircular housings in which it is clamped. The difference between the bearing arc length and the housing arc length is called crush.

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