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3 in outward direction, as shown in Fig 1.1. Coil assembly consists of two components coils wound around magnet keeping some gap and concentric outer cylinder (high magnetically permeable material). The coils are wound on a plastic support tube with acts as like air gap (relative permeability equal to one). Plastic tube is fitted into outer tube and firmly fixed. There is an air gap between coils and magnet to allow relative motion. Output terminal wires are connected to a bridge rectifier which converts generated voltage to rectified DC voltage. In a vehicle, coil assembly is fixed to vehicle frame and it moves up and down during vehicle vibrations on rough road. On the other hand, magnet assembly is attached to vehicle body and stationary with respect to frame. When vehicle moves over a bump, the copper coils move inside the magnetic field produced by magnets. It will cause emf generation in coils according to Faraday Law of Electromagnetic induction. Larger the bump size more will be the relative movement between magnet & coils and hence more energy will be generated. Energy generation also depends upon the speed of vehicle travel on road. More the vehicle speed more will be the vibrations and eventually more energy is generated. The weight of the electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber is estimated approximately equal to 5 kg. 6. PRIMARY EQUATION FOR REGENERATED VOLTAGE:- Faradays law of electromagnetic induction states that when an electric conductor is moved through a magnetic field, a potential difference is induced between the ends of the conductor. He proposed the principle that electromotive force (emf), induced in a conductor is proportional to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux of that conductor. The magnetic flux B from the magnet assembly radially penetrates each coil section over the height of the magnet. Therefore emf V (volt) generated by a conductor of length L (m) in the form of coils with n turns moving in a constant magnetic field B (T), at a constant velocity v (m/s) according to above law is [1] -- V = n B v L Electric power is equal to product of voltage and current. Therefore it can be derived that power P is directly proportional to square of flux density B. A double increase in B results in a quadratic increase in P. Therefore, the energy harvester is designed to have high magnetic flux by using permanent magnets and using good electric conductors. 7. ELECTROMAGNETIC DESIGN OF REGENERATIVE SHOCK ABSORBER: - Electromagnetic design aims to determine the dimensions of ring shaped permanent magnets (i.e. thickness, ID, OD), diameter of winding wire, number turns of coils and number of magnets, spacers & coils. It is necessary to derive proper position of magnets & coils to get maximum flux density. Simplest construction of linear electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber consists on single pair of magnet-spacer coupling and coil. Magnet-spacer coupling is placed on centre rod & coil is placed in outer tube in front of magnet-spacer coupling. Coil part is known as coil assembly and magnet part is known as magnet assembly. Here magnet assembly moves up and down with respect to coil assembly. Design dimensions of single magnetspacer and coil pair are applied to other similar pairs. Fig.1.2 ¼ Cut section of the linear energy harvester & its equivalent magnetic circuit [9] An analytical approach, based on the principles of magnetic circuits, is applied to define a relationship between the design dimensions and the voltage performance. So the aim of design process is find out the dimensions of the shock absorber which gives maximum output but with volume restriction of conventional shock absorber. Solution of this magnet circuit is based on Ampere law and leads to expression for flux density in air gap in terms of ratio τ/τ m called as permanent magnet thickness ratio. From the graphs obtained for flux density for various dimensions of magnets and coils, it is concluded that maximum magnetic flux intensity in the gap occurs at ratio τ/τ m between 1.5 and 2 regardless of the values of dimensions of magnets and coil. 8. DESIGN DIMENSIONS OF MAGNETS AND COILS 8.1 Magnet assembly dimensions The magnet assembly consists of magnets, spacers. The rare-earth permanent magnets (NdFeB), are suggested due to their high magnetic density (1.21 T) and availability. The magnets are attached to centre rod. Stainless steel rod is suggested because of its high reluctance (µ = H/m) and its high tensile strength. The magnets should be arranged with like-poles facing to each other (S-N-N-S). To reduce the effects of air in decreasing the radial flux in the coil conductor, magnetically permeable mild steel spacers should be inserted between each magnet. Table 1.2 Dimensions estimated from design process for magnet assembly 8.2 Coil assembly dimensions The coil assembly consists of a plastic tube, coil windings and outer tube. The plastic tube is with high electrical resistance on which coils will be mounted. The coils were designed to align with the magnet assembly. The coil thickness, 5 mm, is determined from the space restriction of the typical shock absorber diameter. A copper coil of 210 turns and gauge of 27 AWG is required for sufficient voltage generation. Coil width is estimated to be 9 mm and

4 air gap of 2 mm is necessary for free motion of coil and magnets. Table 1.2 Dimensions estimated from design process for coil assembly 9. STATIC MAGNETIC ANALYSIS Overall physical dimensions of harvester are tabulated in above section and are based on the criteria that maximum flux density occurs in coils of energy harvester. Now further improvement in flux density can be achieved by changes in material having different relative permeability. Some materials has high relative permeability e.g. mild steel has relative permeability approximately equal to 500 while other material have very low relative permeability (air has relative permeability equal to 1). By selecting proper arrangement of these high and low permeability materials it is possible to increase flux density associated with coils of harvester. This is done in electromagnetic FEM software called Magnet V7. In this software different combinations of materials with different permeabilities are analyzed for flux distribution to get optimum combination of materials giving higher flux density. MagNet v7 is a two dimensional electromagnetic FEM software for analysis of electromagnetic fields. It allows rapid modeling and prediction of the performance of any electromagnetic or electromechanical device. MagNet's solution approach is based on the highly accurate finite element method for simulating static, frequency dependent or time varying electromagnetic fields. MagNet uses the finite element technique for an accurate and quick solution of Maxwell's equations. The results those can be obtained by using MagNet software are -- magnetic flux density (Β), flux linkage, voltage, current, winding losses, eddy current and hysteresis losses, demagnetization etc. It is frequently used to design electric components like motor, generator, alternator, transformer etc. In linear harvester design shorter coils placed in slots outer tube surrounding the magnet-spacer coupling placed on the centre rod. Now if the materials of centre rod and outer tube are varied, following three possible combinations of harvester can be analyzed M. S. centre rod and no outer cylinder (non magnetic outer part) 2. Stainless steel centre rod & no outer cylinder (non magnetic outer part) 3. Stainless steel centre rod with M S outer cylinder. In MagNet software, two dimensional model of energy harvester is created and solved statically to get flux function plot or contour plots showing flux distribution in coils. Two dimensional geometry is chosen instead of three dimensional model because harvester geometry is symmetric about the axis of centre rod and hence flux distribution in whole energy harvester is similar to flux distribution in ¼ part of harvester. Thus results of 2-dimensional analysis are applied to three dimensional geometry of harvester. 10. RESULTS OF STATIC FLUX ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON BETWEEN THREE CASES First two flux plots shows electromagnetic FEM analysis of first two designs without outer cylinder. Lines show the variation in flux function over the geometry. Colors shows relative intensity of flux over the geometry with red being maximum density of flux & blue with minimum value of flux. By careful observation of two flux plots, it is concluded that flux lines are more linked to mild steel (M.S.) centre rod instead of copper coils in first case. Reason for this M. S. rod has higher magnetic permeability than copper wires (app. equal to 500 relative permeability). It is found that its high permeability attracted large no. of flux lines inside the rod, not in the copper coils. On the other hand, in second case flux lines are diverted towards coil side as centre rod material stainless steel material is less ferromagnetic (almost 1 relative magnetic permeability). Fig D Electromagnetic flux analysis of harvester- (a) MS center rod & no outer cylinder, (b) SS centre rod with no outer cylinder

5 Although the second design gives more flux than first but it possible to improve flux further by introducing ferromagnetic outer tube to cover coils. By adding outer tube of MS material (strong permeability), it is possible to pull flux from magnets towards coil side. As per the basic rule in magnetism, that flux line will choose minimum resistance path for completing their circuit. Therefore more and more flux lines will pass through less resistance path of outer tube inherently crossing over copper coils with low permeability. Thus density of magnetic flux in copper coil will increase and will be a maximum in third design. From below flux plot, it is clearly visible that flux lines have diverted from their earlier path in design 2 and concentrated towards coil side in design 3. Intensity of color is showing that flux density is shifting from centre rod to outer tube. Also it is visible that almost zero flux lines are passing through less magnetic centre rod which is good for output voltage. The increases in the flux intensity through the middle of the coils for design- 1, 2 & 3 are 0.28T, 0.31T and 0.35T respectively. the mechanism for variation of amplitude & frequency of excitation to simulate road profiles. Waves at different frequencies and amplitudes were modeled using mechanism in shock absorber testing machine. An oscilloscope was used to measure the output voltage, both peak and RMS values, of the shock absorber. The oscilloscope was also used to view the output waveforms generated from the shock absorber. A multimeter was used to measure current output. The regenerated voltage was in alternating current form and required to be rectified to convert it into direct current voltage so as to use in vehicle battery. At a constant frequency (1,2,4 & 6 Hz), input amplitude was incrementally increased. Output voltages were recorded. Similarly at constant amplitude, frequency is varied to get voltage. Fig 1.6 shows a overall test setup showing prototype, shock absorber machine, digital storage oscilloscope and rectifier circuit. Fig1.4 2D electromagnetic flux analysis for stainless steel center rod and M S outer tube 11. MANUFACTURING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC REGENERATIVE SHOCK ABSORBER The full scale electromagnetic regenerative shock absorber was fabricated based on the dimensions derived in above section. The permanent magnets NdFeB (grade N32) were chosen due to their high magnetic density. Copper wire of 27 AWG were chosen to wound coils because of its superior conductivity and low resistivity. Fig 1.5 Exploded view of assembly of components 12. TESTING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC REGENERATIVE SHOCK ABSORBER A test set-up was designed to characterize the voltage output and power output of the generator at various road conditions. Shock absorber testing machine was made available by institute. The machine was having Fig 1.6 Overall experimental setup for testing of regenerative shock absorber 13 RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The results of experiment carried out for the variation in regenerated voltage against in excitation frequency & amplitude shows that for input frequency 6 Hz and amplitude 20 mm, cyclic RMS voltage generated for 8 coil set of 0º phase and 8 coil set of 90º phase is 5.5 & 5.0 volts respectively. The full scale single regenerative shock absorber was able to harvest 8 W of energy at m s 1 RMS suspension velocity. It was also found that the frequency of the regenerated voltage does not necessarily have the same frequency as the excitation. Instead, the wave shapes of the regenerated voltage will depend on excitation frequency, amplitude and equilibrium position. The overall conclusion of this research work is that it is possible to harvest energy from vehicle vibrations travelling on a bumpy road. REFERENCES a) Research papers 1. Lei Zuo, Brian Scully, Jurgen Shestani and Yu Zhou, Design and characterization of an electromagnetic energy harvester for vehicle suspensions, Journal of Smart Materials and Structures, Volume 19, Number Gupta A, Jendrzejczyk J A, Mulcahy T M and Hull J R, Design of electromagnetic shock absorbers, International Journal of Mechanics & Material Design, Volume 3, Number Goldner R B, Zerigian P and Hull J R, A preliminary study of energy recovery in vehicles by using regenerative magnetic shock absorbers, SAE Paper # Pei-Sheng Zhang and Lei Zuo, Energy harvesting, ride comfort, and road handling of regenerative vehicle suspensions, ASME Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, 2012.

6 5. Zhen Longxin and Wei Xiaogang, Structure and Performance Analysis of Regenerative Electromagnetic Shock Absorber, Journal of networks, vol. 5, no. 12, December S. Mirzaei, S.M. Saghaiannejad, V. Tahani and M. Moallem, Electromagnetic shock absorber, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, IEEE Bart L. J. Gysen, Jeroen L. G. Janssen, Johannes J. H. Paulides, Elena A. Lomonova, Design aspects of an active electromagnetic suspension system for automotive applications, IEEE transactions on industry applications, vol. 45, no. 5, September/October N. Bianchi, S.Bolognani, F. Tone1, Design criteria of a tubular linear IPM motor, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Padova,2001, IEEE 9. Babak Ebrahimi, Mir Behrad Khamesee, M. Farid Golnaraghi, Feasibility Study of an Electromagnetic Shock Absorber with Position Sensing Capability, IEEE 2008, Page Shakeel Avadhany, Zack Anderson, U S patent , Regenerative shock absorber. b) Master or PhD thesis 11. Oly D. Paz, Design and performance of electric shock absorber, a thesis submitted for completion of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering from Agricultural and Mechanical College, Louisiana State University. 12. Babak Ebrahimi, Development of hybrid electromagnetic dampers for vehicle suspension systems, a thesis presented to the University of Waterloo for degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Mechanical Engineering. 13. Jason David Hedlund, Hydraulic Regenerative Vehicle Suspension, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of master of science from the university of Minnesota. c) Books referred 14. John C. Dixon, The Shock Absorber Handbook, Second Edition, Wiley Professional Engineering Publishing Series 15. Tom Denton, Automobile Electrical and Electronic Systems, Third edition published by Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004.

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