1 Utah State University All Graduate Plan B and other Reports Graduate Studies A 6-Degree of Freedom Static Thrust Stand Developed for RC-Scale Jet Engines Spencer Sessions Utah State University Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Aerospace Engineering Commons Recommended Citation Sessions, Spencer, "A 6-Degree of Freedom Static Thrust Stand Developed for RC-Scale Jet Engines" (2011). All Graduate Plan B and other Reports This Report is brought to you for free and open access by the Graduate Studies at It has been accepted for inclusion in All Graduate Plan B and other Reports by an authorized administrator of For more information, please contact
2 i A 6-DEGREE OF FREEDOM STATIC-THRUST STAND DEVELOPED FOR RC-SCALE JET ENGINES by Spencer Sessions Approved: A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE in Mechanical/Aerospace Engineering Dr. Stephen A. Whitmore Major Professor Dr. Barton Smith Committee Member Dr. Robert Spall Committee Member UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY Logan, Utah 2011
3 ii ABSTRACT A 6-Degree of Freedom Static Thrust Stand Developed for RC-Scale Jet Engines by Spencer D. Sessions, Master of Science Utah State University, 2011 Major Professor: Dr. Stephen A. Whitmore Department: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering The description of a portable 6-degree of freedom static thrust stand for RC-scale jet engines is reported. The stand includes three axial and three lateral load cells measuring static thrust with six degrees of freedom. A pitot probe with single axis position control placed perpendicular to exhaust flow measures stagnation pressure along the nozzle centerline. A pitot probe open to the inside of the engine nozzle normal to the exhaust flow and near the outlet measures static pressure. A digital scale measures fuel consumption. The engine is mounted with exhaust gases exiting upward avoiding ground effects and thrust acting downward. The test stand instrumentation is interfaced with a laptop computer running National Instruments LabView 9.0. The report includes descriptions for test stand structure, hardware, mounting instructions, instrumentation specifications, references to download instrumentation software, complete wiring diagrams, and the test procedures used for testing an RC jet engine. Some testing results are included for a JF-170 Rhino RC-scale jet engine including graphs for static thrust, fuel consumption, and exit plume pressure profiles. A momentum defect is found in the exit plume of the JF-170 engine. (40 Pages)
4 iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanks to Dr. Whitmore, Zach Peterson for help with the wiring diagrams and test stand description, and the Senior Design Class Spring 2010 Utah State University. -Spencer Sessions
5 iv Table LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1 Manufacturer Specifications for Static Thrust Stand Instruments... 17
6 v LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Figure 1. Solid model of thrust vectoring components Figure 2. Solid model of jet engine installed in the load balance with the coordinate system defined Figure 3. Functional diagram of test stand Figure 4. Front view engine test stand Figure 5. Triangle mounted cart used for mounting jet/rocket engine Figure 6. Triangle specification in mm Figure 7. Steel bracket with 0.5 (12.7 ) slots used for mounting jet/rocket engine hardware Figure 8. Engine mount used for the JF-170 Rhino small jet engine Figure 9. Mount and shaft Figure 10. Motor and gears Figure 11. Controller box Figure 12. Front panel for LabView virtual instrument Figure 13. Fuel flow rate vs throttle for rhino jet engine test Figure 14. JF-170 Rhino exit plane Mach-number distribution for various throttle settings Figure 15. JF-170 Rhino thrust/rpm curve Figure 16. Thrust vectoring actual prototype Figure 17. Load cell mvolt output for thrust vectoring test case Figure 18. Calculated forces and moments using adjusted load cell data Figure 19. H-bridge circuit schematic Figure 20. Board layout... 32
7 vi CONTENTS ABSTRACT... ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS... iii LIST OF TABLES...iv LIST OF FIGURES... v I. INTRODUCTION... 7 II. SUBSYSTEMS A. Structure Cart Triangle Brackets Engine Mount Mounting B. Instrumentation Load Cells Pitot Probe Fuel System Instrumentation accuracy and specifications C. Software III. FACILITY A. Location B. Operating Environment C. Winter Testing D. Operational Procedure IV. TESTING RESULTS V. CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES APPENDICES Appendix A Wiring Diagram For Interfacing Load Cells And Pressure Sensors To The Engine Test Stand Appendix B Wiringdiagram For Sweeping Pitot Probe Appendix C Fuel Wiring Diagram For Jf-170 Rhino Small Jet Engine Appendix D Position Controller Specifications And Troubleshooting Appendix E Example Testing Checklist For Jf-170 Small Jet Engine... 34
8 7 I. INTRODUCTION The test stand to be described in this paper was specially fabricated to support a student-lead design effort to build and fly a small scale (~1/10 scale) research vehicle that reproduces many of the capabilities demonstrated by the 1960s-era Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) and Lunar Landing Training Vehicles (LLTV). 1 The Utah State University student design team named the free flying vehicle the Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSLRV). The approach for this project, whenever possible, was to replace 1960s-era analog designs with proven and reliable modern digital computer-aided technologies. This sub-scale (~1/10 th scale) vehicle produced by this work simulates the reduced-gravity (i.e., lunar or planetary surface environment) using a verticallythrusting jet engine to partially offset the vehicle weight. The function of the gravity-offset system is to lift 5/6 th of the vehicle weight without contributing to horizontal linear acceleration. For this project a small RC-scale jet engine was used to provide the gravity offset features of this vehicle. The engine selected for the gravity offset system was Jet-Central JF-170 Rhino centrifugal turbine engine. 2 The engine features a single shaft turbojet with an annular combustor. A single stage axial flow turbine drives a single stage centrifugal compressor. The shaft is supported by 2 fuel/oil lubricated, annular contact bearings. The turbine speed is controlled by the amount of fuel received from the fuel pump, which is controlled by a fullauthority digital engine control system (FADEC). The turbine runs on both jet-a fuel and K-1 grade kerosene. The engine was maintained in a vertical state using turning vanes inserted in the exhaust plume, the turning vanes are seen in Figure 1. The actual thrust vectoring prototype mounted to the JF-170 jet engine in the 6-degree of freedom load balance is seen in the Testing Results section of this report in Figure 13. Figure 2 shows a solid model of the JF-170 jet engine installed in the load balance with the coordinate system defined. Such RC-engine designs, intended for the leisure and hobby markets, are not typically wellcharacterized by the manufacturer; and defining the engine system performances was essential to the success of this project. Six degree of freedom jet engine test stands in this engine scale are not commercially available; thus the project was required to develop a test stand to characterize the engine performance and allow development of the thrust vectoring system.
9 8 Figure 1. Solid model of thrust vectoring components. Figure 2. Solid model of jet engine installed in the load balance with the coordinate system defined. The purpose of this report is to give enough detail and the proper references to rebuild this engine test stand. The jet engine is mounted with exhaust gases exiting upward and axial thrust acting downward, avoiding ground effects. Six load cells provide six degrees of freedom when characterizing engine thrust. The stand also provides data for determining exhaust gas exit velocity and pressure profile using a
10 9 sweeping pitot probe. The fuel consumption is determined using a digital scale. All instrumentation interfaced with a laptop computer running National Instruments LabView This report will start by explaining the subsystems of the engine test stand including: structure, instrumentation, and software. Next the facility in which the testing stand was operated will be presented. This report will finish by giving some testing results with JF-170 RC-scale jet engine. This report does not intend to give detailed descriptions for developing the Labview 9.0 Virtual Instruments (VI) used to record and sort data on the laptop computer but will give brief descriptions and reference where they may be downloaded. The testing data reported on gives results for the JF-170 jet engine but this does not limit the variations in which the test stand may be used. The testing procedures used to obtain the provided test results are found in the Appendix E. Wiring diagrams, software files, a Solid model, and testing data may all be downloaded from References 5-8.
11 10 II. SUBSYSTEMS Figure 3 shows a functional block diagram giving the relationship between input variables and output variables for the static thrust stand. The directionality of the connecting lines in Figure 3 shows the flow of information. Figure 3. Functional diagram of test stand. A. Structure The files for the solid model parts and assembly are given in Reference Cart The cart used to mount the engine hardware and instrumentation had and area of 10 (.929 ). A 0.5 (12.7 ) thick particle board was fitted to the top of the cart providing a working surface that can be drilled and used to attach hardware. The cart was required to hold a 100 (445 ) load. The cart used for the stand is shown in Figure 4 and is rated for a load much greater than 100 (445 ). The mass of the cart shown in Figure 4 is approximately 200 (90.7 ). The stand includes wheels that are heavy duty and lock, preventing movement during testing but allow the stand to be portable.
12 11 Figure 4. Front view engine test stand. 2. Triangle A steel equilateral triangle composed of 4 (102 ) square tubing welded together is used as the base for mounting the jet/rocket engine. Each side of the triangle measures 29 ( ). The actual triangle used can be seen in Figure 5. Figure 6 shows the drawings used to construct the triangle.
13 12 Dynamic Pitot Probe Jet Engine Mount Brackets Load Cell Figure 5. Triangle mounted cart used for mounting jet/rocket engine. Figure 6. Triangle specification in mm.
14 13 3. Brackets Three brackets are needed to mount the jet engine and the load cells to the triangle. The bracket dimensions are given in Figure 7. The assembly of the bracket, load cells and triangle are seen in Figure 5. The bolts used for bracket attachment measured 0.5 (12.7 ). The slotted design seen in Figure 7 allows for adjustment in engine height based on load cell length. Figure 7. Steel bracket with 0.5 (12.7 ) slots used for mounting jet/rocket engine hardware. 4. Engine Mount The fabricated hardware used to attach the jet/rocket engine to the load cells which are attached to the triangle is shown in Figure 8. There are six 0.25 (6.35 ) holes used for attaching six load cells; three lateral and three axial. The engine mount shown in Figures 5 and 8 was constructed from a 0.25 (6.35 ) thick steel plate.
15 14 Figure 8. Engine mount used for the JF-170 Rhino small jet engine. 5. Mounting The triangle is mounted to the cart by bolting it at its three corners with 5 (127 ) by 0.75 (19 ) bolts with washers. The engine and load cell brackets are mounted with 2 (50.8 ) by 0.5 (12.7 ) bolts in two places along the slots as seen in Figure 5. The dynamic pitot probe is mounted to the triangle with two 0.25 (6.35 ) bolts. B. Instrumentation 1. Load Cells Thrust data during engine testing is measured using six Omega LCCA-25 load cells, locations are seen in Figure 5. Axial load cells A, B, and C measure vertical thrust force, and Lateral load cells A, B, and C measure axial thrust. The load cells are interfaced with a computer using National Instruments USB bit data acquisition device and LabView software. The wiring diagram for interfacing the loads cells is
16 15 given in Appendix A. Table 1 in contains manufacturer specifications for the load cells. For testing of thrust vectoring systems the axial load cells A, B, and C used Omega LCCA-100 load cells. A calibration procedure and uncertainty analysis for the JF-170 Rhino may be found in Reference 10 pp Pitot Probe Pressure measurements during engine testing are taken using two pitot probes one static and one dynamic. The static probe is open to the inside of the engine nozzle, normal to the exhaust flow and near the outlet. The dynamic pressure sensor is on a track that enables position control during testing. While the engine is running, the dynamic probe is swept across the midline of the engine nozzle perpendicular to the exhaust flow. The dynamic pitot probe required a sufficiently rigid pitot tube to avoid the extreme velocities and temperatures it encountered during testing. Each probe was originally connected to a Micro Switch USA pressure transducer but later changed to Omegadyne pressure transducers. The stagnation pressure is sensed with a 0-30 Omegadyne PX-142 pressure transducer. The static pressure at the nozzle exit plane is sensed with an identical transducer ranged from Appendix A gives wiring diagrams for the instrumentation and the model numbers for the Micro Switch USA pressure transducers. Mount and Shaft Figure 9 shows track and shaft used to sweep a pitot probe across the engine nozzle centerline. The position controller uses a rack and pinion with a 5 motor to drive the pitot probe along a single axis. The shaft used was a solid steel rod 12 (305 ) in length and 1 (25 ) in diameter with and adjustable stop. The length of the shaft may be customized according the type and length of engine being tested. A 5 motor is placed on top of the mount as seen in Figures 9 and 10. It is recommended not to exceed 12 volts to run this motor. The gears used in the rack and pinion track are seen in Figure 10. The large gear is 45 in diameter and the smaller gear is 30 in diameter.
17 16 Position Sensor The position sensor consists of a wiper and a ThinPot 3 linear potentiometer. The ThinPot is polyester substrate with pressure sensitive adhesive. A wiper applies pressure as it moves with the mount, the ThinPot changes resistance allowing the position to be sensed. Adjustable stop Power Source from Control Box ThinPot connections Figure 9. Mount and shaft. Figure 10. Motor and gears.
18 17 Controller Box The controller box is seen in Figure 11 and contains an H-bridge circuit. The H-bridge circuit assembly diagram is shown in Appendix D. The wiring diagram for the controller box is found in Appendix B. Output Signal Motor Connections Input Signals Ground Figure 11. Controller box. Power On/Off Switch 3. Fuel System An example schematic of the fuel delivery system is shown in Appendix C, this schematic is was used in testing the JF-170 Rhino small jet engine. The fuel system remotely switches between a propane startup fuel and the kerosene used for steady running. The fuel tank is placed on a scale and its mass is recorded at regular intervals while the engine is running; this gives fuel consumption. The scale used is a Weighmax W-C Instrumentation accuracy and specifications Table 1 gives the accuracy and specifications of the instrumentation used on the engine test stand. Table 1 Manufacturer specifications for static thrust stand instruments. Instrument Model Operating Range Accuracy LCCA-25 ±25lbf (_111:2N) ±0.037% of Full Scale (Lateral Loads) LCCD-100 (Axial Loads) ±100lbf (_444:8N) ±0.25% of Full Scale USB-6009 (Data Acquisition) ±1.0V ±0.5mV RMS, 14-bit resolution
19 18 W-C03 0 (Fuel Mass) PX A5V (Nozzle Exit Static Pressure) 0-3kgf (0-6:6lbf) 0-15 psi absolute (103.5 kpa) ± kgf ( lbf) ±0.15% of Full Scale PX A5V (Nozzle Exit Stagnation Pressure) 0-30 psi absolute (207.0 kpa) ±0.15% of Full Scale C. Software The software needed to record and take measurements was created in National Instruments LabView. The data acquisition was created using a Virtual Instrument (VI). An image of the front panel of the VI for connecting with the scale, pressure transducers, and load cells is seen below in Figure 12. A pitot probe cycles across the nozzle to determine stagnation pressure; its position is recorded in the probe position window seen in Figure 12. The probe can cycle by dragging the position command control back and forth. The fuel consumption, pressures, and loads windows, as seen in Figure 12, output results on a graph and also to a file. The LabView files used in the testing of the JF-170 Rhino small jet engine can be found in Reference 5. Figure 12. Front panel for LabView virtual instrument.
20 19 III. FACILITY A. Location All jet engine testing is performed in the jet engine test cell located in the northeast corner of the Technology building on USU campus. To schedule a test contact Randy Chesley from the ETE department. Phone: Office: T 103 B. Operating Environment The jet engine test cell is open to the outside to allow for proper ventilation. The test stand should be oriented so that exhaust from the engine is pointed upward toward a vent. All personnel should remain in the controller room during engine operation. The built-in fire extinguisher is an asphyxiation hazard and should only be used in emergencies. Generally, a hand held carbon dioxide fire extinguisher is sufficient for fires from small engine testing. C. Winter Testing Prior to winter time testing, snow should be removed from overhead vents to avoid water damage to instrumentation on the test stand. A tarp is often necessary in addition to snow removal to prevent water dripping onto the stand. Snow accumulation around the door should be removed to allow access through the outside door. Ice inside of the cell can make the floors slippery. Caution should be exercised while working inside of the cell. D. Operational Procedure See Checklist in Appendix E at the end of this document to see the checklist used in testing the JF- 170 Rhino small jet engine.
21 20 IV. TESTING RESULTS The following test results give examples of testing experience. 8 1) First Start November 18, 2009 The goals of this test were to start the JF-170 Rhino, properly break it in according to the manual, and begin taking some basic measurements (RPM, Temperature, etc.). On the third attempt the engine started. Upon running the engine for a short time the Pitot tube, used to measure the pressure in the exhaust plume, began to vibrate. The engine was shut down and the Pitot probe removed. All goals were met on this test with one exception; no pressure measurements. Figure 13. Fuel flow rate vs throttle for rhino jet engine test. 1) ESPN November 19, 2009 A jet engine test was performed the day after the first test for an ESPN film crew. During this test 3 duty cycles (idle to full throttle and back in 25% increments stopping to make measurements) were
22 21 completed. Figure 13 was a result of the fuel consumption vs. throttle setting. Fuel consumption was derived by numerically differentiating the fuel mass time history profiles, plotting as a function of throttle, and curve-fitting the results. 2) Flame out December 8, 2009 The engine started twice during this test and flamed out both times. The cold conditions might have caused moisture to condense in the fuel lines. 3) Pressure measurements 12/23/2009 This test included the first Pitot tube measurements as well as measurements of axial thrust, engine RPM, exhaust temperature, and fuel consumption. Figure 14 shows the exit plane Mach number for various throttle settings. A hole can be seen in Mach number distribution profile, in Figure 14, near the axial centerline. The source of this momentum defect is unclear, but it is possible that the hole is a result of flow separation off of the turbine s conical exit fairing. Figure 14. JF-170 Rhino exit plane Mach-number distribution for various throttle settings. 4) Too cold January 29, 2010 This test was in below freezing temperatures and the engine could not start.
23 22 5) Electromagnetic Interference Test February 1, 2010 This test measured electromagnetic fields produced during operation because of concern of interference between the Wi-Fi link and on-board avionics. Information was successfully gathered about the strength of the electromagnetic fields and the potential for them to interfere with ground communications. 6) First Thrust Vectoring Test March 27, 2010 The thrust vectoring system was functionally tested with the jet engine. Two issues were discovered: the pitot probe was too short and a software update was required to include new instrumentation. Instrumentation added: lateral load cells. The updated software recorded the calibrated data instead of raw voltages. All problems were fixed and most data was recovered. Figure 15 shows a comparison of the manufacturer s thrust curve and the measured thrust curve with the thrust vectoring system installed. 10 The result is 17-18% less thrust with the thrust vectoring system installed. Figure 15. JF-170 Rhino thrust/rpm curve.
24 23 7) Wi-Fi Controller Test April 16, 2010 A Labview controller was created that uses Wi-Fi to communicate with the jet engine. Two successful test runs were made using the Wi-Fi controller. 8) April 24, 2010 Thrust Vectoring testing was performed. Figure 17gives the raw load cell data for varying throttle settings, also the vane deflection for the same settings. Figure 16 shows a photograph of the thrust vectoring prototype. Figure 16. Thrust vectoring actual prototype.
25 24 Figure 17. Load cell mvolt output for thrust vectoring test case. Figure 18 gives the calculated load and moment data from Figure 17a data using the calibration technique outlined in Reference 10 pp (this reference also includes the uncertainty analysis for the calibration procedure). The coordinate system for the results in Figure 18 is defined in Figure 2.
26 Figure 18. Calculated forces and moments using adjusted load cell data. 25
27 26 V. CONCLUSIONS The necessity to fully characterize small engines for space or atmospheric flight vehicles creates the need for thorough engine testing. Commercial grade testing stands are not available for small scale jet engines leading to the development of this test stand. This report gave the description of a test stand used at Utah State University to characterize a small jet engine. This stand gave accurate results and provided the characterization needed to build an atmospheric flight vehicle. 10 All hardware and instrumentation used in constructing this engine test stand can be changed according to project needs.
28 27 REFERENCES NOTE: access to the server for Refs. 5-9 may require login: chimaera and Password: rocket. If you are having trouble accessing the server contact: Stephen A. Whitmore, PhD Assistant Professor Utah State University Logan, UT Phone: (435) Office: ENGR 419F. Dr. Whitmore supervised the design of the jet/rocket engine test stand. 1 Matranga, G. J., Ottinger, C. W., Jarvis, C. R., and Gelzer, D. C., Unconventional, Contrary, and Ugly: The Lunar Landing Research Vehicle, NASA SP , Rhino Turbine, Jet Central Inc.,URL: [cited 10 April 2010]. 3 NI Labview, National Instruments, [cited 8 June 2010]. 4 ThinPot Linear Position Sensor, URL: [cited 18 June 2010]. 5 Instrumentation Labview Files, Utah State University, Logan, UT, URL: [cited 26 Jan 2011]. 6 Test Stand Solid Model Files, Utah State University, Logan UT, [cited 26 Jan 2011]. 7 Wiring Diagram Drawings, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, URL: [cited 27 Jan 2011]. 8 JF -170 Rhino Test Data, Utah State University, Logan, UT, URL: [cited 26 Jan 2011]. 9 Warr, Mark R, Single Axis Position Controller, Unpublished, Utah State University, Logan, UT, URL: [cited 26 Jan 2011]. 10 Schaefermeyer, M. Ryan, Whitmore, Stephen A., Wright, Cordell B., Maneuvering and Gravity Offset Flight Controls for an Extraterrestrial Surface Landing Research Vehicle, 46th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit July 2010, Nashville, TN, AIAA
29 28 APPENDICES Appendix A - Wiring diagram for interfacing load cells and pressure sensors to the engine test stand Appendix B - Wiring diagram for sweeping pitot probe Appendix C - Fuel wiring diagram for JF-170 Rhino small jet engine Appendix D - Position controller specifications and troubleshooting Appendix E - Example testing checklist for JF-170 small jet engine Full drawings for wiring diagrams in Appendix A,B, and C can be downloaded from Ref. 5.
30 Appendix A Wiring Diagram For Interfacing Load Cells And Pressure Sensors To The Engine Test Stand 29 29
31 Appendix B Wiringdiagram For Sweeping Pitot Probe 30
32 Appendix C Fuel Wiring Diagram For Jf-170 Rhino Small Jet Engine 31
33 32 Appendix D Position Controller Specifications And Troubleshooting Figure 19. H-bridge circuit schematic Figure 20. Board layout
34 33 Operation Checklist Secure the motor on the mount and all screws are hand tighten. Connect the two signal wires and the ground from the computer to the Control Box Connect the two wires from the motor to the Control Box Plug the power source to the Control Box Turn on the Control Box the LED will light up to confirm the Control Box is on. Run the program that the user has developed. When finished or on standby turn off Control Box. Troubleshooting Sample Profile Problem The LED is not on when the Control Box Switch is turned on. Motor is not responding to commands. The motor is turning but the mount is not moving. Don t have a Coaxial male connector for the power. Solutions Check if the power source is on or reading any voltage. Open the Control Box and test the voltage across the switch. Follow the power source wire from the switch to the H-bridge and test the connections. There might be a cold joint within the H-Bridge. Confirm that appropriate signal comes from the computer and desired voltage reading out of the Control Box. Confirm that the motor is not turning. Sometimes the gears loosen up over time and need to be tightened again. See if there are any obstructions on the track and add lubricant to the gears and teeth on the track. If there is a large force pushing up against the shaft during the experiment this could be causing a moment arm and pinching the mount against the track, preventing the mount to move. Adjust the experiment to compensate. (Also trying to have the gears face away from the target that can help also.) The coaxial male connector is size N and can be bought at any electronics store. The outer shell is ground and the inner is the source. There is an however and extra connector taped inside the Control Box if it hasn t already been used.
35 34 Appendix E Example Testing Checklist For Jf-170 Small Jet Engine Checklist Operators: Date: Comments/Issues: Engine Run Time Equipment Checklist Power cable Checklists CO2 fire extinguisher Duct tape HDT/Connector Receiver battery Starter/fuel pump batter Receiver Transmitter Fuel Scale Walkie talkies Hearing protection for each member of team not in test control room Safety goggles for each member of team not in test control room Computers (3) Network cables Chocks Camera Tripod (for camera) Test data sheet Writing materials Before Test/Flight Night Before Charge Transmitter Battery o Make sure battery is plugged into wall. It should charge overnight (16 hours) Make sure there is charged receiver battery (6V) Charge ICS Battery o Make sure battery is plugged into wall Day Of Flight Prepare fire extinguisher o Make sure it is charged Look at fuel tank vent. Should be unobstructed by debris Mix fuel and oil (will be separate procedure)
36 Fuel Mixing Checklist Before mixing fuel put out all cigarettes and be away from anything that could create a spark Ensure proper ventilation in area where fuel mixing will occur Obtain a fuel container used only for the specific fuel type you are mixing; i.e. don t mix kerosene in a container that was previously used for diesel, gasoline, Jet, or any other type of fuel Ensure fuel container has a greater volume than is needed to prevent over filling Place approved fuel can upright on flat ground Release any pressure in fuel can Fill container with approved deodorized Kerosene-K, Kerosene, or Jet-A to the safe fill level and shake filler while still in fuel container to ensure no fuel drips on ground when removing filler from container Obtain approved oil measuring container, ensure it has a greater volume than is needed and has the proper units and divisions of measurements Measure needed synthetic turbine engine oil to get a 2.5% by volume mixture; approximately 3 and 1/5 US ounces per gallon of fuel or 16 US ounces per 5 gallons of fuel. Pour oil into container of fuel being careful not to drip Replace fuel mixture lid and mix fuel with oil by swirling container gently in a circular manner. Ensure the bottom of the container remains parallel to the ground when swirling. Store mixture and unmixed fuel in a well ventilated area Store unused Turbine oil Fill start gas tank In field Ensure test stand chocked Remove beanie from nozzle Hook up instrumentation to Toughbook computer Load Cells (Device 1) to Back Right USB port Pitot tube system (Device 2) to Back Left USB port Scale to Right Top USB port Pitot controller (NI USB-9162) to Right Bottom USB port Perform functional check Build Remote Network Change Toughbook s power settings for optimum performance, prevent standby, and do nothing when the lid is closed. Connect Network cable from Toughbook to Remote computer with cross over in between. Run Windows Remote Desktop (or TightVNC server) and connect to TOUGHBOOK as Administrator (in TightVNC connect by IP address). Perform functional Check. Close Toughbook to prevent network from being broken or precipitation from damaging the computer. 35
37 Engine Examination Take engine out of box. Examine for cleanliness and any obvious defects (dings, etc.) Check FOD screen to make sure it is attached and unbroken. Check thermocouple to make sure it is still attached and in position and only 1/16 is inserted in the nozzle Check fuel lines for any obvious defects Check starter wires to make sure they re attached, no obvious breaks Unscrew the glow plug Place the glow plug through the ground and replace it on the engine finger tight Place the positive connector on by pinching the back end of the socket cap, pull the wire coming out of the socket cap, placing socket cap on glow plug, and pushing down on the pink socket cap. Do not use the glow plug washer Check engine outgoing wires to make sure they re secure (thermocouple green, magnetic RPM sensor Orange/brown) Jet Engine Installation Note: For this stage, use 3 people As one person kneels with their hands underneath the jet in case it falls, have the second person lower the jet engine into the adaptor. The third person will tighten whatever we use to attach the engine to the adaptor while the other two people do their best to make sure the engine doesn t fall! MAKE ABSOLUTELY SURE THE JET ENGINE IS SECURELY FASTENED TO THE ADAPTOR BEFORE LETTING GO!! Breathe, if step 3 was successfully completed. Start running if it wasn t. ICS Hookup 1. Connect ICS: See Figure 1 Use the colored labels on the ICS to connect all the connectors in their place Battery and fuel pump: The battery and the fuel pump connect to the ICS through the same harness. The red/black battery cable connects to the red/black cable coming off the fuel pump. The red/green fuel pump connector then plugs into the ICS. Glow plug: Red/Black Starter: Red/Blue cable plugs into the glow plug leads coming off the ICS Thermocouple green. Make sure the thermocouple is not inverted solid black part of the thermocouple connection should be facing up. RPM sensor orange/red/brown Make sure the RPM sensor is not inverted - solid black part of the RPM sensor connection should be facing up. WARNING: On the ICS, the pitot tube colors are the same as RPM sensor. RPM sensor should connect below the thermocouple Make sure starter motor battery is within the voltage range ( V) Make sure pump/starter battery s polarity has not been reversed Plug the throttle cable into the throttle pins on the receiver (grey: negative; red: positive; orange: pulse width signal) 36
38 Connect the radio receiver throttle pins to the throttle channel of the ICS using the red wire Final Hookup Connect starting fuel solenoid valve to ICS The central cable is positive and the two sides negative. Plug it in facing down (into the left negative terminal) Connect fuel solenoid valve to ICS facing down, left 2 terminals of connection slot Ensure a CO2 fire extinguisher is on hand Extinguish all smoking materials 1. Fuel system hookup: See Figure 2 From the turbine fuel line (CLEAR line) connect the fuel filter (gold) with a short length of CLEAR tubing. The arrow on the pump should be pointing towards the turbine Connect the other end of the fuel filter to the top connector of the solenoid fuel valve with a length of CLEAR tubing Connect the other connector of the solenoid fuel valve to the manual shutoff valve with a length of CLEAR tubing Connect the other end of the manual shutoff valve to the fuel pump. Plug it into the connector the arrow is pointing toward Connect the other connector on the fuel pump to the air trap and fuel tank From the fuel tank, run CLEAR tubing from the air vent to a fuel container for venting Double check all connections with the installation diagram 2. Gas system hookup: See Figure 3 Connect the yellow line running from the turbine to the restrictor valve Connect the other end of the restrictor valve to the gas valve with YELLOW tubing. Plug it into the hole the arrow points to Connect the other side of the gas valve to the T on the starting fuel tank Connect the other side of the T to the one-way valve Connect the other side of the one-way valve to the filler valve Attach start gas tank to structure Attach start gas valve to start gas tank system Connect start gas valve to start gas tank Double check all connections with the installation diagram WARNING: Don t disconnect the filter from the CLEAR tubing unless absolutely necessary! Open manual shutoff valve Connect 6V receiver battery to receiver Prime fuel system WARNING: Take caution not to flood the engine. Wet starts will destroy the engine! If the engine becomes flooded during this step, force air through the engine until all the fuel in the engine evaporates out. Disconnect the fuel system where the CLEAR fuel line connects to the turbine Attach a short piece of CLEAR tubing to the fuel system side of the fuel line (i.e. NOT the line to the turbine) 37
39 Put the other end of the CLEAR tubing into a receptacle to capture any fuel that may be pumped out of the system Press the Menu Up arrow twice on the HDT Press the Menu Up arrow again for the Info menu Press the Menu Up arrow six more times until the screen reads Test/Prime Pump Press the Data Down key to turn the pump on When the fuel reaches the end of the fuel line, turn off the pump by pressing the Data Up key. Holding the end of the fuel line up, disconnect the short piece of tubing from the fuel line Reattach the turbine fuel line to the fuel system Hook up HDT connection to ICS (or connect ICS to 2 nd remote computer and skip next step) Hook up HDT to HDT connector box Check radio communications Clear area of anyone but test personnel 38 Engine Start WARNING: Keep the magnetic RPM pickup clear of any stray magnetic sources such as fuel pump, solenoid valves, glow plug wires, or servos, as the magnetic field generated can upset the RPM reading Check engine temperature should be below 100 C WARNING HOT STARTS WILL RUIN THE ENGINE Record zeros to file. Make sure proper output files are configured and scale is turned on. Start data collection system (if applicable) Start monitoring FADEC on computer (if applicable) Confirm DAQ system on Confirm test area clear Call for silence in the control room Ensure the throttle stick is down Turn on transmitter Ensure rhino is selected for transmitter model Begin 5 second countdown for engine start Turn trim up Check to see if Ready appears on the HDT If the HDT reads Trim Low the trim is on Stop If the HDT reads Stick Low the throttle is higher than idle If READY appears on the HDT, cycle the throttle stick to max and back down to min levels engine should start Confirm the operation of the auto-start installation. To abort engine start, lower trim then throttle. Cycle slowly to full power then back to idle Test WARNING: If at any time the fuel mass goes below 0.5 kg, abort test and proceed to Engine Shutdown part of checklist With engine at idle, check time, RPM, and EGT
40 39 Record on data sheet Take engine up to 50% throttle Record time, RPM, and EGT on data sheet Sweep probe Take engine up to 75% throttle Record time, RPM, and EGT on data sheet Sweep probe Take engine to 80% throttle Record time, RPM, and EGT on data sheet Sweep probe Take engine up to 100% throttle Record time, RPM, and EGT on data sheet Sweep probe Take engine to 80% throttle Record time, RPM, and EGT on data sheet Sweep probe Take engine to 75% throttle Record time, RPM, and EGT on data sheet Sweep probe Take engine up to 50% throttle Record time, RPM, and EGT on data sheet Sweep probe Take engine to idle Record time RPM, and EGT on data sheet Sweep probe Engine Shutdown Lower the throttle trim STOP should appear on engine monitoring system Let engine cool for 2 minutes or until HDT confirms engine RPM is at 0. Turn off transmitter Safety officer declare safe to approach Close manual fuel shutoff valve Disconnect receiver battery Contact team outside of test room and inform them that engine is safe to approach Examine engine, test stand, and instruments for damage Record engine operating time in logbook Record any anomalies in logbook Fill out test data sheet, commit test data to subversion and send Whitmore a copy. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES A. FLOODED ENGINE 1. Turn the engine upside-down B. BAD GLOW PLUG C. WEAK GAS MESSAGE a. Kill engine
41 40 b. Check fuel line for air bubbles D. NO ENGINE START E. HOT START OR ENGINE FIRE 1. Close the throttle 2. Move the trim lever to the fully back position 3. Turn off the fuel isolation valve 4. Be ready to use the CO2 fire extinguisher Adjusting throttle parameters: Turn transmitter on Hold SELECT and DOWN to enter the settings menu Scroll until you reach the SUB TRIM menu Ensure throttle is set at H 50 adjust by pressing the select button and then using the increase or decrease button to change it.
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL INTRODUCTION JET CENTRAL produces the most advanced micro turbines available today: smaller, more powerful, faster acceleration, less fuel burn, lower temperatures, higher
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL INTRODUCTION JET CENTRAL produces the most advanced micro turbines available today: smaller, more powerful, faster acceleration, less fuel burn, lower temperatures, higher
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