# Resistance. Resistance is a property of matter that slows movement.

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1 Resistance

2 Resistance Resistance is a property of matter that slows movement. The friction of a car s tires against the road is an example of resistance. The flow of water through a pipe is also an example of resistance. The water is slowed down by the sides of the pipe, causing it to move more slowly through the pipe Resistance between the tire and the road gives grip. What happens when there is no resistance?

3 Resistance Resistance is a property of matter that slows movement. The friction of a car s tires against the road is an example of resistance. The flow of water through a pipe is also an example of resistance. The water is slowed down by the sides of the pipe, causing it to move more slowly through the pipe Resistance between the tire and the road gives grip. Resistance can be very important! What happens when there is no resistance?

4 Resistance Resistance is a property of matter that slows movement. The friction of a car s tires against the road is an example of resistance. The flow of water through a hose pipe is also an example of resistance. The water is slowed down by the sides of the hose, pipe, causing it to move more slowly through the pipe hose.

5 Resistance Resistance is a property of matter that slows movement. The friction of a car s tires against the road is an example of resistance. The flow of water through a hose is also an example of resistance. The water is slowed down by the sides of the hose, causing it to move more slowly through the hose. Electrons flowing through a wire or a load (like a light bulb) also experience resistance. This resistance reduces the electrical energy of the circuit, converting some of the energy into some other form. The wire and lamp resist the movement of electrons.

6 Resistance Resistance is a property of matter that slows movement. The friction of a car s tires against the road is an example of resistance. The flow of water through a hose is also an example of resistance. The water is slowed down by the sides of the hose, causing it to move more slowly through the hose. Electrons flowing through a wire or a load (like a light bulb) also experience resistance. This resistance reduces the electrical energy of the circuit, converting some of the energy into some other form. Electron movement Resistance

7 Resistance Resistance is a property of matter that slows movement. The friction of a car s tires against the road is an example of resistance. The flow of water through a hose is also an example of resistance. The water is slowed down by the sides of the hose, causing it to move more slowly through the hose. Electrons flowing through a wire or a load (like a light bulb) also experience resistance. This resistance reduces the electrical energy of the circuit, converting some of the energy into another form. Light Heat Sound

8 Resistance The unit used to measure resistance is the ohm (!). The mathematical relationship between voltage, current and resistance is called Ohm s Law. Named in honor of Georg Simon Ohm ( )

9 Electrical Resistance Electrical resistance is the ability of a material to oppose the flow of electric current. Symbol is R The greater the resistance the lower the current, and the warmer the material comes when current flow through it. Internal resistance depends on many factors. (we will look at 4)

10 1. Type of Material Some materials conduct electricity well and electrons can move within the material freely. For example copper is an excellent conductor and has low electrical resistance.

11 2. Cross-Sectional Area the diameter of the cross section gives you a sense of how thick the wire is. Thicker wires have less internal resistance than thinner ones. Electrons flowing through thicker wire have more room to move freely.

12 3. Length As you increase the length of the wire, its internal resistance increases. This happens because electrons have to travel through more material.

13 4. Temperature When a wire gets warmer, the atoms that make up the wire gain energy and vibrate faster. Increased vibrations cause more collisions, so resistance increases with temperature.

14 Resistors in Circuits A resistor ~ is a device in an electrical circuit that reduces the flow of electric current. Examples: a lamp that has multiple brightness settings or a dimmer switch

15 Homework Page 566 #3, 5-7

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