# 2. Motion relationships and torques

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1 2. Motion relationships and torques 2.1 Rotation angle of a single joint as a function of defl ection angle ß 1 Input rotation angle 2 Output rotation angle If a single joint is deflected by angle ß and rotated in this condition, rotation angle 2 of the output shaft differs from rotation angle 1 of the input shaft. The relationship between the two rotation angles is as follows: tan 2 tan 1 cos ß As can be seen from the adjacent diagram, maximum lead occurs at about 45, maximum lag at about 135. Fork position 1 0 is then obtained, when the input fork is located in the deflection plane of the joint. Input fork position Output 2.2 Motion and torque characteristics of a sigle joint as a function of defl ection angle ß M di Input torque M dii Output torque I Input angular velocity Output angular velocity Il fork position When analyzing the motion and torque characteristics of a singular joint, it is found that with a constant angular velocity- and torque input, a fluctuating motion and torque curve is obtained at the output. The reason for this fluctuation can easily be illustrated by following the torque characteristics at the fork position 1 0 and 1 90 as shown at left. Since the torque can only be transmitted in the spider plane, the spider however, depending on the fork position, is always at a right angle to the input or output axis, output torque fluctuates twice per revolution between M di cos ß and M di /cos ß. uniform fork position uniform non-uniform 167

2 The transmitted power, however, is constant, if you disregard friction losses in the bearings. M di II I M dii M dii I II M di Therefore, the following applies: N I N II Constant M di I M dii II Constant M di II cos ß M dii I 1 cos 2 1 sin 2 ß For fork position 1 0 we obtain: M di 1 M dii min cos ß I II max Antrieb Input and for fork position 1 90 : M di M dii max cos ß II min I Gabelstellung fork position Output Antrieb 2.3 Motion and torque characteristic of a universal driveline as a function of deflection angles ß 1 and ß 2 Section 2.2 illustrates that angular velocity and torque at the output of a single joint follow a sinusoidal pattern with a 180 cycle. Maximum angular velocity II max max coincides with minimum torque M d II min and vice versa. From this it can be deduced that a uniform output is possible, when a second joint, with a 90 phase shift is connected to the first joint by means of a shaft. Then, the non-uniform motion of the first joint can be balanced by the non-uniform motion of the second joint. The required 90 phase shift is always met, when the two inner forks happen to be in the deflection plane of their respective joints. Moreover, the two deflection angles ß 1 und ß 2 of both joints must be the same. (See also Section 1.1 and 1.4). With unequal deflection angles, complete compensation is not possible. For ß 2 ß 1 the following applies: ( II min ) ( II min ) ( ) ( ) cos ß 1 I max cos ß 2 cos ß 2 I min cos ß 1 M dii cos ß 1 M di max cos ß 2 M dii cos ß 2 M di min cos ß Catalog Spare parts Drive-Shaft Calculation Installation and Maintenance

3 3. Fluctuation rate 3.1 Single joint As explained under 2.1, on a single joint the output velocity deviates from the input velocity. This means, the speed ratio is not uniform. This non-uniformity (fluctuation) can be calculated as a dimensionless value: Fluctation rate U 2 max 2 min 1 1 cos ß cos ß 3.2 Universal driveline (2 joints connected in series) If the preconditions listed in Chapter 1 for obtaining a complete motion compensation cannot be met, it must be aimed for that: U 0, Universal driveline with more than two joints Design requirements might dictate the use of a universal driveline that employs more than 2 joints. This universal driveline, however, must then incorporate an intermediate bearing. Here, also, the condition applies: U Res 0,0027. Here, U Res expresses the total fluctuation of the driveline. Observe, when determining U Res : a) Joints with the same fork position get the same sign. b) The fluctuation rate of each joint must be calculated individually U 1, U 2, U 3. c) The signs must be observed when adding: U Res U 1 U 2 U 3 Since the rate of fluctuation is a function of deflection angle ß, a limiting condition can be set in regard to the resulting deflection angle ß res ß res ß 2 1 ß 2 2 ß ß res corresponds to the deflection angle of a single joint if it were to replace the entire driveline. Joint 1 + Joint 2 + Length extension Joint 3 169

4 4. Offset angle On drivelines with three-dimensional deflection angles, input and output shaft are not located in one plane. This results, if no special measures are taken, in a non-uniform output motion. The constantly repeating acceleration and deceleration unleashes inertia forces which can greatly reduce the life of the joints. However, not only the driveline, the driven equipment also is subjected to these forces and vibration caused by them. To avoid this, the inner forks must be offset relative to each other such that each fork ends up in the plane of deflection of its joint. The angle between both deflection planes is called offset angle and it can be obtained as follows. Example 1 tan 1 tan ß h1 tan ß v1 ; tan 2 tan ß h2 tan ß v2 Vertical plane Offset angle 1 2 Horizontal plane Example 2 tan 1 tan ß h1 tan ß v1 ; tan 2 tan ß h2 tan ß v2 Vertical plane Offset angle starting position Horizontal plane As shown by the graphic illustrations, in both examples two directions of rotation are possible: Example 1: a) Rotate joint 1 counter clockwise by the offset angle b) Rotate joint 2 clockwise by the offset angle. The direction for viewing is, in both cases, from joint 1 to joint 2. Example 2: a) Rotate joint 1 counter clockwise by the offset angle b) Rotate joint 2 clockwise by the offset angle. The direction for viewing is, in both case, from joint 1 to joint 2. To determine the turning direction of the offset angle, you always have to take the graphic illustration. Only in this way is it possible to find the right direction of rotation and to determine whether the offset angle 1 and 2 have to be summed or have to be subtracted 170 Catalog Spare parts Drive-Shaft Calculation Installation and Maintenance

6 6. Fundamental data for sizing of universal drivelines To size universal drivelines properly, various conditions and factors must be considered. In view of the multitude of possible applications, exact, generally valid rules cannot be provided. The following information is therefore used for the first rough determination of size. In case of doubt, we will gladly compute the required joint sizes for you and, in this context, we like to refer to the technical questionnaires starting on page Torques The max. permitted torques Md max stated for the individual drive-shaft sizes apply normally only for short-term peak loads. Md nom : Nominal torque for pre-selection on the basis of the operating moment. Md lim : Limit torque that may be transmitted temporarily from the universal-drive-joint at limited frequency without functional damage. The respective permissible torque has to be calculated individually depending on the remaining operating data, such as shock loads, angle of deflection, rotation,etc. (See item 6.2 and 6.3) 6.2 Shock loads Depending on the type of power input or installation, a driveline can be subjected to shock loads considerably above the rated torque. To take those into account, shock service factors must be implemented. Following are some shock-service factors for the most common drives Prime mover with flexible coupling without flexible coupling Turbine or electric motor 1 1 to 1,5 Gasoline engine, 4 and more cylinders 1,25 1,75 Gasoline engine, 1 to 3 cylinders 1,5 2 Diesel engine, 4 and more cylinders 1,5 2 Diesel engine, 1 to 3 cylinders 2 2,5 Of course, not only the drives, but, in many instances, also the driven equipment is responsible for shock loads. Because of the magnitude of different possibilities, general data valid for every use cannot be supplied. 6.3 Life expectancy calculation The decisive factor with regard to life expectancy of universal drivelines is usually the joint bearing. Therefore, in order to determine the individually required joint size, the life expectancy diagram shown later on should be used. This diagram allows to: a) determine the theoretical life expectancy of a selected driveline as a function of prevailing operating conditions, or b) to determine the required joint size for a given life expectancy. In this case, the rated input torque is multiplied by the appropriate service (shock) factor and the M d such obtained entered in the following diagram. Other factors, such as correction - or deflection angle factor do not have to be considered since they are already incorporated in the diagram. On machines or vehicles with changing operating conditions, at first, the individual life expectancy values (for each condition) must be determined from the diagram. Then the overall life expectancy L hr can be calculated as follows: q 1, q 2 time share in [%] L h1, L h2 expressed in 10 3 [Hours] L hr q 1 + q [Hours] 3 qn L h1 L h2 L hn 172 Catalog Spare parts Drive-Shaft Calculation Installation and Maintenance

7 6.4 Life expectancy-diagram In view of the multitude of applications, it is not possible to determine the suitability of a driveline by tests. Therefore, the selection and analysis of the required joint size is done by calculations. These are based on the computation of the dynamic load carrying capacity of full rotation needle - and roller bearings according to ISO recommendation R 281. The life expectancy diagrams shown in the catalogue are based on this recommendation and also on an equation formula especially suited for obtaining nominal life expectancy on universal joints. The thus obtained life expectancy lists the hours of operation that will be reached or exceeded by 90% of a larger number of equivalent universal joint bearings. There are also methods of obtaining the modified life expectancy. In this case varying survival probabilities, material quality and operating conditions are taken into account. The present technical know how does not allow statements to be made about variations in life expectancy performance resulting from differences in steel quality (grain, hardness, impurities). For this reason, no guidelines have been set in the International Standards. All pertinent operating conditions, such as operating temperature, lubrication intervals, the type of grease used and its viscosity in operation, must also be considered. Since these factors vary from case to case, it is not possible to determine the modified life expectancy and accordingly, a life expectancy diagram valid for universal use. The two following life expectancy diagrams will allow you to roughly determine the nominal life expectancy. If the deflection angle is smaller than ß 3, ß 3 should be used. Otherwise, the obtained result will be less accurate. If it is necessary to determine the life expectancy accurately, kindly consult the ELBE Engineering Department. 173

8 6.5 Life expectancy diagram, Needle bearing Speed, RPM n (in min -1 ) Torque M d (Nm) Life expectancy L n (in hrs.) 174 Example Universal driveline Torque M d } 800 Nm Deflection angle ß 5 Life RPM n 1000 min -1 Procedure: Torque Joint size Defelction angle RPM Life expectancy expectancy 6900 hrs. Catalog Spare parts Drive-Shaft Calculation Installation and Maintenance

9 6.6 Life expectancy diagram, Roller bearing Speed, RPM n (in min -1 ) Torque M d (Nm) Life expectancy L n (in hrs.) Example Universal driveline Torque M d } 2000 Nm Deflection angle ß 5 Life expectancy 7000 hrs. RPM n 1000 min - Procedure: Torque Joint size Defelction angle RPM Life expectancy 175

10 6.7 RPM and deflection angle As shown in 2.3 by taking certain precautions, a constant output can be obtained on a universal driveline. The center part, however, still retains a non-uniform motion; it is subjected twice per revolution to an acceleration and deceleration. The resulting acceleration torque caused this way is a function of the mass moment of inertia of the driveline s center part as well as of rpm and deflection angle. When regarding smoothness of operation and wear, the product of rpm and deflection angle should not be too high. For use in general mechanical engineering, appropriate guide values can be taken from the diagram below, which is designed for universal drivelines having a standard tubing of up to 1500 mm length. For vehicle drive trains, these guide values must often be exceeded. Here, at most, up to 1.5 times the diagram value can be permitted. Joint size Speed, RPM n (min -1 ) Max. deflection angle ß ( ) 6.8 Critical speeds As shown in 5.1, the center part of the angled driveline, when transmitting torque, is stressed periodically in bending by additional moment M ZII. This incites the center part to vibrate. If the frequency of this bending vibration approaches the natural frequency of the driveline, maximum stress in all components, buckling of the shaft and development of noise will result. To avoid this, long and fast running drivelines must be checked for critical bending vibration speeds. The critical, first order bending vibration speed of a driveline employing tubing can be roughly calculated as follows: n kr 1, D Tubing-outside diameter [mm] d Tubing-inside diameter [mm] L Center part length in [mm] D 2 + d 2 [min -1 ] L 2 Drivelines are used in the subcritical zone only. For reasons of safety, it must be ensured that the maximum operating speed is far enough away from its system s resonance (critical) speed. Therefore, the following applies: Max. Operating Speed n max 0,65. n cr [RPM] 176 Catalog Spare parts Drive-Shaft Calculation Installation and Maintenance

11 6.9 Larger tubing diameters The critical bending vibration speed of a driveline is, as can be seen from the critical rpm formula, a function of tubing diameters and length of center part. By going to larger tubing diameters, the critical speed of a driveline can be increased. However, the diameter increase must remain within defined limits since a certain relationship between tubing dimensions and joint size must be adhered to. The dimension sheets of the different driveline models list the possible tubing dimensions for each size. In all the cases where a single driveline is insufficient, multiple arrangements with intermediate bearings must be used. It must be noted that larger tubing diameters are feasible only above a certain shaft length. The following minimum lengths can be used as an angle line. Flange diameter [mm] Up to to to 180 Min. length S [mm] Tubing diagram For determining the required tubing diameter when maximum operating speed n max and center part length L are given. Tubing diameter D (mm) Max. operating speed n max (rpm) Center shaft length L (mm) Example: Center shaft length L 1600 mm Obtained: Tubing diameter 70 mm Max. operating speed n max 3000 RPM } 177

12 7. Application principles for double joint shafts in steering axles The double joint shafts of series and are intended for use in powered steering axles only. 7.1 Kinematic conditions As shown in the sketch below, when steering is activated, the axle system is rotated around pin center D. The double joint deflects at its two joint pivot points A and B. Since shaft II is fixed axially, shaft I must move in the direction S. This causes unequal joint deflection angles ß 1 and ß 2, and therefore, also a nonuniform (fluctuating) output motion. The fluctuation can be kept very small provided joint center C is offset toward the fixed side by the compensation value X. This way, at a certain deflection angle ( synchronous motion angle ß x ) completely uniform motion is obtained, i.e., the two joint deflection angles ß 1 and ß 2 are equal. ßx 30 bis 35 would be an appropriate synchronous motion angle to select 178 A B C D a e X ß x ß ß 1 ß 2 } } Joint pivot point center of the double joint rotation pin center distance of a joint point from the center ot the double joint axial movement of floating shaft center offset on installation uniform motion angle (synchronous) total deflection angle deflection angle of each individual joint Catalog Spare parts Drive-Shaft Calculation Installation and Maintenance

13 7.2 Center offset value x and max. slide movement e The center offset X required for smooth output can be derived from distance a and synchronous motion angle ß: X cos a ß x 2 a Calculated center offset value X for individual joint sizes: Series 0.400, synchronous motion angle ß x 35 Joint size Deflection angle ß x [mm] 1,5 1,7 2,0 2,2 Series 0.500, synchronous motion angle ß x 32 Joint size Deflection angle ß x [mm] 1,3 1,3 1,6 1,5 1,6 1,6 1,7 1,7 1,8 1,9 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,2 2,3 Sliding motion e at deflection angle ß, and also as a function of distance a and uniform motion angle ß x, can be calculated as follows: e 2 a ( ) ßx sin 2 + ß cos 2 sin 2 ß cos 2 ß cos ßx 2 1 Max. slide motion e for the individual joint sizes: Series 0.400, synchronous motion angle ß x 35 Joint size Deflection angle ß e [mm] 6,5 7,2 8,3 9,2 Series 0.500, uniform synchronous motion angle ß x 32 Joint size Deflection angle ß e [mm] 4,5 6,0 7,9 5,2 6,9 5,8 7,8 6,1 8,1 6,7 9,0 7,3 9,7 7,8 10,5 7.3 Sizing of double joint shafts Max. possible torque should be used for determining the required joint size. This could be the input torque, calculated from prime mover output, gear ratio and power distribution, or also the tire slippage torque, derived from allowable axle loading, static tire radius and coefficient of friction. The lower of the two values represents the maximum operating torque which should be used for determining the proper joint size. The double joint shaft selected this way will have adequate life expectancy, since the time percentage of maximum loading is usually low. 7.4 Loads on the shaft bearing Double joint shafts, when not centered, must have a bearing support at both shaft halves right next to the joint with one shaft half fixed axially and the other floating axially. When torque is being transmitted, additional forces occur which must be taken into account when sizing the bearings. 179

14 7.5 Torque capacity of double joints as a function of deflection angle Under torque, different force conditions exist at the joint spider pins and center piece with the double joint in an angled position than in a straight position. The reason for this is that the torque to be transmitted is not distributed evenly over the joint spider pins any longer. Also, as mentioned in Chapter 5, an additional moment occurs. This additional moment must be combined with the torque to be transmitted. This resulting moment leads to higher compression loads and to a larger bending stress within the joint spider pins. The diagram below allows to take these factors into account. It shows the percentage the maximum allowable torque must be reduced in relation to the deflection angle. Max. allowable torque [%] Deflection angle ß [ ] 180 Catalog Spare parts Drive-Shaft Calculation Installation and Maintenance

15 8. Hints for the application of pin and block cardan joints, ball and socket cardan joints Torque calculation for needle bearing equipped precision cardan shafts, pin and block cardan joints, ball and socket cardan joints, single The values Md max listed in the diagram represent limit values that may not be exceeded. They are admissible to the full extent only at small rotation speed and minor angle of defl ection respectively during intermittent operation. The transmissible torque varies depending on the size of the angle of deflection. Torque fac tor 1 0,75 0,5 0, Angle of deflection ß Needle bearing equipped precision cardan joints Permitted max. operation moments of the needle bearing equipped precision cardan joints (Torque in Nm).. Speed (r.p.m.) Joint type ,5 5,1 4, , , Pin and Block cardan joint, Ball and socket cardan joint, single At Md max Speed x bending angle 500 At 0,5 x Md max Speed x bending angle 5000 The empirical formula on the right can be used for the rolled calculation of the required joint size. Recommendations for maintenance Lubricating points An adequate lubrication shall be ensured for universal and ball-and-socket joints in permanent operation. Where drip oiling is not feasible, the joints have to be once daily lubricated (for lubricating points see arrow). Joints may also be enveloped in bellows; such bellows for these tow joint types may be ordered from us. Lubricating points For utilization of cardan shafts under extreme climatical conditions (high and low temperatures) consult us first. 181

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