# Lab 08: Circuits. This lab is due at the end of the laboratory period

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1 Name: Partner(s): 1114 section: Desk # Date: Purpose Lab 08: Circuits This lab is due at the end of the laboratory period The purpose of this lab is to gain experience with setting up electric circuits and using meters to measure voltages and currents. Introduction and Theory In this section, you will compare the brightness of light bulbs in various circuits. Because your batteries are not ideal voltage sources, you may see slight brightness changes where you would not, with an ideal voltage source. If you see only a slight change in brightness when changing the circuit, then you should conclude that the brightness is the same. Apparatus One ammeter, one voltmeter, two 1.5-V D-cell batteries with battery holder, two round bulbs, one long bulb, three bulb sockets, 8 alligator-to-alligator wires, two alligator-to-plug wires. Experiments E1 Light a round bulb using one battery and 2 connecting wires. Do not put the bulb in a socket yet! In the diagram below, draw lines to show where you connected the wires to make the bulb light up. Your lines should not cross each other, as this would indicate a short circuit! -- Now put the round bulb in a socket and set up the above circuit using two alligator-alligator wires. The bulb should light up Circuits - 1 Saved: 3/13/2019, printed: 3/13/2019

2 E2 In metals, such as the wires and light bulb filaments, the positive charges (protons) are bound in the atoms and unable to move. Some of the negative charges (electrons), however, move easily throughout the metal. Draw arrows on the lines in the left-hand diagram below to represent the direction electrons are moving in the circuit. By convention, however, conventional current (I) is defined as the motion of positive charges. Draw arrows on the right-hand diagram showing the conventional current. Indicate the direction of electron motion Indicate the direction of conventional current, I E3 Now add another battery parallel to the first one as shown below. Compare the brightness of the round bulb in this circuit to its brightness when connected to a single battery (remembering that small changes are due to imperfect batteries). Circle the word below that best describes your observations Circuits - 2 Saved: 3/13/2019, printed: 3/13/2019

3 E4 Now connect the 2 batteries in series so that the current going through them is the same. See the following diagram. Is the round bulb brighter, dimmer, or the same as in E3? Circle your answer below. [If the bulb appears to go out, you may have a dead battery. Ask for a new one. You may have to repeat the previous experiments with the new battery.] E5 The polarity of the batteries is given by the positive and negative terminal markings. What happens if the polarity of one of the batteries is reversed? Reconnect the circuit as shown below. How does the brightness of the round bulb in this circuit compare to its brightness in E4? Circle your answer. Why? 1114 Circuits - 3 Saved: 3/13/2019, printed: 3/13/2019

4 E6 Reconnect the batteries with the proper polarities, and make sure the round bulb is brightly lit. Add another round light bulb in series with the first round bulb. See the next diagram. Compare the brightness of the round bulbs in this circuit to the brightness of the single-round-bulb circuit, E5. Circle your answer below. E7 Replace one of the round bulbs with a long light bulb. See the next diagram. (a) What has happened? Describe the behaviour of both bulbs. You will explain the reasons for this behaviour later. Describe: (b) Unscrew the round bulb. Choose what happens to the long bulb and explain why. Explain: 1114 Circuits - 4 Saved: 3/13/2019, printed: 3/13/2019

5 E8 Now connect the two bulbs in parallel. See next diagram. Long bulb (a) Are both bulbs lit? Yes No (b) Unscrew the round bulb. What happens to the long bulb? (c) Screw the round bulb back. Unscrew the long bulb. What happens to the round bulb? Summary of E7 and E8 We just tried different ways to connect a round bulb and a long bulb. Answer the following questions: (a) When different light bulbs are connected together, does turning one on/off affect others when connected in series? Yes No connected in parallel? Yes No (b) How should you connect the appliances in your home? in series in parallel (c) Based on what you learned so far, draw a circuit below that would provide the maximum amount of light with 2 batteries and 3 light bulbs Circuits - 5 Saved: 3/13/2019, printed: 3/13/2019

6 We have been using the brightness of light bulbs as a qualitative measure of the number of electrons passing through the light bulb, i.e., the current. Next we learn to use an ammeter to measure the current precisely. The ammeter is connected in such a way that the current flowing through the ammeter is the current to be measured. To achieve this, you must break the circuit at some point in order to insert the ammeter. We say the ammeter is connected in series. E9 Set up the simplest circuit with the batteries and one round bulb, without the ammeter. To measure the current through the light bulb, first decide at which point you are going to break the circuit to insert the ammeter. This point must not have branches: that is, after you break that point, you have only two wires that used to connect to the point; these two wires are to be connected to the ammeter. Note that the ammeter MUST be in series to work it needs to be inserted into the circuit. ammeter (a) Break the circuit at one side of the bulb and insert the ammeter with its terminal toward the side of the batteries ( to ), as shown above. Record the reading of the current: I = (Range: ) Do not forget the units (A) and the uncertainty (take half of the smallest division). (b) Now measure the current on the other side of the light bulb as shown with the dotted arrow. In this case, you are keeping to between the ammeter and the battery. Is the current approximately the same? Yes No Should it be the same? Yes No (c) In the circuit above, add a long bulb in series. Is the current less, more, or the same? less more same Remove the ammeter from the circuit, but keep the light bulbs connected for the next activity Circuits - 6 Saved: 3/13/2019, printed: 3/13/2019

7 Now we will learn to use the voltmeter to measure the potential difference, also called voltage, across a component in the circuit. The voltmeter is connected in parallel with the component, so you do not need to break the circuit. Instead, just connect the two terminals of the voltmeter to the two points across the component. E9 Set up a circuit that has one round bulb and one long bulb connected in series to the batteries, as shown below. Do not connect any meters yet. Now, without breaking the circuit, connect the two terminals of the voltmeter as probes to the two sides of the light bulb, keeping close to. Note that the voltmeter must be in parallel with the bulb do not break the circuit when you connect the voltmeter voltmeter A -- B Long bulb C (a) Measure and record the potential difference VAB across the round bulb. Note what range you use. Always keep the units (here it is volts, V) and the uncertainty (taken here as half of the smallest division) when recording data. VAB = (Range: ) (b) Measure and record the potential difference VBC across the long bulb. VBC = (Range: ) (c) Measure and record the potential difference VAC across both bulbs. VAC = (Range: ) (d) Write an equation relating the three potential differences VAC, VAB and VBC: (e) Explain why the round bulb in this circuit doesn t appear to be lit: 1114 Circuits - 7 Saved: 3/13/2019, printed: 3/13/2019

8 E10 Now consider the circuit in E8 (shown below again) and answer the following questions. Long bulb (a) Measure the currents and potential differences indicated below. Ibatteries = (Range: ) Iround = (Range: ) Ilong = (Range: ) Vround = (Range: ) Vlong = (Range: ) (b) Write an equation relating the three currents I batteries, I long and I round : (c) Write an equation relating the two potential differences V long and V round : Return the apparatus to where you got them from and tidy up your desk Circuits - 8 Saved: 3/13/2019, printed: 3/13/2019

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